Skip to main content

Full text of "The history of statistics, their development and progress in many countries; in memoirs to commemorate the seventy fifth anniversary of the American statistical association"

See other formats


HISTORY  OF  STATISTICS 

THEIR   DEVELOPMENT  AND 
PROGRESS   IN  MANY 

COUNTRIES     . 


HaU  afoUgge  of  Agriculture 
JVt  Cornell  llntucrattg 

2jtbr£irg 


Cornell  University  Library 
HA  19.K7 

The  history  of  statistics,  their  develop 

3  1924  013  894  997 


Cornell  University 
Library 


The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 


http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924013894997 


THE  HISTORY  OF  STATISTICS 

THEIR  DEVELOPMENT  AND  PROGRESS 
IN  MANY  COUNTRIES 


The 

History  of  Statistics 

Their  Development  and  Progress 
in  Many  Countries 


In  Memoirs  to  Commemorate  the  Seventy 

Fifth  Anniversary  of  The  American 

Statistical  Association 

Collected  and  Edited  by 

JOHN  KOREN 


Published  for 

The  American  Statistical  Association 

by 

QCde  illacmtUan  Companp  of  jgeto  ^vk 

1918 


Copyright 

Thb  American  Statistical  Association 
1918 


TBB  BtrMFOBD  PBEB8 
COirCOBDi  IT.  B.  X. 


CONTENTS 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION ix 

BOOK  I 

Historical  and  Commemorative  Addresses 


THE  AMERICAN  STATISTICAL  ASSOCIATION,  1839-1914 . 
By  John  Koren,  President 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  IN  STATISTICS:  The  Out- 
look FOB  THE  Future 15 

By  S.  N.  D.  North,  LL.D.,  Assistant  Secretary  and^Statistidan  of  the 
Carnegie  Endowmeni  for  IniernatioruA  Peace;  Ex-President  of  the 
American  Statistical  Assodalvm;  Former  Director  of  the  United 
States  Census 

BOOK  II 

History  and  Development  of  Official  Statistics 
IN  Many  Countries 

AUSTRALIA 53 

By  George  Handlet  Knibbs,  C.M.G.,  F.S.S.,  Honorary  Member 
American  Statistical  Association,  Member  I.I.S.,  etc. 

AUSTRIA 83 

By  Dr.  Robert  Meyer,  Privy  Councillor,  Former  Minister  of  Finance, 
late  President  of  the  Imperial  and  Royal  Central  Statistical  Commis- 


BELGIUM 123 

By  Dr.  Armand  Julin,  Director-General  of  the  Belgian  Labor  Bureau, 
Member  of  the  International  Statistical  Institute 

CANADA 177 

By  Ernest  H.  Godfrey,  F.S.S.,  Member  of  the  International  Statistical 
Institute;  Editor,  Census  and  Statistics  Office,  Ottawa,  Canada 


VI  CONTENTS 

DENMARK 199 

By  Adolf  Jensen,  CAief  of  the  Statistical  Department  of  Denmark 

FRANCE 215 

By  Fernand  Faueb,  Professor  of  Law  at  the  University  of  Paris,  Member 
of  the  Central  Statistical  Commission 

GERMANY 331 

By  Dr.  Eugene  WiJRZBtrRGEH,  Privy  Councillor,  Director  of  the  Royal 
Statistical  State  Office  in  Dresden 

GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND 363 

By  Sir  Athelstane  Baines,  C.S.I.,  Ex-President  of  the  Royal  Statis- 
tical Society 

HUNGARY 391 

By  De.  Ladislaus  von  Budat,  Ministerial^Sektionsrat 

INDIA 415 

By  Sir  Athelstane  Baines,  C.S.I.,  Ex-President  of  the  Royal  Statistical 
Society 

ITALY* 

By  C.  A.  AsCHiEKl,  Inspector-General  of  Statistics 


JAPAN* 

By  S.  Takarabe,  Professor  of  Statistics  at  the  University  of  Tokyo 

NETHERLANDS.; . . : 427 

By  Dr  C.  a.  Verrijn  Sttjart,  Professor  of  Statistics  and  Economics  at 
the  University  of  Groningen,  Chairman  of  the  Central  Commission  for 
Statistics 

NORWAY 445 

By  A.  N.  KiAER,  Chi^  and  Director  of  the  Statistical  Bureau,  1867-1913 

RUSSIA 467 

By  Dr.  A.  Katjfmann,  Professor  of  Statistics  at  Petrograd 

*  For  the  countries  marked  with  an  *  the  articles  were  promised  by  the  authors 
named,  but  their  work  was  interrupted  by  the  war  and  the  articles  have  not 
arrived  in  time  to  be  included  in  the  volume. 


CONTENTS  vii 

SWEDEN 535 

By  Dr.  Edvabd  Abosenius,  Firxt  Actuary  of  the  Central  Statistical  Bureau 

UNITED  STATES 571 

FEDERAL  STATISTICS.    By  John  Ctjmmings,  Ph.D.,  Statistician. 
United  Stales  Bureau  of  the  Census 

STATE  STATISTICS.     By  Chableb  F.  Gettemt,  Director,  Mass- 
achusetts Bureau  of  Statistics 


INTRODUCTION 

The  motive  that  inspired  this  volume  was  to  mark  the 
Seventy  fifth  Anniversary  of  the  American  Statistical  Asso- 
ciation by  a  serviceable  contribution  to  our  knowledge  of 
statistics.  The  opportunity  was  found  in  preparing  a  his- 
tory of  the  development  and  organization  of  official  statis- 
tics throughout  the  world.  By  the  aid  of  certain  commemo- 
rative publications  and  other  scattered  documents  one 
could  piece  together  more  or  less  complete  sketches  of  the 
status  of  statistics  in  this  or  that  country  covering  various 
periods  of  time;  for  most  countries  comprehensive  and 
authoritative  statements  were  lacking.  The  story  had  not 
yet  been  written  as  a  whole  and  in  detail  how  different 
nations  have  systematized  information  about  themselves, 
what  statistical  means  they  employed,  and  what  has  been 
accomplished  to  the  end  that  national  forces  and  resources 
might  be  placed  under  wise  direction  and  legislation. 

The  history  of  the  development  and  organization  of 
official  statistics  is  not  a  barren  record  of  steps  in  a  scientific 
process  of  dealing  with  facts,  but  of  efforts  to  get  a  working 
knowledge  about  the  fundamental  elements  in  the  life  of  a 
country — the  population,  its  environment,  and  its  manifold 
economic  and  social  relations.  By  taking  measure  of  these 
elements,  statistics  reveal  the  condition  of  growth  and  trend 
in  every  direction  and  set  out  the  milestones  for  the  guidance 
of  the  administrator  and  legislator.  But  the  manner  in 
which  the  science  of  statistics  has  been  applied  also  carries 
many  practical  lessons,  for  out  of  the  abundant  experience 
of  others  the  rest  of  us  must  learn.  Although  the  official 
statisticians  of  the  different  countries  in  the  main  are  occu- 
pied with  the  same  problems,  the  conditions  under  which 
they  labor  vary  according  to  the  tradition,  experience, 
recognized  needs  and  legislation  of  each  country,  out  of 
which  have  grown  the  present  forms  of  statistical  organiza- 


X  MEMORIAL   VOLUME 

tion.  No  two  countries  have  an  identical  programme  of 
statistical  work,  nor  the  same  agencies  for  carrying  it  out. 
The  common  aim  has  been  diversely  pursued,  sometimes 
disappointingly  and  again  with  marvelous  success.  To  tell 
the  story  of  it  all  is  the  purpose  of  our  Memorial  Volume. 
Happily  it  is  told  by  those  who  know  it  best,  who  in  large 
part  have  lived  it,  and  whose  authority  illuminates  every 
page.  The  foremost  statisticians  of  many  lands  were  in- 
duced to  write  these  memoirs  to  meet  a  need  of  so  great  an 
importance  that  not  even  the  Great  War  could  obliterate 
it. 

The  preliminary  arrangements  for  the  volume  were  made 
at  the  end  of  1913  and  the  beginning  of  the  following  year. 
It  was  hoped  to  publish  by  the  close  of  1914.  Some  of  the 
manuscripts  were  at  hand  before  the  outbreak  of  the  war, 
and  among  them,  the  history  of  the  statistics  of  Belgium, 
written  by  Dr.  Armand  JuUn,  reached  the  editor  shortly 
prior  to  the  fateful  August  4,  1914.  But  several  of  the  most 
important  memoirs  were  still  uncompleted,  and  the  world 
was  at  war.  After  much  anxious  correspondence  a  Russian 
collaborator  was  secured,  in  Professor  A.  Kaufmann  of  Petro- 
grad,  but  he  could  not  finish  his  exhaustive  study  until  the 
second  year  of  the  war.  Dr.  Eugene  Wiirzburger,  Director 
of  the  State  Statistical  Department  of  Saxony,  had  only 
written  a  few  pages  of  the  history  of  German  statistics  when 
the  exigencies  of  the  war  compelled  him  to  lay  it  aside  and 
not  until  1916  could  he  conclude  the  diflficult  task.  M.  Fer- 
nand  Faure,  Professor  of  Law  at  the  University  of  Paris  and 
editor  of  the  Revue  Politique  et  Parlementaire,  who  had 
undertaken  to  prepare  the  memoir  for  France,  was  obliged 
to  postpone  it  from  time  to  time  at  the  call  of  other  duties. 
For  most  of  the  important  belligerent  countries  the  expected 
contributions  were  ready  a  year  ago;  but  it  was  resolved  not 
to  publish  until  France  could  be  worthily  represented^  An 
appeal  was  finally  made  to  His  Excellency  M.  Jusserand,  the 
ambassador  of  France  to  the  United  States,  who  graciously 
promised  to  intercede  with  his  government  so  that  Professor 


INTRODUCTION  XI 

Faure  might  be  given  leisure  to  assemble  his  rich  material. 
This  has  been  done  in  an  extensive  memoir  of  rare  merit. 
Also  for  some  of  the  lesser  countries  were  the  studies  com- 
pleted amid  the  distractions  of  the  Great  War. 

Probably  no  other  international  work  has  been  prepared 
under  greater  diflSculties,  and  none  of  more  permanent  value. 
It  has  come  into  being  during  a  world  conflict;  it  is  without 
a  counterpart  in  any  language;  it  could  not  now  be  dupli- 
cated; and  it  marks  a  distinct  era  in  official  statistics  which 
the  war  brought  to  a  close.  From  this  world-wide  disturb- 
ance a  new  order  of  things  will  emerge  that  is  certain  pro- 
foundly to  affect  the  future  development  of  statistical  work. 
Thus  the  volume  in  a  special  sense  becomes  an  invaluable 
historical  document  telling  the  ways  and  means  whereby 
civilized  countries  so  far  have  taken  measure  of  their  material 
and  social  conditions — a  monument  to  a  bygone  age. 

The  practical  usefulness  of  these  memoirs  the  reader 
must  search  out  for  himself.  Only  this  may  be  said :  There 
is  nowhere  evidence  of  contentment  with  past  performances 
in  the  field  of  statistics;  the  shortcomings  of  most  forms  of 
statistical  organization  are  cheerfully  recognized;  there  is 
manifest  desire,  even  expectancy,  of  richer  service  under 
better  auspices;  and  the  need  is  emphasized  of  cooperative 
effort  so  that  the  statistician's  dream  may  be  realized 
of  international  comparability  in  many  statistical  under- 
takings. For  long  years  the  masters  of  our  science  have 
striven  toward  this  goal.  Must  they  henceforth  go  their 
several  ways  because  those  who  would  stand  together  for 
the  time  have  been  parted?  Perhaps  this  Memorial  Volume 
may  in  slight  measure  serve  to  strengthen  the  international 
bonds  and  reknit  those  that  have  been  severed,  since  it  indi- 
cates so  clearly  that  we  cannot  attain  the  highest  ends  of 
statistics  except  through  mutual  understanding  and  help- 
fulness. 

To  the  many  collaborators,  some  of  whom  the  editor  has 
unblushingly  importuned  at  all  seasons  to  complete  their 
promised  tasks,  the  American  Statistical  Association  begs  to 


XU  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

extend  its  lasting  gratitude.  The  volume  is  a  memorial  to 
the  dead  and  living  among  them  as  well  as  to  our  Association. 
Thanks  are  also  due  to  the  members  who  have  assisted  in 
preparing  translations  of  articles  and  given  other  support. 

J.  K. 
January  1st,  1918. 


BOOK  I 

HISTORICAL  AND  COMMEMORATIVE 
ADDRESSES 


THE  AMERICAN  STATISTICAL  ASSOCIATION 
1839-1914 

By  John  Koren 

President,  1913  and  19U 
Seventy  fifth  Anniversary,  February  13,  1914 

A  page  of  the  unpretentious  volume  containing  the  first 
proceedings  of  our  society  bears  this  legend:  "Here  close 
the  records  of  the  American  Statistical  Association  for  the 
first  quarter  of  a  century."  A  special  committee  which  had 
been  appointed  to  consider  the  advisability  of  a  formal 
celebration  of  the  event,  reported  it  to  be  "inexpedient." 
Did  modesty  deter  them,  or  perhaps  the  overhanging  shad- 
ows of  the  Civil  War.''  The  records  do  not  say.  We  of  a 
later  day  know  that  these  pathfinders  in  a  statistical  wilder- 
ness were  not  at  all  disheartened  as  they  looked  back  upon 
their  labors  of  twenty  five  years.  Indeed,  there  seems  to 
have  been  something  prophetic  in  the  words,  "Here  close  the 
records  of  the  American  Statistical  Association  for  the  first 
quarter  of  a  century."  Who  wrote  them  looked  forward 
to  other  milestones  in  the  history  of  our  organization,  to 
new  and  perhaps  ampler  records  of  achievement;  and  we 
are  gathered  to  bear  testimony  that  his  faith  did  not  belie 
him. 

That  small  company  of  men,  meeting  in  1839  at  No.  15 
Comhill,  Boston,  to  organize  a  statistical  society,  built 
securely  upon  a  broad  foundation.  "The  objects  of  the 
society,"  says  the  first  constitution,  "shall  be  to  collect, 
preserve  and  diffuse  statistical  information  in  the  different 
departments  of  human  knowledge."  How  these  objects  were 
to  be  reached  is  elaborately  set  forth  in  the  by-laws,  no  less 
than  thirty  three  in  number.  They  provide,  among  other 
things,  that  "the  operations  of  this  Association  shall  prin- 
cipally be  directed  to  the  statistics  of  the  United  States;  and 
they  shall  be  as  general  and  as  extensive  as  possible  and  not 


4  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

confined  to  any  particular  part  of  the  country.  .  . 
The  labors  of  the  Association  may  embrace  all  subjects." 
The  by-laws  also  planned  for  a  statistical  library  and  stated 
that  "efforts  to  diffuse  statistical  information  shall  be  made 
by  printing  and  publishing  circulars,  reports,  a  periodical  or 
occasional  volume."  The  very  first  committee  appointed 
after  organization  had  been  perfected  was  one  to  have  charge 
of  eventual  publications. 

From  the  outset  membership  in  the  Association  was  con- 
sidered a  serious  affair.  On  being  elected,  the  fellows  sub- 
scribed to  a  solemn  "obligation"  to  conform  to  the  constitu- 
tion and  by-laws.  It  was  made  "the  duty  of  every  fellow 
to  prepare  at  least  one  article  a  year  on  some  statistical 
subject  which  shall  be  at  the  disposal  of  the  publishing 
committee."  And  to  add  greater  dignity  to  fellowship,  it 
was  stipulated  that  "a  diploma,  in  a  form  prescribed  by  the 
board  of  directors,  signed  by  the  president  and  recording 
secretary,  accompanaed  with  the  seal  of  the  Association, 
shall  be  given  to  every  member." 

Thus  seventy  five  years  ago  the  fair  enterprise  was  launched 
by  a  little  band  of  enthusiasts  who  labored  diligently  to 
inform  themselves  and  others,  and  who,  looking  forward 
with  rare  courage  to  the  things  to  be,  rather  than  to  the 
present,  wrote  aboiit  the  Science  of  Statistics,  always  spelling 
it  with  a  capital  S.  At  that  time  the  professional  statis- 
tician was  not,  and  the  statistical  output  almost  negligible. 

Even  in  its  early  stages  the  Association  lacked  that  paro- 
chial flavor  which  some  have  imputed  to  it.  It  was  not 
preoccupied  by  local  affairs  or  wasting  time  in  mutual  self- 
admiration  over  Massachusetts  men  and  things.  At  the 
very  outset  contact  with  a  larger  world  was  sought  through 
its  foreign  and  corresponding  secretaries,  and  within  a  year 
it  counted  corresponding  members  in  about  a  dozen  states. 
At  the  first  quarterly  meeting  it  reached  out  beyond  the 
United  States  by  electing  foreign  members,  the  fir^t  of  whom 
was  the  foremost  statistician  of  his  day,  Adolphe  Quetelet. 

There  is  something  touching  in  the  fidelity  with  which 


AMERICAN  STATISTICAL  ASSOCIATION  5 

the  founders  of  our  Association  sought  to  work  out  its  objects. 
Year  by  year  the  same  small  group,  usually  under  a  dozen, 
regularly  attended  the  four  quarterly  meetings,  encouraging 
each  other  to  original  eflfort  in  statistical  work  and  garnering 
diligently  helpful  knowledge  from  various  sources.  Nothing 
testifies  more  eloquently  to  the  statistical  poverty  of  the 
time  than  the  publications  collected  as  the  beginnings  of  a 
library.  Among  the  works  donated  we  find  mention  of 
Pitkin's  "Statistical  View,"  Hazard's  "Statistical  Register," 
"Bills  of  Mortality  of  Philadelphia  from  1820  to  1839,"  by 
Dr.  Henry  Bond,  the  few  volumes  of  the  United  States 
Census,  schedules  for  taking  the  census,  statistical  forms 
and  questions  used  by  the  Statistical  Society  of  London, 
forms  used  in  France  for  the  registration  of  births,  marriages 
and  deaths,  unnamed  statistical  tables  of  Massachusetts  by 
A.  W.  B.  Peabody,  etp.  Then  there  was  the  impeifect 
material  found  in  local,  state  and  federal  reports  of  all  kinds 
which  were  collected  in  large  numbers.  Many  non-statis- 
tical works  were  presented  to  the  library,  sometimes  by  the 
authors.  Thus  Emerson  gave  his  lectures  and  Prescott 
various  volumes. 

A  feature  of  these  early  meetings  was  the  reading  of 
communications  of  different  sorts.  Mention  is  made  of 
letters  received  from  President  Martin  Van  Buren,  Thomas 
L.  Winthrop,  John  Pickering,  Benjamin  F.  Butler,  LL.D. 
(of  New  York),  Levi  Woodbury  and  William  Prescott,  all 
of  them  honorary  members;  and  from  Caleb  Cushing,  Lewis 
Cass,  Governor  Plummer,  Thomas  Lawson,  Surgeon-General 
of  the  Army.  Following  the  reading  of  letters  came  the 
statistical  essay.  The  first  one  recorded  was  by  Lemuel 
Shattuck  on  statistics  of  Saxony.  The  early  addresses  cov- 
ered such  subjects  as  statistics  of  pauperism,  of  crime,  of 
immigration,  of  the  Massachusetts  population,  etc.  Some 
bore  curious  titles.  Thus  the  indefatigable  long-time  record- 
ing secretary  of  the  Association,  Joseph  B.  Felt,  presented 
statistics  of  the  number  and  kind  of  carriages  in  Massachu- 
setts in  1756.     Another  gave  statistics  of  the  funeral  charges 


6  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

in  the  interment  of  Governor  Winslow  in  1680,  and  once, 
when  there  must  have  been  a  dearth  of  statistical  material, 
someone  read  a  paper  on  a  tornado  that  had  disturbed  the 
calm  of  Medford. 

Not  all  who  dived  into  the  uncharted  statistical  seas 
brought  up  a  perfect  pearl.  Some  of  us  fail  to  do  so  now, 
and  those  intrepid  founders  of  our  Association  were  indeed 
rari  nantes  in  gurgite  vasto.  Yet  solid  contributions  to  knowl- 
edge were  made.  Within  ten  years  there  had  been  read 
before  the  Association  more  than  thirty  addresses  upon  a 
wide  range  of  topics.  The  question  of  publication  soon 
became  pressing.  Although  the  first  volume  of  the  Associa- 
tion was  not  published  until  1847,  the  first  part  of  it  appeared 
in  1843,  the  second  in  1845  and  the  last  in  1847.  "They 
give,"  says  Dr.  Samuel  A.  Green,  "a  large  amount  of  original 
statistical  matter,  and  on  every  page  show  signs  of  patient 
research  and  thorough  work."  * 

But  the  Association  found  other  work  to  hand  than  that 
of  reading  essays,  and  soon  set  about  the  greater  task  of 
improving  the  sources  of  statistical  knowledge.  Naturally 
enough,  attention  was  first  turned  to  vital  statistics.  Al- 
ready in  1840  a  committee  was  appointed  to  "lay  the  subject 
of  registration  before  the  General  Court,"  and  in  the  follow- 
ing year  a  committee  was  formed  to  report  on  a  plan  of 
registration.  Evidently,  the  legislature  was  not  very  tract- 
able, for  it  was  memoriahzed  on  the  subject  of  vital  statistics 
at  intervals  for  many  years.  Other  things  for  which  the 
Association  sought  legislative  authority  during  the  first 
twenty  five  years  of  its  existence  were:  The  appointment  of 
a  sanitary  commission  (1847-8);  for  improved  hospital  sta- 
tistics; for  returns  to  the  Secretary  of  State  of  pauperism, 
crime  and  immigration  (1850);  for  a  decennial  census  of 
the  commonwealth  beginning  1855  (1850) ;  for  the  establish- 
ment of  a  state  board  of  health,  to  have  charge  of  registration 

•  An  account  of  the  collections  of  the  American  Statistical  Association  by 
the  Hon.  Saml.  A.  Green,  M.D.,  Librarian  Massachusetts  Historical  Society, 
new  series  of  publications  No.  31. 


AMERICAN  STATISTICAL  ASSOCIATION  7 

and  of  the  census,  and  several  other  matters.  For  long  years 
afterwards  the  Association  continued  its  activity  for  the 
betterment  of  Massachusetts  statistics;  and  to  its  efforts  is 
due  in  large  part  that  this  commonwealth  has  taken  foremost 
rank  in  statistical  work. 

Meanwhile,  the  Association  had  sought  larger  fields. 
Frdm  the  beginning  it  became  closely  identified  with  the 
affairs  of  the  United  States  census.  In  1844  it  petitioned 
Congress  that  the  Sixth  Census  "be  revised  and  a  new  and 
accurate  copy  be  published."  As  the  time  for  taking  the 
Seventh  Census  approached  (1848),  a  committee  was  ap- 
pointed to  prepare  and  submit  plans  for  it  and  to  memorialize 
Congress  "to  take  measures  to  render  the  Census  more 
accurate."  It  was  at  the  suggestion  of  Lemuel  Shattuck,  a 
charter  member  of  the  Association,  and  N.  Capen,  another 
member,  that  Congress  created  a  census  board  charged  with 
the  planning  for  the  Census  of  1850.  Edward  C.  Lunt,  in 
his  History  of  the  United  States  Census,  records  that  "sev- 
eral eminent  statisticians," — ^Mr.  Shattuck,  Dr.  Chickering, 
Mr.  Capen  and  Dr.  Jarvis  (then  President  of  the  Association), 
"were  invited  to  Washington  for  consultation  with  the  new 
board."  Indeed,  we  know  that  Lemuel  Shattuck,  who  had 
gained  large  practical  experience  in  compiling  a  census  of 
Boston  for  the  year  1845  and  in  other  ways,  prepared  most 
of  the  schedules  adopted.  Dr.  Jarvis  became  closely  identi- 
fied with  the  Eighth  Census,  that  of  i860,  for  he  wrote  the 
section  on  vital  statistics.  He  complained  (it  sounds  so 
reasonable)  that  the  material  furnished  him  was  often 
"imperfect,  inconsistent  or  unreasonable."  The  same  inde- 
fatigable Dr.  Jarvis  also  rendered  valuable  services  to  the 
Census  of  1870.  These  men  set  high  standards,  insisting 
upon  it  that  those  entrusted  with  the  oversight  of  important 
statistical  work  "should  be  appointed,  not  for  their  political 
opinions  but  for  their  scientific  attainments  and  knowledge," 
and  they  were  unsparing  in  their  criticism  of  a  faulty  output. 

But  to  realize  how  closely  this  Association  has  been  affili- 
ated throughout  its  entire  history  with  the  United  States 


8  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Census,  it  suflSces  to  record  the  names  of  some  of  the  men 
at  the  head  of  the  Censuses:  John  B.  D.  DeBow,  superinten- 
dent of  the  Seventh,  was  a  corresponding  member  of  our 
Association;  General  Walker,  its  president  from  1883-1897, 
had  charge  of  the  Ninth  and  initiated  the  Tenth;  Colonel 
Wright,  our  president  from  1897-1909,  finished  the  Eleventh; 
S.  N.  D.  North,  another  president,  was  the  first  director  of 
the  permanent  census  office;  and  E.  Dana  Durand,  for  sev- 
eral years  one  of  our  vice-presidents,  was  director  of  the 
Thirteenth  Census.  Space  forbids  the  mention  of  all  offi- 
cers and  members  who  in  the  remote  or  recent  past  have 
rendered  service  to  the  great  office  of  the  census. 

Other  branches  of  the  federal  government  occasionally 
sought  the  help  of  the  Association.  Particularly  was  this 
true  of  the  Treasury  Department.  In  1845  its  secretary 
requested  the  Association  to  aid  him  in  preparing  his  report 
to  the  next  Congress.  In  later  years  the  Treasury  Depart- 
ment appears  to  have  been  in  frequent  communication  with 
the  Association  and  several  of  the  secretaries  have  been 
among  our  members.  The  Commission  on  Education  also 
drew  upon  the  services  of  the  Association. 

Although  the  Association  from  the  beginning  had  sought 
touch  with  European  statistical  affairs,  it  was  not  until  1860 
that  an  opportunity  presented  itself  for  participation  in  an 
International  Statistical  Congress,  the  one  held  in  London 
that  year,  and  to  which  the  Association  fitly  sent  Dr.  Jarvis 
as  its  representative.  Some  time  later  a  letter  he  had 
written  from  London  at  that  time  was  read  at  a  meeting 
and  the  records  state  that  in  it  he  "detailed  the  action  of 
Judge  Longstreet  of  South  Carolina,  the  delegate  from  the 
United  States,  and  Mr.  Dallas,  the  American  Minister, 
relative  to  a  remark  of  Lord  Brougham  construed  to  be 
an  insult  to  our  country, — ^Dallas  and  Longstreet  seemed  at 
the  time  to  consider  slavery  of  supreme  importance." 

The  next  International  Statistical  Congress,  at  Berlin, 
1865,  was  attended  by  E.  B.  Eliott  as  the  delegate  from  the 
Association.    He,  together  with  Dr.  Jarvis,  was  delegated 


AMERICAN  STATISTICAL  ASSOCIATION  9 

to  the  International  Statistical  Congress  held  at  St.  Peters- 
burg. Dr.  Jarvis  apparently  did  not  go;  the  Hon.  E.  H. 
Derby,  another  member,  seems  to  have  taken  his  place.  It 
is  not  recorded  that  the  Association  was  oflScially  represented 
at  any  other  statistical  meeting  abroad  until  1885,  when 
General  Walker  attended  the  conferences  at  Paris  and 
London,  which  resulted  in  the  formation  of  the  International 
Statistical  Institute.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  as  dele- 
gates returned  from  these  international  meetings,  they  were 
especially  requested  to  report  upon  the  progress  of  statistical 
science  abroad.  Another  means  of  communication  with 
European  statistical  interests  was  through  the  honorary  and 
foreign  members  like  Rawson  W.  Rawson,  John  Bowring, 
William  Farr,  some  of  whom  from  time  to  time  sent  in 
communications,  and  through  statistical  organizations,  par- 
ticularly the  Royal  Statistical  Society  of  England,  whose 
publications  are  frequently  referred  to. 

While  thus  cultivating  the  larger  fields,  the  Association 
adhered  to  its  routine  of  quarterly  meetings.  Even  during 
the  dark  years  of  the  Civil  War  they  did  not  suffer  a  single 
break,  but  much  attention  was  then  paid  to  military  statis- 
tics, army  hospitals,  sanitation  and  similar  subjects.  The 
president,  Dr.  Jarvis,  and  several  other  members  did  notable 
service  in  sanitation  work.  At  this  period  a  new  and  simple 
constitution  was  adopted  and  the  by-laws  were  reduced  from 
thirty  three  to  eight  articles.  The  range  of  topics  upon 
which  addresses  were  read  broadened  in  several  directions. 
Statistics  of  commerce,  finance,  agriculture,  taxation,  shared 
attention  with  those  of  population,  immigration,  mortahty, 
etc.  Occasionally  consideration  was  given  to  statistical 
method.  One  matter  upon  which  the  Association  declared 
itself  deserves  special  mention.  In  1868  the  Association 
received  an  elaborate  report  on  the  metrical  system  of  weights 
and  measures,  prepared  by  two  of  its  members,  and  not  only 
went  on  record  as  favoring  its  adoption  by  the  people  of  the 
United  States  but  voted  to  petition  Congress  on  the  subject 
and  to  ask  the  legislature  to  pass  a  statute  requiring  the 


10  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

metrical  system  to  be  taught  in  the  public  schools.  The 
action  seems  to  have  attracted  much  attention  at  the  time. 

The  many-sided  activities  of  the  Association  in  the  early 
periods  of  its  life  is  the  more  surprising  when  one  considers 
the  limited  membership.  Until  a  time  easily  within  our 
memory,  little  effort  was  made  to  get  new  members.  Per- 
haps one  reason  for  this  was  that  a  large  constituency  was 
not  needed  since  little  was  pubKshed.  The  founding  of  a 
statistical  journal  was  frequently  discussed,  but  not  even 
preliminary  steps  were  taken.  In  1869  the  second  volume 
of  the  collections  was  ordered  printed — ^twenty  two  years 
after  the  first.  Unfortunately,  many  delays  occurred;  and 
in  1873  President  Jarvis  reported  that  a  part  of  the  printed 
pages  of  this  second  volume,  which  had  not  been  bound, 
were  destroyed  in  the  great  Boston  fire. 

A  question  that  on  many  occasions  agitated  the  Associa- 
tion and  probably  gave  rise  to  long  discussions  was  that  of 
the  library.  It  had  grown  apace  through  "donations,"  Dr. 
Jarvis  alone  having  during  his  lifetime  given  it  more  than 
600  volumes.  Dr.  George  C.  Shattuck  had  been  another 
constant  benefactor  also  through  contributions  of  money. 
How  to  house  a  collection  which  in  1875  numbered  about 
2,500  volumes  had  long  been  a  perplexity.  Later  on  it 
received  large  accessions,  and  as  the  Association  had  no 
rooms  of  its  own,  the  difficulty  grew.  Finally  it  was  trans- 
ferred to  the  building  of  the  Institute  of  Technology  and  in 
1899  found  its  permanent  resting  place  in  the  Boston  Public 
Library.  Before  that  time  it  was  officially  designated  as  the 
"Jarvis  Statistical  Library." 

Before  sketching  the  last  twenty  five  years  of  the  history 
of  the  Association,  let  me  dwell  for  a  moment  on  the  person- 
ality of  some  of  its  early  leaders.  The  brunt  of  work  during 
the  first  years  fell  to  Joseph  B.  Felt,  long  the  recording 
secretary.  The  first  president,  the  Hon.  Richard  Fletcher, 
seems  to  have  been  little  more  than  an  amiable  figurehead. 
Mr.  Felt  appears  to  have  possessed  much  curious  learning 
with  a  decided  bent  for  historical  research.     He  was  an 


AMERICAN  STATISTICAL  ASSOCIATION  11 

indefatigable  worker  and  contributed  more  than  his  share  of 
essays.  Of  Lemuel  Shattuck,  another  of  the  founders,  we 
already  know  that  he  has  been  characterized  as  an  eminent 
statistician.  He  deserved  the  name.  His  census  of  Boston 
is  a  remarkable  piece  of  work,  and  the  sanitary  survey  of 
Massachusetts  prepared  under  his  direction  is  a  classic.  He 
was  not  a  frequent  essayist,  but  gave  unstinted  service  in  a 
larger  way.  The  other  Shattuck,  Dr.  George  C,  president 
from  1846  to  1852,  merits  a  warm  tribute  for  his  long  and 
unflagging  devotion  to  the  Association.  During  life  he  gave 
liberally  to  it  and  he  remembered  it  in  his  will. 

He  was  followed  by  Dr.  Edward  Jarvis,  for  thirty  one  years 
president,  who  stands  out  as  the  most  remarkable  figure 
among  his  contemporaries  in  the  Association.  I  can  do  no 
better  than  to  quote  from  the  resolution  adopted  at  his 
retirement  as  president.  The  Association  then  recorded  the 
"Earnest  expression  of  the  manifold  service  he  has  rendered 
the  Association  by  the  able  manner  in  which  he  has  per- 
formed the  duties  of  his  oflice,  by  the  ability  with  which  he 
has  represented  the  society  at  home  and  abroad,  by  the 
many  valuable  papers  he  has  prepxred  for  us  and  read  at 
our  meetings,  and  by  the  assiduous  and  unwearied  zeal  with 
which  he  has  labored  at  all  times  and  in  all  ways  for  the 
advancement  of  the  interests  of  the  Association  and  of 
statistical  knowledge." 

It  may  truly  be  said  that  no  human  interest  was  foreign 
to  Dr.  Jarvis.  In  his  speeches  and  writings  on  statistical 
subjects  he  traversed  the  widest  fields  and  illunainated  many 
an  unexplored  corner.  His  chief  interest  lay,  however,  in 
vital  statistics,  for  the  improvement  of  which  he  labored 
unceasingly.  For  thirty  one  years  he  carried  the  heaviest 
load  for  the  Association.  It  is  on  record  that  during  this 
time  he  prepared  more  than  thirty  five  papers  and  addresses 
for  the  meetings.  Upon  his  retirement  in  1882  the  Associa- 
tion paid  him  the  greatest  tribute  that  lay  within  its  gift  by 
making  him  president  emeritus. 

Another  remarkable  figure  was  that  of  S.  B.  Eliott,  who 


12  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

s  described  in  our  records  as  an  "insurance  actuary  and 
calculator,"  of  "accurate  discipline,  mathematical  learning 
and  laborious  industry."  He  later  became  attached  to  the 
United  States  Treasury  Department.  At  the  request  of  the 
Prussian  government  he  constructed  the  first  life  table  for 
that  country  (published  in  the  proceedings  of  the  American 
Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  Albany,  1856). 
He  later  constructed  a  second  life  table  for  the  same  govern- 
ment. He  made  a  number  of  studies  of  comparative  mortal- 
ity for  different  coimtries  which  led  him  to  the  conclusion 
(in  1858)  that  "the  mortality  of  the  United  States  is  such 
as  to  make  us  dependent  on  immigration  for  permanent  in- 
crease." 

Among  men  of  the  early  days  who  deserve  to  be  singled 
out  for  special  tribute  for  their  services  are  these:  Hon. 
Amasa  Walker  (the  father  of  Francis  A.),  for  fifteen  years 
a  vice-president  and  frequent  essayist;  Joseph  E.  Worcester, 
foreign  and  corresponding  secretary  for  twenty  six  years; 
John  Ward  Dean,  in  recognition  of  whose  long  service  as 
recording  secretary  he  was  made  a  life  member;  J.  Wingate 
Thornton,  another  recording  secretary  and  contributor  of 
statistical  papers. 

In  the  third  decade  of  Dr.  Jarvis'  administration,  two 
strong  men  became  members  who  have  left  a  lasting  mark 
upon  the  Association.  First  came  Carroll  D.  Wright,  who 
had  taken  charge  of  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics,  and  a 
little  later  Francis  A.  Walker,  then  professor  at  Yale  Univer- 
sity. Both  brought  new  interests  to  the  Association  and 
gave  added  impetus  to  the  efforts  for  improving  the  statis- 
tical service,  both  local  and  national.  Among  the  honorary 
members  elected  at  this  time,  the  name  of  Florence  Nightin- 
gale stands  out.  In  acknowledgment  she  remembered  the 
Association  with  some  sanitary  reports  for  India  and  a  pam- 
phlet of  her  own  authorship  (Life  or  Death  in  India). 

With  the  presidency  of  Francis  A.  Walker  began  a  period 
distinguished,  among  other  things,  for  the  accession  to  mem- 
bership of  many  university  teachers  who  as  a  class  had 


AMERICAN  STATISTICAL  ASSOCIATION  13 

hitherto  shown  little  interest  in  the  Association.  No  d  :ubt 
Walker  himself  proved  a  powerful  magnet  to  the  acade- 
micians, and  the  need  of  teaching  statistics  had  begun  to  be 
recognized.  But  the  great  event  in  President  Walker's 
administration  was  the  founding  of  the  so-called  new  series 
of  our  publications  in  1888.  It  is  strange  that  our  records 
should  remain  silent  about  so  momentous  an  undertaking — 
our  chief  permanent  contribution  to  statistics  and  the  lasting 
memorial  of  the  activities  of  our  Association.  The  new 
venture  demanded  the  support  of  a  larger  membership  and 
it  was  sought;  the  response  was  immediate.  Soon  the  Asso- 
ciation had  expanded  from  a  local  to  a  national  group.  In  a 
few  years  (1895)  it  counted  more  than  five  hundred  members, 
high-water  mark  for  that  time  being  reached  a  little  later. 
The  heavy  work  in  those  days  fell  to  Dr.  Davis  R.  Dewey, 
for  twelve  years  recording  secretary  and  editor  of  the  publica- 
tions, to  whom  the  Association  owes  an  unforgettable  debt 
of  gratitude  for  eflficient  and  imgrudging  service.  As  if  to 
emphasize  the  larger  life  upon  which  the  Association  had 
entered,  it  was  decided  to  have  quarterly  meetings  at 
Washington,  and  one  was  held  there  in  1896. 

Of  the  general  activities  of  the  Association  under  President 
Walker's  eminent  and  devoted  leadership,  the  printed  vol- 
umes aflford  testimony  I  need  not  supplement.  Upon  his 
death  in  1897,  Carroll  D.  Wright,  who  had  served  as  vice- 
president,  recording  secretary  and  librarian,  lent  the  prestige 
of  his  rare  personality  and  achievements  as  statistician  to 
the  oflBce  of  president.  Under  him  the  Association  con- 
tinued to  flourish  for  some  years.  Later  some  lean  times 
set  in,  a  period  of  temporary  retrogression  that  seems  un- 
avoidable in  the  history  of  every  organization.  Membership 
declined  and  the  meetings  dwindled  to  an  annual  meagerly 
attended  affair.  Some  of  us  here  remember  well  those  days 
of  disheartenment.  The  reaction  did  not  last  long;  and, 
happily,  Colonel  Wright  lived  to  see  the  Association  once 
more  in  the  ascendancy  and  entering  upon  new  and  better 
days.     In  his  last  address  to  us  (1908),  he  painted  large 


14  MEMORUL  VOLUME 

the  spreading  field  of  usefulness  waiting  to  be  occupied  by 
the  Association,  confident  in  its  strength  and  loyalty  to 
high  ideals. 

Let  others  record  the  most  recent  history  of  the  Associa- 
tion. Only  this  may  I  venture  to  say:  None  of  its  days 
have  been  richer  in  promise  than  the  present.  We  are 
vigorous  in  membership  and  lack  not  for  interest.  Never 
has  opportunity  for  intelhgent  eflfort  been  greater.  The 
statistical  world  about  us  is  immense  and  widening;  but  not 
altogether  well-ordered.  There  is  constructive  work  to  do 
before  the  statistical  service,  national  as  well  as  local,  can 
reach  the  plane  to  which  it  belongs.  There  are  standards  to 
be  set  and  to  maintain.  If  there  are  among  us  a  multitude 
of  indiscriminate  consumers  of  statistics,  it  must  be  that 
there  are  too  many  indiscriminate  producers.  Is  it  not  a 
part  of  our  mission  to  apply  a  remedy  against  the  prevalent 
statistical  myopia  which  prevents  a  view  of  a  wide  horizon, 
and  against  the  no  less  common  statistical  astigmatism,  the 
victims  of  which  see  things,  to  be  sure,  but  not  always  in 
their  true  relations?  Perhaps  statistics  will  always  remain 
the  plaything  of  some  immature  minds,  and  be  used  by  others 
as  a  convenient  spring-board  from  which  to  jump  at  fallacious 
conclusions.  But  if  the  past  carries  any  assurance  of  the 
future,  may  we  not  look  forward  to  a  time  when  the  profes- 
sion of  statistics  shall  have  come  fully  into  its  own",  and 
when  it  will  be  recognized  that  the  instrument  at  its  hands 
has  but  the  supreme  purpose  of  searching  for  and  diffusing 
human  knowledge? 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS   OF   PROGRESS   IN 
STATISTICS: 

THE  OUTLOOK  FOK  THE  FUTURE 

Bt  S.  N.  D.  North,  LL.D. 

Assistant  Secretary  and  Statistician  of  the  Carnegie  Endoivmentfor  International  Peace 
Seventy  fifth  Anniversary  ot  the  American  Statistical  Association,  February  13, 1914 


The  life  of  man  upon  the  globe  has  been  divided  into 
various  periods,  which  differ  according  to  the  point  of  view 
of  the  historian.  The  simplest  division  establishes  three 
epochs:  ancient,  mediaeval  and  modern.  The  intellectual 
advance  of  mankind  has  been  divided  by  Auguste  Comte 
into  three  successive  stages:  the  theological,  the  metaphysical 
and  the  positive,  or  scientific.  Economists  and  historians 
make  other  classifications,  the  most  common  being  that 
which  separates  modern  history  into  its  several  industrial 
stages,  the  feudal  period,  the  guild  period,  the  period  of 
household  industry,  and  the  period  of  factory  industry,  the 
latter  having  its  beginning  with  the  substitution  of  steam 
for  the  labor  of  the  human  hand.  The  socialist  now  de- 
mands that  we  close  the  factory  period  and  enter  a  new  one 
which,  whatever  the  name  assigned  to  it  by  future  econo- 
mists, shall  be  a  non-competitive  age. 

Another  division  of  the  centuries  since  the  Middle  Ages 
is  possible,  and  more  satisfactory  for  the  purposes  of  this 
paper.  Let  us  divide  them  into  two  periods,  the  non-statis- 
tical and  the  statistical;  one  the  period  of  superstition,  the 
other  the  period  of  ascertained  facts  expressed  in  numerical 
terms.  The  terms  are  essentially  synonymous  with  those 
which  divide  modern  history  into  the  non-scientific  or  theo- 
logical period,  and  the  positive  or  scientific  period. 

The  science  of  statistics  is  the  chief  instrumentality  through 
which  the  progress  of  civilization  is  now  measured,  and  by 
which  its  development  hereafter  will  be  largely  controlled. 


16  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Until  this  science  was  evolved,  history  was  little  more 
than  tradition  transcribed;  myths  reduced  to  records;  narra- 
tives of  battles  and  sieges,  of  the  rise  and  fall  of  dynasties, 
of  the  achievements  of  warriors,  emperors,  king  makers;  of 
the  machinations  of  priests  and  ecclesiastical  potentates;  of 
the  selfishness  and  brutality  of  mankind. 

Archaeologists  dig  up  the  ruined  cities  of  the  past,  unearth 
vast  catacombs,  rebuild  great  temples,  decipher  hiero- 
glyphics, and  so  reconstruct  for  us  the  social,  political  and  in- 
dustrial fabrics  of  ages  dead  and  gone.  Other  investigators, 
interested  in  a  later  period,  overhaul  musty  church  records, 
and  translate  ancient  mimicipal  archives,  in  an  eager  and 
profitable  search  after  systematic  knowledge  of  the  customs 
and  conditions  of  life  during  long  centuries  when  ignorance 
and  superstition  were  the  dominating  characteristics  of 
the  peoples  then  called  civilized,  in  contrast  with  nomadic 
barbarians.  Gradually,  painfully,  uncertainly,  modern 
methods  of  investigation  are  reconstructing  the  history  of 
the  world,  and  restoring  to  it  the  human  element,  which  the 
ancient  chroniclers  left  out;  they  are  establishing  the  reign  of 
law  in  the  social  actions  of  men,  by  knowledge  of  which  we 
can  look  behind  and  beyond  the  accidental  and  temporary, 
and  comprehend  the  grand  forces  by  which  human  affairs 
are  governed. 

The  black  letter  learning  of  the  law  no  longer  suffices,  and 
the  whole  science  and  theory  of  government  are  changing. 
The  age  of  invertebrates  passed  successively  into  that  of 
fishes,  reptiles,  mammals  and  man.  Similarly,  society 
emerged  from  one  stage  into  another,  barbaric,  communistic 
and  competitive  by  turns.  It  is  constantly  in  a  state  of  flux; 
it  is  never  stationary  anywhere,  although  never  equally 
mobile  at  all  points.  It  is  ever  taking  on  new  aspects,  ever 
overcoming  old  points  of  resistance  and  pushing  in  new  direc- 
tions, obedient  to  some  irresistible  law — ^but  a  law  we  have 
not  yet  been  able  to  comprehend  or  define,  except  in  most 
general  terms. 

The  irregularities  and  eccentricities  of  human  evolution 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  17 

puzzle  US,  and  often  confound  our  theories.  We  find  all 
stages  of  civilization  simultaneously  existing  in  the  four 
quarters  of  the  globe.  "Darkest  Africa"  swarms  about 
geographical  centers  where  ancient  civilization  reached  its 
climax  3,000  years  ago;  the  vast  empire  of  Russia  is  con- 
vulsed by  problems  which  western  Europe  long  since  settled; 
China,  with  nearly  one  sixth  of  the  total  population  of  the 
globe,  is  just  shaking  oflf  the  torpidity  of  unnumbered  and 
unprogressive  centuries.  The  riddle  of  the  ages  is  the  rela- 
tive backwardness  of  civilization  in  geographical  sections 
contiguous  to  the  points  of  its  greatest  progress.  When 
every  allowance  has  been  made  for  the  superiority  of  certain 
races  and  ethnic  types  under  exceptional  conditions,  and 
for  the  submersion  of  others  under  the  incursions  of  nomadic 
barbarians,  the  riddle  remains  unsolved.  The  encouraging 
fact  is,  that  what  we  may  call  the  humanizing  movement  is 
everywhere  in  evidence  today,  however  widely  different  the 
conditions.  Never  since  life  began  on  this  globe,  was  the 
development  of  the  whole  human  race  so  interesting,  so 
important,  so  absorbing. 

Moreover,  we  have  learned  at  last  that  in  the  shifting  tides 
of  human  change,  we  confront  the  supremest  problems  of 
our  race.  Here  are  the  mingled  influences  of  past  ages,  the 
effect  of  the  rise  and  fall  of  empires;  here  are  actually  in  prog- 
ress the  growth  and  the  decay  of  living  nations. 

As  of  old  Saint  John  beheld  from  the  Isle  of  Patmos  the 
splendors  of  the  Revelation,  partly  understood  and  partly 
beyond  human  knowledge,  so  in  our  time  the  progress  of 
the  age  has  brought  us  to  a  vision  wider  than  ever  before — 
a  vision  of  the  vast  field  of  human  endeavor. 

How  shall  we  interpret  these  signs  and  wonders?  It  is 
to  the  modem  science  of  statistics  we  must  turn.  Here  is  a 
new  factor  in  human  affairs,  at  once  illuminating,  helpful 
and  inspiring,  which  shall  show  us  the  meaning  of  some  at 
least  of  the  momentous  racial  and  national  changes  now  in 
progress. 

Within  a  short  period  of  time,  this  new  science  of  statistics 


18  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

has  been  so  effectively  organized  as  to  afford  a  surer  horo- 
scope of  the  future  than  any  agency  that  has  heretofore 
existed.  It  does  not  enable  us  to  read  the  future  by  the  past 
— ^that  is  an  omniscient  power  which  will  never  come  to 
finite  man.  It  does  enable  us  to  determine,  with  scientific 
precision,  the  directions  in  which  certain  sociological,  eco- 
nomic and  industrial  currents  are  moving  in  this  twentieth 
century;  the  rapidity  of  the  movement;  and  the  influence 
of  one  ciu-rent  upon  another.  It  has  established  the  fact 
that  in  spite  of  all  individual  variations,  the  average  or  typi- 
cal conduct  of  men  operates  with  a  high  degree  of  regularity. 
The  modern  science  of  statistics  is  based  upon  this  ascer- 
tained law.     No  other  scientific  discovery  is  more  important. 

The  natural  sciences  deal  with  matters  not  of  man's  mak- 
ing, and  over  which  he  can  exercise  few  modifying  influences. 
But  in  the  broad  field  of  statistics  we  deal  with  a  mixed  class 
of  facts,  brought  about  only  in  part  by  nature  herself,  and 
largely  determined  by  change  of  custom,  fixed  habit,  freak 
of  fortune,  local  environment,  constitutional  reform,  and 
numerous  conditions  which  it  is  within  the  power  of  man 
to  modify  and  control. 

It  is  not  possible  to  exaggerate  the  gains  which  have  come 
to  mankind  by  the  marvelous  achievements  of  the  ma,sters 
of  the  physical  sciences.  They  have  given  us  the  use  of 
steam  and  electricity,  and  have  penetrated  the  mysterious 
possibilities  of  chemistry.  Thus  they  have  revolutionized 
industry  and  changed  the  economic  bases  of  civihzation. 
They  have  recast  the  relations  of  man  to  man,  of  nations  to 
nations;  they  have  compelled  the  rewriting  of  the  science  of 
pohtical  economy,  created  new  laws  of  supply  and  demand, 
new  relations  of  production  and  consumption;  new  methods 
of  barter  and  exchange;  they  have  changed  every  aspect  of 
human  existence;  and  they  have  enormously  increased  both 
the  complexities  and  the  privileges  of  human  life. 

But  all  the  sciences  are  dependent  in  ever-increasing  degree 
upon  the  science  of  statistics.  All  of  them  now  recognize 
it  as  the  key — the  "open  sesame" — to  further  progress.     As 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OP  PROGRESS  19 

Goethe  said:  "Statistics  govern  the  world."  In  the  last 
analysis,  this  science  is  the  chief  instrumentality  upon  which 
the  world  now  depends,  in  its  efforts  to  advance  the  move- 
ment which  is  at  ferment  in  every  civilized  land — ^which  had 
its  origin  in  the  rapid  spread  of  democratic  institutions;  in 
the  education  and  elevation  of  the  proletariat;  in  the  asser- 
tion of  human  rights,  as  against  the  rights  of  caste,  of  priv- 
ilege, and  of  wealth. 

II 

It  is  from  this  point  of  view  that  ^e  approach  a  review  of 
the  progress  of  statistics  in  the  tJflited  States,  during  the 
seventy  five  years  since  the  Americah  Statistical  Association 
was  founded  here  in  the  city  of  Boston,  in  1839. 

At  that  time  there  was  but  one  organization  in  existence, 
so  far  as  I  am  aware,  with  similar  objects  in  view.  This  was 
the  London  Statistical  Society,  now  the  Royal  Statistical 
Society,  founded  four  years  earlier.  Its  journal — ever  since 
maintaining  its  undisputed  rank  as  the  most  valuable  of 
statistical  serial  publications — was  then  but  one  year  old.* 

Passing  over  the  British  Annual  Register — ^most  venerable 
of  all  serial  publications,  now  in  its  155th  year  (founded 
1758),  and  the  Almanack  de  Gotha,  now  in  its  151st  year,  and 
useful  to  the  diminishing  proportion  of  people  with  pedigrees, 
if  not  to  statisticians — we  note  that  the  Statesman's  Year 
Book,  indispensable  compendium  of  international  statistics, 
is  only  fifty  years  old.  The  Statistical  Abstract  of  Great 
Britain  has  only  been  compiled  for  fifty  nine  years;  and  it 
was  the  first  in  the  field  of  all  the  similar  annuals  now  pub- 
lished by  thirty  odd  nations.  Our  own  Statistical  Abstract, 
the  conception  of  a  farseeing  but  modest  statistician,  Ed- 
ward Young,  was  first  started  in  1878,  and  has  gradually 
developed  to  its  present  highly  useful  function.  Whitaher's 
Almanac  is  only  forty  six  years  old,  and  HazelVs  only  twenty 
seven.     The  New  York  Tribune  Almanac,  pioneer  in  the 

*  The  writer  has  since  learned  that  the  Manchester  Statistical  Society  was  or- 
ganized in  1833  and  has  had  a  continuous  existence. 


20  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

American  field  of  political  statistics,  made  its  first  appearance 
in  1838.  Other  and  younger  almanacs,  vastly  extended  in 
scope,  are  now  the  best-thumbed  volumes  in  countless  public 
and  private  libraries. 

I  record  these  facts  and  dates,  because  they  demonstrate 
the  progress  that  has  marked  these  seventy  five  years,  in  the 
means  for  the  popularization  of  the  statistical  method  of 
judging  the  progress  of  the  world;  and  their  success  reveals 
the  craving  the  pubhc  has  and  can  gratify,  for  knowledge  of 
facts. 

So  great  had  been  this  progress,  that  in  1885,  when  the 
London  Society  reached  its  fiftieth  anniversary,  it  celebrated 
the  event  by  a  jubilee  meeting,  at  which  were  present  expert 
delegates  from  ten  foreign  countries,  with  Francis  A.  Walker 
representing  the  United  States,  as  president  of  this  Society. 

In  the  same  year  the  Paris  Statistical  Society  celebrated 
its  twenty  fifth  anniversary;  and  there  were  then  in  that 
city,  in  Berlin,  in  Vienna,  in  Budapest  and  in  most  of  the 
European  capitals,  men  then  or  since  world-known  for  their 
contributions  to  statistical  science.  Most  of  the  govern- 
ment statistical  oflSces  or  commissions  of  Europe  have  been 
organized  since  our  Association  was  founded;  and  the  move- 
ment for  the  standardization  of  comparative  international 
statistics  has  been  set  on  foot. 

Someone  has  described  statistics  as  "the  anatomy  of  the 
nation,"  meaning  that  they  indicate  and  describe  the  bones 
around  and  upon  which,  flesh,  blood,  muscles,  nerves,  vital 
organs — ^aU  that  constitute  the  system — are  brought  together 
in  the  national  entity.  All  great  subjects  of  modern  legisla- 
tion depend,  for  their  intelligent  handling,  upon  the  accuracy 
and  completeness  with  which  the  facts  have  been  statistically 
developed.  Our  civilization  has  grown  so  complex,  so  sensi- 
tive in  its  manifestations  and  reactions,  that  it  woujd  cease 
to  operate  effectively,  if  it  were  deprived  of  accurate,  sys- 
tematic, statistical  information  of  the  ebb  and  flow  of 
commerce,  of  money,  of  expenditure,  of  indebtedness,  of 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  21 

crops,  of  markets,  of  production  and  consumption  in  all 
lines  of  industry. 

Hence  it  happens  that  every  group  of  facts  bearing  upon 
the  daily  life  of  a  great  nation  is  now  statistically  summarized 
and  daily  utilized  in  business  and  in  law  making. 

We  in  the  United  States  need  all  the  aid  we  can  get  from 
statistics,  need  it  more  than  any  other  people;  for  more  than 
any  other,  we  are  living  in  the  period  of  change.  Transforma- 
tion in  many  of  our  methods  is  in  progress.  Industry  passes, 
by  consolidation  into  great  corporations,  from  the  competi- 
tive into  the  monopolistic  form.  The  people  are  engaged  in 
a  fierce  struggle  to  regain  from  the  politician  the  control  and 
management  of  the  government,  national,  state  and  local. 
And  they  are  so  far  succeeding  that  subtle  modifications  of 
the  fundamentals  of  our  institutions  are  in  progress.  In  the 
new  edition  of  his  American  Commonwealth,  Mr.  Bryce 
states  that  he  found  diflSculty  in  revising  the  work,  because 
so  many  of  our  political  institutions  are  at  present  in  so 
transitory  or  experimental  a  state.* 

The  days  of  the  laissez  faire  have  gone  forever.  There  is 
no  longer  any  field  of  human  activity  into  which  it  is  not 
now  accepted  as  both  the  right  and  the  duty  of  the  state  to 
intervene,  by  investigation  and  by  remedial  action.  This 
reversal  of  the  long  prevalent  theory  of  the  governmental 
function  has  enormously  widened  the  field  of  statistics;  has 
increased  their  use,  and  has  made  it  necessary  that  the  edu- 
cated citizen,  whatever  his  walk  in  life,  shall  be  somewhat 
trained  in  their  uses  and  abuses,  their  methods  and  limita- 
tions. 

Within  this  period,  statistics  have  become  the  foundation 
of  modern  government,  both  in  the  administrative  and  the 
legislative  branches.  There  is  no  phase  of  the  relations  of 
government  to  people  which  legislation  does  not  now  enter; 
no  problem  with  which  it  does  not  seek  to  deal;  no  innova- 
tion from  which  it  shrinks;  no  condition  for  which  it  has  not 
a  panacea.    It  is  only  by  the  statistical  search-light  that  we 

*  Preface,  p.  X. 


22  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

can  determine  the  effects  and  defects  of  all  this  mass  of  new 
legislation,  covering  so  many  strange  and  untried  fields. 

Thus  the  life  of  the  Association  covers  the  development  of 
statistics  into  an  exact  science,  its  application  to  all  fields  of 
human  activity,  its  utilization  as  the  standard  for  the  meas- 
urement of  human  progress,  and  its  acceptance  as  the  test 
of  the  trend  and  the  tendencies  of  that  progress. 

Ill 

While  there  has  been  marked  progress  in  the  development 
of  the  oflScial  and  private  statistical  work  of  all  civilized 
countries,  we  may  claim,  and  perhaps  demonstrate,  that  it 
has  been  greater  in  the  United  States  in  these  seventy  five 
years,  than  in  any  other  nation. 

There  are  many  reasons  why  this  should  have  been  so. 
The  progress  of  the  nation  itself  has  been  greater  than  that 
of  any  other.  The  growth  of  interest  in  statistics,  and  in 
the  results  they  establish,  has  kept  pace  with  the  develop- 
ment of  the  country  itself.  Twenty  five  years  ago  Gen. 
Francis  A.  Walker  declared  that  "the  American  people  are 
intensely  and  passionately  devoted  to  statistics."  This  pop- 
ular interest  has  grown  greatly  since.  Increasing  interest  is 
due  to  increasing  dependence;  to  the  growing  recognition  of 
the  fact  that  in  government,  in  business  and  in  the  aflFairs  of 
hfe,  statistics  alone  can  discharge  the  function  of  the  steam 
gauge  in  the  engine.  This  recognition  is  largely  traceable 
to  the  exceptional  skill  and  ingenuity  with  which  American 
statisticians  have  presented  the  results  of  their  investiga- 
tions. 

We  compile  a  greater  volume  of  statistical  material,  and 
cover  a  greater  variety  of  topics,  than  any  other  country. 
Indeed,  there  is  practically  no  field  of  inquiry  into  which  our 
ambitious  statisticians  dare  not  enter — often  with  results 
which  will  not  stand  the  test  of  analysis. 

We  have,  first,  the  steadily  increasing  statistical  product 
of  the  national  government,  covering  wider  and  more  diver- 
sified fields  each  year.     We  have,  second,  the  statistical 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OP  PROGRESS  23 

product  of  forty  eight  separate  states — some  of  it  good,  some 
of  it  distinctly  bad,  much  of  it  of  very  uncertain  value,  but 
all  of  it  showing  a  tendency  towards  improvement.  We  have, 
third,  the  product  due  to  private  initiative,  yearly  growing 
more  exact  in  methods,  more  informing  in  results.  We  spend 
more  money  than  any  other  nation  in  compiling  statistics, 
and  beyond  question  we  waste  much  of  the  expenditure. 

To  this  country,  however,  belongs  the  unique  distinction  of 
having  inaugurated  the  decennial  census  of  national  popula- 
tion and  resources.  Indeed,  this  most  signal  service  of  the 
nation  to  the  science  of  statistics  long  preceded  the  founding 
of  this  Association.  And  so  it  happens  that  the  United 
States  alone  among  nations  possesses  a  complete  comparative 
record  of  population,  from  the  date  when  the  independent 
nation  was  born.  There  is  no  country  on  the  globe,  the 
growth  and  diflfusion  of  whose  population,  and  all  its  inci- 
dence from  the  beginning,  has  been  or  ever  can  be  depicted 
with  the  photographic  detail  and  the  scientific  philosophy, 
of  William  S.  Rossiter's  Century  of  Population  Growth,  pub- 
lished by  the  Permanent  Census  OflSce  in  1909.  This  volume 
demonstrates  better  than  any  publication  I  know  of,  one 
contention  of  this  paper,  that  statistics  are  the  surest  founda- 
tion for  history. 

It  may  also  be  said  that  the  Negro  Bulletin,  prepared  by 
Prof.  Walter  F.  Willcox — another  of  the  Permanent  Census 
Office  studies^s  an  ethnological  and  sociological  adventure 
in  the  field  of  intensive  statistical  work,  which  finds  no  equal 
in  other  countries.  I  make  this  statement  with  knowledge 
of  the  extraordinary  success  of  Great  Britain  in  photograph- 
ing the  status  of  the  varied  tribes  and  clans  of  her  trouble- 
some empire  of  India.  The  negro  problem  is  one  of  our  many 
exigent  problems;  this  bulletin  illumines  it. 

The  census  of  the  populatibn  was  ordained  by  the  Con- 
stitution, to  be  taken  in  1790,  and  every  tenth  year  there- 
after, so  long  as  the  nation  shall  endure.  No  other  reason 
than  the  necessity  for  a  basis  for  Congressional  reapportion- 
ment was  assigned  for  the  census.     But  it  quickly  dawned 


24  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

upon  the  f  arsighted  statesmen  of  that  era  that  this  was  but 
one  of  many  useful  purposes  this  decennial  stock-taking 
might  be  made  to  serve.  With  successive  decades,  new  lines 
of  enumeration  were  added — agriculture  in  1820,  manu- 
factures in  1840,  other  inquiries  at  following  decades,  until 
the  census  became  the  periodical  inventory  of  the  national 
resources,  and  the  barometer  of  national  development  in 
every  phase  and  branch,  in  human  beings  first,  for  the 
quality  and  character  of  its  citizenship  must  always  remain 
the  most  important  national  asset;  after  that  in  the  measure- 
ment and  the  differentiation  of  progress  in  every  field  where 
human  energy  contributes  to  the  building  of  the  nation. 
Thus  the  American  census  has  become  as  essential,  for 
definite  knowledge  of  our  national  assets  and  liabilities,  as 
the  periodical  book-balancing  of  a  business  corporation  in 
determining  its  solvency. 

As  showing  the  relationship  of  the  census  to  the  whole 
problem  of  modern  government,  the  United  States  no  sooner 
obtained  a  temporary  responsibility  in  Cuba,  than  it  ordered 
an  enumeration  of  the  people;  and  the  first  steps  taken  to 
reestablish  civil  government  in  the  colonial  possessions  ac- 
quired by  the  war  with  Spain  were  the  censuses  of  Porto 
Rico  and  the  Philippine  Islands. 

To  this  day  we  remain  the  only  nation  in  the  world  which 
has  grasped  the  possibilities  and  the  advantages  of  enumera- 
tion by  the  census  method.  Germany  has  followed  our 
example  in  adding  agricultural  statistics  to  the  population 
count,  and,  within  a  limited  scope,  industrial  statistics  as 
well.  So  have  Belgium  and  Holland,  and  France  to  some 
extent.  Other  nations  have  similar  enlargement  of  census 
work  under  consideration.  But  it  remains  the  fact  that  the 
United  States  was  the  first  to  discover  the  possibilities  of 
the  census;  and  that  it  has  carried  it  farther,  in  more  diver- 
sified fields  of  inquiry,  and  in  elaboration  of  detail,  than  any 
other  coiuitry. 

This  development  has  come  since  the  founding  of  this 
Association,  and  may  be  largely  attributed  to  its  inspiration. 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  25 

It  had  its  real  impetus  in  the  Tenth  Census,  that  of  1880, 
when  Francis  A.  Walker,  after  a  training  as  superintendent 
of  the  Ninth,  conceived  the  idea  of  making  the  Centennial 
Census  a  national  inventory,  such  as  had  never  before  been 
dreamed  of.  That  census  remains  unique,  here  and  every- 
where; and  it  stamps  Francis  A.  Walker,  the  fourth  Presi- 
dent of  this  Association,*  twelve  times  reelected,  as  the  king 
among  census  takers,  and  the  greatest  all-round  master  of 
the  science  of  statistics. 

In  1890  came  another  innovation  in  census  work  which,  in 
its  immediate  results  and  its  ultimate  possibilities,  may  be 
described  as  epoch-making  in  statistics — the  introduction  of 
automatic  tabulation.  All  honor  is  due  to  Robert  P.  Porter, 
director  of  the  Eleventh  Census,  who  had  the  courage  and 
the  foresight  to  try  this  hazardous  experiment,  with  full 
realization  of  its  possibilities. f 

I  cannot  detain  the  reader  with  a  statement  of  the  cor- 
relation of  the  data  of  individual  elements  of  the  popula- 
tion, in  combination  with  other  data,  beyond  the  reach  of 
hand  tabulation,  which  this  invention  opened  up.  The 
sociological  value  of  the  minuter  statistical  presentation  of 
demographic  data  thus  brought  within  reach,  is  not  yet  fully 
understood  and  only  partially  realized.  Without  it  we  could 
never  hope  to  lay  bare  all  the  truth  we  must  have,  if  we  are 
to  cope  successfully  with  the  problems  growing  out  of  the 

*  In  the  first  seventy  one  years  of  its  existence,  the  American  Statistical  Associa- 
tion had  but  five  presidents,  each  of  whom  served  until  his  death.  Hon.  Richard 
Fletcher,  the  first,  served  six  years;  Dr.  George  C.  Shattuck,  the  second,  five  years; 
Dr.  Edward  Jarvis,  the  third,  thirty  years;  Gen.  Francis  A.  Walker,  the  fourth, 
thirteen  years;  and  Col.  Carroll  D.  Wright,  the  fifth  president,  twelve  years.  The 
presidents  since  1909  have  been  S.  N.  D.  North,  Frederick  L.  Hoffman,  Walter  F. 
Willcox,  and  John  Koren. 

t  The  automatic  tabulating  machinery  was  introduced  and  successfully  operated 
in  the  1911  census  of  Great  Britain  and  the  Dominion  of  Canada.  Austria  and 
Russia  have  long  made  use  of  it.  Dr.  Herman  Hollerith  of  Washington  conceived 
and  invented  this  ingenious  mechanism,  which  has  since  been  successfully  applied 
in  many  branches  of  business  accounting.  The  Thirteenth  Census  was  tabulated 
by  use  of  an  independent  system  of  punching  and  recording  machines,  owned  by  the 
government  and  developed  during  my  administration  as  Director. 


26  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

heterogeneous  commingling  of  races  which  our  defective 
immigration  laws  are  forcing  upon  us. 

No  other  country  has  yet  realized  the  possibilities  of  this 
advance  in  census  methods;  this  is  perhaps  because  no  other 
country  has  quite  the  same  need  for  these  data.  But  until 
other  nations  obtain  and  publish  such,  the  population  sta- 
tistics of  the  United  States  must  be  regarded  as  the  most 
complete  and  eflfective  in  the  world. 

It  remained  for  the  Twelfth  Census,  that  of  1900,  to  reach 
the  high-water  mark  in  two  other  fields  which  the  census 
method  alone  can  adequately  handle — the  fields  of  agricul- 
ture and  manufacture.  These  are  the  right  and  left  legs 
upon  which  our  people  stand  and  walk;  upon  their  growth 
and  prosperity  depends  our  future.  The  Census  of  Agricul- 
ture was  so  handled  as  to  be  accepted  as  an  adequate  por- 
trayal of  our  agricultural  status  and  resources.  It  was 
recognized  as  so  vital  a  horoscope  upon  our  ability  to  feed 
our  coming  miUions,  that  Congress  ordained  that  it  shall 
hereafter  be  taken  every  five  years.  Supremacy  in  agricul- 
tural statistics  is  conceded  to  the  greatest  of  agricultural 
nations. 

The  United  States  was  the  first  nation  to  undertake  the 
census  statistics  of  manufactures;  and  in  1900  the  report 
reached  a  completeness  of  detail  and  a  technical  perfection 
of  method  that-  left  little  to  be  desired.  No  other  country 
has  ever  approached  it;  and  it  was  only  in  1908  that  England 
began  to  imitate  it. 

I  dwell  upon  these  facts,  because  they  are  tangible  evidence 
of  the  actual  contribution  of  the  United  States  to  statistics 
during  the  period  under  review,  and  justify  the  claim  that 
nothing  quite  so  distinctive  has  been  contributed  elsewhere. 
They  demonstrate  our  courage  in  venturing  into  untried 
fields  of  investigation,  and  our  ability  to  cope  with  statistical 
difficulties  hitherto  deemed  insuperable. 

The  most  important  single  step  for  the  advancement  of 
statistical  science  in  the  United  States,  after  the  decennial 
census,  was  the  establishment  of  the  Permanent  Census 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  27 

Office,  on  March  6,  1902.  It  was  the  goal  towards  which 
American  statisticians  had  aimed  for  a  quarter  of  a  century. 
The  chief  credit  for  its  final  achievement  must  in  justice  be 
assigned  to  William  R.  Merriam,  the  Director  of  the  Twelfth 
Census,  who  concentrated  energy,  executive  ability,  and  per- 
sonal and  official  popularity  upon  the  procurement  of  this 
crowning  achievement  as  Director. 

Prior  to  that  time,  the  census  office  was  disbanded  at  the 
end  of  each  decennial  period;  its  trained  men  turned  loose; 
its  valuable  records  scattered  and  lost;  its  traditions  oblit- 
erated; and  continuity  of  method  and  experience  destroyed. 
It  was  necessary  to  grope  in  the  dark  at  each  recurring  census, 
testing  out  methods  already  tried  and  discarded,  repeating 
errors  and  mistakes  already  demonstrated.  It  was  an  in- 
tolerable situation,  from  the  point  of  view  of  scientific  work 
and  progressive  development.  As  the  country  grows,  it 
would  soon  have  become  an  impossible  one.  The  gigantic 
task  of  a  decennial  enumeration  would  have  broken  down 
at  the  beginning. 

The  work  of  the  Permanent  Census  Office  during  the  first 
intercensal  period  completely  justified  its  establishment.  It 
successfully  inaugurated  the  system  of  voluntary  coopera- 
tion with  state,  county  and  city  offices  and  private  organiza- 
tions, which  is  vital  to  the  coordination  of  statistics  in  the 
United  States.  Whether  or  not  its  estabhshment  was  fur- 
ther vindicated  by  the  results  of  the  Thirteenth  Census,  is 
now  challenged. 

It  is  too  early,  however,  to  attempt  final  judgment.  The 
Permanent  Office  was  perfectly  organized  for  the  task,  and 
no  census  was  ever  before  taken  in  this  country  under  more 
favorable  conditions.  Starting  with  such  an  advantage,  it 
cost  an  excessive  sum,  and  was  not  completed  within  the 
time  limit  fixed  by  the  law.  Its  scheme  for  separately  com- 
bining the  main  details  of  census  inquiry  in  a  single  com- 
pact volume  for  each  state,  was  an  admirable  innovation. 
Whether  the  changes  in  schedule  phraseology,  and  the  radical 
recastings  of  tabular  presentation,  were  wise,  is  at  least 


28  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

doubtful;  for  one  of  the  chief  values  of  a  periodical  census  is 
the  principle  of  perfect  comparability  from  census  to  census. 
The  improvement  of  each  census  over  its  predecessor  is 
possible  and  desirable;  but  changes  which  invalidate  exact 
comparison,  in  the  measurement  of  growth  and  of  variation, 
may  strip  a  census  of  its  chief  value,  from  the  scientific  point 
of  view.  The  accuracy  of  some  of  the  Thirteenth  Census 
figures  has  been  sharply  questioned.  It  may  be  that  another 
census  must  be  taken,  before  these  controversies  can  be 
definitely  determined.  Independently  of  all  this,  the  advo- 
cates of  a  permanent  bureau,  among  whom  I  have  been 
actively  enrolled  since  1880,  are  in  no  respect  dismayed,  nor 
is  our  faith  in  the  inestimable  value  of  the  Permanent  Census 
Office  in  the  least  degree  shaken,  provided  only  and  always, 
that  the  office  is  officered  by  men  thoroughly  trained  and 
equipped  for  this  gigantic  task. 


Other  government  bureaus  have  continually  enlarged  and 
improved  their  statistical  product.  The  statistics  of  rail- 
road transportation,  skillfully  organized  by  Prof.  Henry 
C.  Adams  for  the  Interstate  Commerce  Commission,  are 
nowhere  surpassed  in  their  wealth  of  searching  and  inform- 
ing detail. 

The  condition  and  transactions  of  our  banking  institutions 
are  presented  by  the  Comptroller  of  the  Currency  in  illumi- 
nating tables,  which  some  nations  may  equal,  but  none 
surpass. 

The  statistics  of  world  production  of  the  precious  metals, 
compiled  by  Director  George  E.  Roberts  for  the  Bureau 
of  the  Mint,  have  long  been  accepted  as  standard  by 
great  nations  whose  financial  systems  are  far  superior  to 
our  own. 

The  Internal  Revenue  Bureau  tells  us,  each  year,  the  exact 
production  of  wines,  beers  and  spirituous  liquors;  and  meas- 
uring consumption  by  that  standard,  we  are  amazed  to  dis- 
cover that  notwithstanding  the  rapid  spread  of  prohibitory 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OP  PROGRESS  29 

laws  in  the  Southern  States,  the  American  people  drink  more 
alcohol  than  ever  before. 

The  Immigration  Bureau  has  learned,  very  recently,  how 
to  compile  the  statistics  of  the  mass  of  foreign-born  humanity 
pouring  into  our  midst.  We  now  understand  how  com- 
pletely the  character  of  this  immigration  has  changed  in 
recent  years,  and  are  beginning  to  realize  the  dangers  and 
difficulties  it  involves. 

The  Year  Book  of  Agriculture,  published  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture,  circulates  a  milhon  copies  annually 
among  our  farmers,  and  contains  the  most  complete  statis- 
tics of  the  production  and  international  exchange  of  farm 
products,  of  which  I  am  aware. 

The  tables  of  our  foreign  commerce,  exports  and  imports, 
are  given  with  a  detail  nowhere  more  complete,  in  the 
monthly  summaries  of  the  Bureau  of  Foreign  and  Domestic 
Commerce. 

Until  recently,  the  United  States  was  strikingly  behind  the 
chief  European  nations  in  the  study  of  municipal  statistics, 
the  importance  of  which,  in  view  of  the  abnormal  growth  of 
our  urban  population,  we  are  now  beginning  to  reahze.  It 
was  the  existence  of  the  Permanent  Census  Office  which 
made  it  possible  to  develop  the  splendid  series  of  Annual 
Municipal  Statistics,  which  Dr.  LeGrand  Powers,  with  rare 
statistical  skill  |and  a  fine  devotion,  has  placed  on  a  par 
with  any  compiled  iin  Europe. 

The  art  of  presenting  statistics  in  graphic  form  was  in- 
vented by  European  statisticians,  and  brought  to  a  high 
degree  of  perfection  by  Levasseur,  Marshall,  Latanne, 
Soetbeer,  Rawson,  and  others.  Statistical  Atlases,  or 
albums,  were  compiled  in  several  countries  before  our  first 
publication  of  this  character  at  the  Census  of  1870.  But  it 
is  an  American  statistician.  Dr.  Henry  Gannett,  who  has 
made  the  widest  and  most  eflFective  application  of  the  graphic 
form  to  census  figures.  By  his  ingenuity  in  visualizing  re- 
sults in  many  combinations,  and  the  use  of  the  largest  vari- 
ety of  symbols,  he  has  brought  statistics  within  the  ready 


30  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

understanding  of  the  people,  and  enormously  increased 
their  usefulness.  The  Statistical  Atlases  of  the  Eleventh 
and  Twelfth  Censuses  were  magnificent  contributions  of 
the  graphic  method  to  statistical  science. 

It  is  cause  of  profound  regret  that  the  Statistical  Atlas 
was  omitted  from  the  publications  of  the  Thirteenth  Census. 
Of  the  long  series  of  census  volumes,  the  Atlas  is  perhaps 
the  most  widely  useful  for  educational  purposes.  The  re- 
production of  its  graphic  representations  of  growth,  by  lan- 
tern slides,  in  university  lecture  courses  and  in  popular 
addresses,  has  done  more  to  popularize  and  make  compre- 
hensible census  results,  than  any  other  method.  I  hope 
that  this  mistake  will  never  again  be  made.* 

As  universally  useful  and  acceptable  was  the  octavo 
volume,  Abstract  of  the  Census,  originated  in  1840,  which 
compressed  into  the  minimum  of  space,  without  text  dis- 
cussion, those  bare  general  results  of  the  decennial  censuses 
which  are  in  daily  demand  in  countless  business  oflSces,  and 
literary  and  scientific  laboratories,  in  the  form  most  conven- 
ient for  quick  and  ready  reference. 


Vital  statistics  are  the  foundation  upon  which  rests  the 
modern,  humanitarian,  scientific  movement  for  the  develop- 
ment and  application  of  the  laws  of  public  health  and  sani- 
tation. Only  by  the  perfection  of  our  records  of  births  and 
deaths,  can  the  devoted  men  and  women  whose  lives  are 
consecrated  to  this  great  movement,  guide  and  systematize 
their  work. 

The  world  acknowledges  with  undying  gratitude  the  !»,  - 
spired  genius  with  which  Dr.  William  Farr,  of  England, 
organized  this  work  of  registration,  beginning  in  1837,  two 
years  before  the  organization  of  this  Association.  Under 
his  hands,  the  great  problems  to  which  vital  statistics  are 

*  The  history,  the  uses,  the  methods,  and  the  limitations  of  the  graphic  method  in 
statistics,  are  admirably  presented  in  the  paper  of  the  late  Emile  Levasseur,  member 
of  the  Latemational  Statistical  Institute,  in  the  proceedings  of  the  Jubilee  meeting 
of  the  London  Statistical  Society,  1885.  Other  papers  on  the  same  subject  by 
Alfred  Marshall  and  Francis  Galton  appear  in  the  volume. 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  31 

the  key  and  clew,  were  converted  into  scientific  truths,  and 
the  general  principles  established  which  determine  the  rela- 
tionship of  density  of  population  and  hygienic  conditions, 
to  disease  and  death.  Dr.  Farr  was  the  pioneer  in  the  pro- 
tection of  the  people  against  a  thousand  insidious  sources  of 
infection.  He  first  showed,  by  the  statistical  method,  the 
relation  of  cause  and  effect.  He  organized  the  British 
"Annual  Reports  of  the  Registrar  General  of  Births,  Deaths 
and  Marriages," — a  splendid  and  unrivalled  series  of  demo- 
graphic statistics,  to  which  may  be  traced  the  beginning  of 
scientific  sanitation. 

The  United  States  ofiFers  opportunity  for  the  development 
of  a  series  of  reports  on  vital  statistics  of  universal  useful- 
ness. We  present  the  most  unique  ethnological  problem 
anywhere  in  existence.  Our  population  is  an  admixture, 
and  to  some  extent  an  amalgamation,  of  races  and  nation- 
alities elsewhere  unknown.  It  subsists  under  every  variety 
of  climate  and  topography;  it  is  sustained,  in  one  section  or 
another,  by  every  gift  of  nature.  The  occupations  of  our 
people  are  practically  all-inclusive,  presenting  unequalled 
advantages  for  the  study  of  occupation  in  its  relations  to 
morbidity  and  mortahty. 

In  the  face  of  these  facts,  it  is  humiliating  to  know  that 
in  vital  statistics  the  United  States  stands  at  the  foot  of  the 
nations  of  like  rank  in  civilization.  But  it  is  encouraging  to 
be  able  to  add  that  we  are  making  progress,  and  timely  to 
point  out  ways  in  which  this  progress  can  be  accelerated. 

The  science  of  demography,  as  we  understand  that  word — 
of  comparatively  recent  use  in  connection  with  statistical 
science — includes  all  statistics  which  record  and  measure  the 
acts,  the  movements  and  the  lives  of  mankind.  It  is  im- 
possible to  draw  a  hard  and  fast  line,  at  which  statistics  can 
be  said  to  cease  to  be  demographic  in  their  character. 
Common  usage  regards  demography  as  a  branch  of  ethnol- 
ogy, anthropology  being  the  other  branch.  It  treats  of 
the  statistics  of  health  and  disease,  of  the  physical,  intel- 
lectual, physiological  and  economic  aspects  of  births,  deaths, 


32  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

marriages  and  divorces;  of  the  insane,  criminal,  defective 
and  dependent  classes,  of  emigration  and  immigration;  of 
mankind,  in  every  aspect  of  his  development  which  a  census 
of  population  can  reveal.  All  of  these  statistics  are  essential 
to  the  proper  study  of  public  hygiene  and  the  general  social 
uplift — two  things  indissolubly  bound  together. 

The  associated  efforts  of  mankind  to  promote  sanitary 
reform,  to  improve  housing  conditions,  to  protect  food  sup- 
plies, to  improve  the  conditions  under  which  human  beings 
herd  together,  have  for  their  object  the  prolongation  of 
human  life,  the  lessening  of  human  suffering,  and  the  in- 
crease of  human  happiness.  Hygiene  is  the  most  potent  of 
the  instrumentalities  through  which  the  sociologist  can 
accomplish  practical  results.  Both  the  hygienist  and  the 
sociologist  must  build  their  efforts  upon  the  work  of  the 
demographist,  if  they  would  build  effectively,  and  without 
misdirected  effort. 

The  diflficulties  which  surround  the  development  of  our 
vital  statistics  long  appeared  insuperable.  With  no  federal 
control  over  state  and  municipal  mortality  records;  with 
forty  eight  separate  and  independent  commonwealths  in 
charge  of  the  public  health;  with  no  standardization  of 
methods  between  them,  and  with  total  indifference  on  the 
part  of  the  officials  in  most  of  them,  it  seemed,  thirty  years 
ago,  a  hopeless  task  even  to  attempt  a  reform. 

It  is  only  one  of  many  anomalies  and  inconsistencies  which 
grow  out  of  our  dual  form  of  government;  anomalies  which 
make  a  marriage  which  is  legal  in  one  state  illegal  in  another; 
which  make  a  misdemeanor  in  one  a  crime  in  another;  which 
bring  chaos  into  our  jurisprudence,  and  produce  endless  un- 
certainty in  our  business  of  an  inter-state  character. 

In  some  of  the  older  states,  Massachusetts  and  Rhode 
Island  for  example,  the  mortality  records  have  been  admir- 
ably kept  for  many  years.  High  praise  must  be  awarded 
men  like  the  late  Dr.  Samuel  W.  Abbott  of  the  former,  and 
Dr.  Charles  V.  Chapin,  superintendent  of  health  in  Provi- 
dence, for  devoted  and  scientific  service  rendered  the  cause 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  33 

of  vital  statistics.  There  are  today  in  several  states,  regis- 
trars and  health  officers  who  should  be  named  in  the  same 
class.  But  in  too  many  instances  it  is  still  a  record  of  official 
indifference. 

We  owe  it  to  the  late  Dr.  John  S.  Billings  that  a  way  was 
discovered  to  overcome  these  difficulties.  We  owe  it  to  the 
late  William  A.  "King  that  this  road  was  pursued  to  prac- 
tical results.  We  owe  it  to  the  tireless  enthusiasm  of  Dr. 
Cressy  L.  Wilbur,  that  at  length  we  see  daylight  shining  at 
the  end  of  the  long,  dark  tunnel  of  confusion,  contradiction 
and  imcertainty,  through  which  we  have  been  wandering 
all  these  years.  But  to  this  day  we  are  lacking  in  statistics 
of  births,  except  perhaps  in  three  states,  which  are  of  the 
least  value. 

When  the  registration  area,  comprising  states  and  cities  in 
which  the  record  of  deaths  was  fairly  complete,  was  first 
estabhshed  by  Doctor  Billings  in  1880,  it  consisted  of  but 
two  states  (Massachusetts  and  New  Jersey),  and  a  few 
outside  cities,  with  an  aggregate  population  of  8,538,366, — 
about  17  per  cent,  of  the  total  population.  Today  it  includes 
twenty  four  states,  and  forty  two  cities  in  other  states,  a 
population  of  63,350,000,  or  65.2  per.  cent,  of  the  popula- 
tion of  the  United  States. 

It  is  difficult  to  appreciate  the  signfficance  of  these  figures, 
to  magnify  their  importance,  or  to  give  due  credit  for  the  de- 
votion and  the  scientific  skill  which  have  inspired  the  little 
band  who  are  determined  that  their  country  shall  not  fail,  as 
time  passes,  to  make  its  proper  contribution  to  international 
demography;  who  understand  that  no  other  country  can 
make  a  contribution  of  equal  importance,  under  conditions 
so  unique,  and  that  no  other  country  stands  in  quite  such 
exigent  need  for  just  this  knowledge,  at  just  this  time. 

Vital  statistics  have  made  greater  progress,  in  the  last  ten 
years,  than  in  all  the  preceding  years  of  our  history.  The 
annual  reports  have  become,  for  the  first  time,  scientific 
statistics,  comparable,  so  far  as  they  go,  with  each  other,  and 
with  those  of  other  countries.     So  much  progress  was  made. 


34  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

and  the  outlook  for  the  future  was  so  promising,  that  I  felt 
justified,  when  the  Thirteenth  Census  legislation  was  pend- 
ing, in  making  the  recommendation  that  the  mortality 
schedule  be  omitted  from  that  census,  for  the  first  time  since 
its  introduction  in  1850.  That  recommendation  was  ac- 
cepted, without  protest  or  objection  from  any  quarter;  so 
that  now,  as  Wilbur  puts  it,  "we  have  thrown  away  our 
crutches,  and  if  we  cannot  walk,  we  must  fall."  But  the 
child  never  learns  to  walk  until  he  tries,  and  tries  many 
times. 

To  complete  the  service  which  the  government  of  the 
United  States  still  owes  to  itself,  to  the  people  of  the  whole 
country,  and  to  the  health  authorities  of  the  states  and  the 
municipalities,  one  other  great  step  forward  is  necessary,  as 
the  proper  supplement  to  the  establishment  of  the  Per- 
manent Census  Office.  That  step  is  a  quinquennial  or  five- 
year  census  of  population.  The  five-year  Census  of  Man- 
ufactures was  ordained  when  the  Permanent  Census  Office 
was  created.  The  five-year  Census  of  Agriculture  was 
established  by  the  act  for  the  Thirteenth  Census.  Both 
are  admirable  and  necessary;  but  the  need  for  neither  is 
quite  so  great  as  for  a  more  frequent  count  of  our  growing, 
shifting,  composite  people.  The  knowledge  of  the  progress 
and  condition  of  the  people  is  certainly  not  less  important 
than  the  measurement  of  industrial  growth.  The  five-year 
population  census,  such  as  is  now  taken  by  France  and 
Germany,  is  one  of  the  great  forward  steps  in  the  movement 
for  social  progress.  To  secure  this  advance,  the  American 
Statistical  Association  should  take  a  leading  part. 

Closely  connected  with  vital  statistics,  is  the  statistical 
study  of  the  defective,  delinquent  and  criminal  classes,  in 
which  field  our  president  stands  facile  princeps.  This  is  an- 
other development  since  this  Association  was  founded;  the 
first  attempt  of  the  federal  government  to  gather  the  statis- 
tics of  these  classes  in  institutions  was  in  1870.  Much 
progress  has  been  made;  much  remains  to  be  made.  It  is  a 
study  as  essential  as  that  of  vital  statistics  to  the  well  being 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  35 

of  the  human  race.  We  have  recently  come  to  realize  its 
importance,  in  the  awakening  of  scientists  to  the  fact  that 
there  is  a  science  called  eugenics,  and  the  relationship  which 
this  science  bears  to  human  progress  and  sociological  ad- 
vance. The  need  for  restraining  the  genetically  deficient 
classes  and  families  from  the  function  of  reproduction,  is 
recognized  as  imperative;  the  methods  whereby  this  can  be 
done  are  but  dimly  outlined;  the  problem  on  its  face  seems 
insoluble.  But  able  men  are  not  afraid  to  face  it.  If  we 
can  breed  plants  and  animals,  increasing  beauty,  develop- 
ing useful  qualities  and  eliminating  defects,  why  not  men  and 
women  as  well?  The  work  of  the  Eugenics  Record  oflBice  at 
Cold  Spring  Harbor,  on  Long  Island,  organized  by  Dr.  C. 
B.  Davenport  for  research  in  human  heredity  and  its 
application  to  human  affairs,  is  making  gratifying  progress, 
and  finds  the  statistical  method  its  most  effective  instru- 
mentality. 

The  statistical  work  of  our  government,  carried  on  in 
these  numerous  bureaus,  compares  favorably,  in  all  branches, 
with  that  of  other  countries;  but  it  still  lacks,  very  conspic- 
uously, the  coordination,  the  scientific  homogeneity  we  may 
call  it,  so  admirably  attained  in  Germany  since  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  Imperial  Statistical  OflSce  in  1872,  and  in 
Great  Britain,  since  the  control  of  all  official  governmental 
statistics  was  concentrated  in  the  Board  of  Trade.  Some 
day,  a  wise  president  will  realize  how  greatly  the  value  and 
vaUdity  of  our  official  statistical  work  are  impaired  by  this 
lack  of  concentration  under  the  direction  of  a  cabinet  officer, 
who  is  the  best  trained  expert  the  country  can  produce. 
Then  we  shall  be  in  a  way  to  do  our  full  duty  to  the  science 
which  has  become  the  basis  of  enhghtened  government. 
It  is  an  ideal  towards  which  American  statisticians  should 
persistently  aim,  and  for  the  attainment  of  which  this 
Association  may  well  take  the  initiative. 


36  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

IV 

Turning  to  private  statistical  work,  the  record  of  progress 
and  development  is  equally  encouraging.  Our  privately 
gathered  statistics  have  come  to  bear  a  relation  to  govern- 
ment as  important  as  any  compiled  by  the  government  itself. 

One  of  the  first  practical  applications  of  the  statistical 
method  was  to  commerce.  When  Lord  Timothy  Dexter 
made  his  famous  shipment  of  warming  pans  to  the  West 
Indies,  he  furnished  a  ludicrous  ^lustration  of  the  plight  of 
the  man  who  ships  articles  to  markets  which  have  no  con- 
ceivable use  for  them.  Originally  commerce  was  somewhat 
like  the  trip  of  a  tramp  steamer  in  semi-civilized  waters, 
sailing  from  port  to  port,  picking  up  what  it  happens  to  find, 
and  selUng  what  it  happens  to  have. 

Commercial  statistics  have  revolutionized  this  primitive 
commerce.  They  are  compiled  with  such  fullness  and  accu- 
racy that  the  statistical  situation  of  every  great  staple  is 
known  when  the  day's  business  begins,  throughout  the 
world.  New  York  and  New  Orleans  know  every  morning 
just  how  many  bales  of  cotton  have  come  in  sight,  the  world 
over,  on  the  previous  day;  and  a  single  quotation  is  the  basis 
of  every  man's  transactions  in  the  bourses  and  exchanges  of 
every  coimtry  on  every  continent.  The  whole  of  the  world's 
commerce  in  great  staples,  representing  thirty  billions  of 
exchanges  annually,  is  now  adjusted  with  precision,  and 
regulated  to  a  nicety,  by  the  statistical  barometer  that 
controls  and  determines  it.  A  glut  here,  and  a  famine 
there,  formerly  chronic  conditions,  now  follow  only  when 
nature  fails  or  surprises,  and  rarely  even  then. 

The  estabUshment  of  the  International  Institute  of  Agri- 
culture, at  Rome,  which  has  successfully  worked  out  a  plan 
for  securing  the  yearly  product  of  the  great  agricultural 
staples  in  all  the  great  producing  countries,  was  the  inspira- 
tion of  that  American  genius,  David  Lubin. 

The  whole  science  of  modem  insurance  is  founded  upon 
statistics.  An  accumulation  of  data  recording  actual  experi- 
ence in  a  mass  of  selected  cases,  enables  the  insurance  actuary 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEAKS  OF  PROGRESS  37 

to  calculate  with  a  certainty  that  approaches  the  miraculous, 
the  average  longevity  of  the  insured,  and  to  determine  within 
a  fraction  of  a  fraction,  the  average  relation  of  each  individual 
premium  to  the  total  outgo  of  his  company. 

Mr.  Hoffman's  admirable  study,  Fifty  Years  of  American 
Life  Insurance*  shows  that  the  number  of  policies  in  ordinary 
life  insurance  has  increased  from  56,046  in  1860  to  6,954,119 
in  1910,  and  the  amount  of  insurance  from  $163,703,455  to 
$13,227,213,168.  Industrial  insurance  has  grown  from  $145,- 
938,241  in  1885  to  $3,177,047,874  in  1910.  These  figures 
are  impressive  as  an  indication  of  the  extraordinary  pros- 
perity of  our  country,  and  quite  as  significant  as  evidence 
of  the  scientific  exactness  with  which  this  growth  can  be 
measured.  Actuarial  statistics  constitute  a  special  science 
by  themselves,  which  hardly  existed  seventy  five  years  ago, 
and  is  today  the  cornerstone  of  this  beneficent  business, 
which  "tends  persistently  to  raise  the  level  of  social  well 
being  of  every  element  of  the  population." 

The  annual  reports  of  our  leading  Chambers  of  Commerce, 
Boards  of  Trade,  and  organizations  representing  great  indus- 
tries, have  become  as  trustworthy  as  those  which  bear  the 
hallmark  of  the  government.  The  New  York  Chamber  of 
Commerce,  for  a  period  of  nearly  eighty  years,  has  statis- 
tically photographed  the  annual  development  of  the  metrop- 
olis in  every  great  line  of  commercial  activity.  So  also  of 
the  similar  reports  of  Boston,  Chicago,  and  other  cities. 
The  annual  reports  of  the  New  Orleans  Cotton  Exchange 
are  accepted  throughout  the  world  as  a  complete  exposition 
of  the  production,  movement  and  consumption  of  the  great 
textile  staple.  Those  of  the  American  Iron  and  Steel  Asso- 
ciation record  the  production  and  the  prices  of  the  basic 
forms  of  that  metal  with  minute  detail.  The  Spectator 
Company  of  New  York  supplies  periodical  statistics  regard- 
ing the  income,  losses,  and  dividends  of  the  Fire,  Marine  and 
Casualty  Companies.     The  Street  Railway  Journal  compiles 

*  Quarterly  Publications  of  the  American  Statistical  Association,  September,  1911, 
New  Series,  No.  95. 


S8  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

the  mileage,  car  equipment  and  capitalization  of  these 
transportation  companies.  Poor's  Railway  Manual  has 
occupied  for  many  years  an  enviable  position  as  the  reposi- 
tory of  all  the  available  statistical  information  regarding 
the  steam  roads.  In  recent  years  Moody's  Manual  has 
reached  a  similar  eminence  as  the  standard  authority  upon 
the  finances  and  operations  of  industrial  corporations. 

Trade  joiu-nals  exist  for  all  the  great  industries,  in  all  the 
manufactm-ing  countries,  which  cover,  with  marvelous  com- 
pleteness, the  statistical  status  of  the  industry  with  which 
their  readers  are  concerned.  Daily  newspapers  flourish, 
devoted  chiefly  to  the  statistics  of  commerce  and  trade,  and 
covering  the  transactions  of  bourses,  exchanges,  chambers 
and  marts  in  the  uttermost  corners  of  the  globe.  Thus  is 
the  history  of  the  world  now  written  in  figures,  from  day  to 
day,  from  year  to  year,  from  decade  to  decade. 

I  beg  you  to  notice  that  in  what  I  have  enumerated  in 
tedious  detail  of  the  applications  of  statistics  in  modern 
life,  I  have  only  grazed  the  surface.  Statistics  create  an 
endless  procession  of  moving  photographs  of  the  work  and 
civilization  of  today. 

These  statistics  are  compiled  because  men  use  them,  and 
cannot  inteUigently  conduct  their  business  without  them. 
They  are  the  modern  substitute  for  the  rule  of  thumb.  They 
are  the  basis  of  the  new  rule  of  Publicity,  now  acknowledged 
to  be  the  best  safeguard  of  both  private  and  public  interests. 
They  are  the  basis  of  the  new  science  of  EflSciency,  which  is 
working  a  revolution  in  industrial  methods.  They  are  the 
only  check  that  exists  for  the  restraint  of  speculation,  and 
the  emancipation  of  the  many  from  the  iron  domination  of 
the  few.  They  are  not  always  suflficient  to  accomplish 
that;  but  they  do  place  in  the  possession  of  all,  information 
which  formerly  did  not  exist,  or  was  confined  to  the  few. 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  39 


I  have  reserved  reference  to  industrial  statistics,  because 
they  are  sui  generis.  They  are  the  touchstone  of  the  new 
social  era  upon  the  outskirts  of  which  we  are  hovering. 

The  Bureau  of  Labor,  organized  by  Carroll  D.  Wright  in 
1884  upon  the  high  plane  of  absolute  impartiality  in  han- 
dling the  complex  problems  of  the  relations  of  capital  and 
labor,  has  learned  much  from  foreign  bureaus  in  the  same 
field,  organized  at  later  dates,  and  has  taught  them  much. 

There  is  no  more  difficult  statistical  field,  and  none  more 
important.  The  Census  office,  in  dealing  with  manufact- 
ures, has  been  appalled  by  the  wage  problem  of  the  day  rate, 
the  weekly  rate,  the  piece-price  rate,  often  utilized  side  by 
side  in  the  same  mill — a  problem  in  which  every  separate 
occupation  in  every  industry  may  represent  a  differing  wage; 
in  which  the  degree  of  non-employment  varies  constantly;  in 
which  a  thousand  factors  enter  to  invalidate  conclusions  as 
to  the  average  number  of  employes  in  a  given  industry,  the 
average  earning,  and  the  actual  relative  share  of  employer 
and  employe  in  the  increment  of  industry.  It  is  the  most 
intricate  riddle  which  confronts  statistician  and  economist. 
Colonel  Wright  once  remarked  that  "  we  cannot  get  at  it  by 
any  scientific  method."  The  answer  is,  that  the  method 
must  be  found;  for  the  live  wire  of  today  leads  into  the  heart 
of  these  questions.^ 

Sooner  or  later  we  have  got  to  face  questions  of  old  age 
pensions,  workingmen's  insurance — ^fields  in  which  Germany 
has  led  the  way,  and  Great  Britain  is  entering.  We  have 
deliberately  created  industrial  conditions  which  make  the 
living  wage  a  burning  issue.  Whether  or  not  the  solution  of 
the  social  problem  lies  along  these  lines,  we  cannot  yet  be 
sure;  for  socialized  Germany,  far  as  she  has  advanced  along 
this  pathway,  and  heroically  as  she  is  footing  the  tax  bills, 
has  not  yet  enabled  the  world  to  determine  whether  the 
road  leads  to  solution  or  revolution. 

But  of  one  thing  we  may  be  sure:  the  substitution  of  arbi- 


40  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

tration  for  the  old-fashioned  strike  and  lock-out,  expedients 
of  war  and  not  of  civilization,  is  inevitable. 

An  educated  public  opinion  demands,  with  increasing  per- 
sistency, that  brute  force  shall  no  longer  be  the  test  of  who  is 
right  and  who  is  wrong  in  these  perpetually  recurring  indus- 
trial contests. 

When  a  gigantic  struggle  arises  between  the  thousands  of 
employes  of  our  great  railway  systems,  and  their  directorates, 
arbitration  becomes  the  sole  protection  of  the  pubKc  against 
the  paralysis  of  business  which  would  follow  the  suspension 
of  transcontinental  ti-affic;  and  Congress  and  the  President 
unite  to  enact  over  night  a  modification  of  the  Erdman  act 
which  makes  it  adequate  to  present-day  conditions.  The 
arbitrators  seek  to  ascertain  the  truth,  as  to  the  points  in 
dispute;  their  appeal  is  to  the  statistician.  He  analyzes  the 
books  and  accounts  of  the  corporations;  he  determines,  from 
the  study  of  income  and  outgo,  whether  or  not  the  demand 
of  the  employe  is  just,  when  tested  by  ability  to  concede 
its  justice;  and  the  arbitrator  decides  whether  the  value  of 
the  service  rendered  is  such  as  to  warrant  an  advance  which 
earnings  make  possible. 

The  anthracite  coal  arbitration  of  1902,  taught  the  nation 
there  is  an  equitable  and  reasonable  solution  always  possible, 
when  a  labor  war  breaks  out.  The  recent  settlement  of  the 
great  strikes  in  the  clothing  manufacture  in  New  York  and 
Boston,  on  the  basis  of  what  has  come  to  be  known  as  the 
Brandeis  Protocol,  was  epoch-making;  for  that  instrument, 
now  in  successful  operation,  goes  beyond  the  juridical  settle- 
ment of  a  strike;  it  supplies  the  simple  machinery  by  means 
of  which,  so  long  as  both  parties  respect  it,  a  strike  can  never 
occur.  The  invention  and  adoption  of  that  Protocol  were 
like  a  burst  of  simshine  through  clouds  that  had  been  gather- 
ing for  generations. 

The  world  has  long  been  obsessed  by  the  dread  of  an  im- 
pending struggle  between  labor  and  capital — ^a  titanic  conflict 
involving  our  entire  social  system  and  leading  perhaps  to 
another  French  revolution.    And  lo,  the  solution  is  at  hand; 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  41 

for  the  statistician  has  appeared,  and  behind  him  is  an  edu- 
cated public  opinion,  which  demands  that  equity  shall  be 
the  basis  of  compromise,  and  trusts  the  statistician  to  prove 
mathematically  where  equity  lies.  The  task  is  his  to  solve 
the  question,  and  he  must  search  until  he  finds  the  solution. 
We  live  in  an  age  of  figures,  and  their  combinations  are  the 
golden  threads  which  guide  our  footsteps  through  the  laby- 
rinthine mazes  of  the  social  and  economic  problems  which 
modem  civilization  creates. 

The  labor  problem  is  a  world  problem.  It  does  not  materi- 
ally differ  in  any  western  nation.  We  have  advanced  as  far 
toward  its  sane  solution  as  any.  The  New  Zealand  and 
Australian  experiments  are  more  radical;  but  it  is  today  a 
serious  question  whether  these  young  countries  have  not  gone 
too  far;  whether  they  will  not  be  compelled  to  retrace  their 
steps,  perhaps  with  much  turmoil.  The  rest  of  the  world 
looks  to  us,  and  not  to  them. 

VI 

Other  problems  confront  us.  One  of  them  is  unique  in  the 
United  States.  It  is  the  problem  of  race  admixture,  growing 
out  of  the  impact  upon  the  native  stock  of  25,000,000  immi- 
grants, of  all  bloods  and  creeds  and  languages,  from  all 
European  countries  and  many  parts  of  Asia,  steadily  increas- 
ing at  the  rate  of  a  million  souls  a  year.  It  is  a  new  phe- 
nomenon in  world  history;  no  large  movement  of  the  races  of 
mankind  from  one  region  to  another  has  ever  occurred  under 
conditions  at  all  resembling  them. 

Should  immigration  continue  on  its  present  scale,  should 
the  disparity  in  the  fertility  of  the  foreign  and  native  stocks 
also  continue,  our  population,  which  at  the  time  this  Asso- 
ciation was  founded  was  almost  wholly  Anglo-American, 
and  in  1900  half  native  and  half  foreign,  may  in  1950  be 
three  fourths  or  more  of  foreign  blood. 

This  immigration  is  profoundly  affecting  our  civilization, 
our  institutions,  our  habits  and  our  ideals.  It  has  trans- 
planted here  alien  tongues,  alien  religions,  and  alien  theories 


42  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

of  government;  it  has  been  a  powerful  influence  in  the  rapid 
disappearance  of  the  Puritanic  outlook  upon  life  which  under- 
laid the  Connecticut  blue  laws,  and  established  what  was 
once  called  the  American  Sabbath.  It  has  upset  time- 
honored  precedents  and  modified  our  whole  social  and  eco- 
nomic life.  It  is  already  leading  to  a  mingling  of  many  bloods 
in  a  hybrid  race,  which  presents  the  most  important  demo- 
graphic and  ethnological  experiment  the  world  has  known. 
Accompanying  this  irruption  of  alien  races,  is  a  startling  de- 
chne  in  the  native  birth  rate,  and  a  corresponding  decrease  in 
the  size  of  families. 

No  one  yet  knows  how  far  national  character  is  affected 
by  blood  admixture.  We  have  no  basis  for  estimating  the 
comparative  importance  of  heredity  and  environment. 
Neither  have  we  any  prejudice  against  miscegenation — bar- 
ring only  a  profoimd  antipathy  to  the  intermarriage  of  white 
and  black,  and  white  and  yellow.  Therein  we  differ  from 
the  Japanese,  who  boast  that  their  blood  has  been  kept 
absolutely  pure  for  ages.  As  the  generations  roll  by,  as  this 
race  amalgamation  becomes  more  intensive,  we  may  find 
the  American  people  the  finest  specimens  of  the  human 
race,  physically,  mentally  and  artistically,  the  world  has 
yet  developed.  But  to  make  this  possible,  it  is  high  time 
that  we  made  more  restrictive  the  immigration  laws  which 
now  welcome  with  inconceivable  prodigality  the  undesir- 
ables of  every  occidental  race  to  the  rapidly  lessening  oppor- 
tunities of  our  continent. 

Wonderful  is  the  statistical  problem  thus  presented. 
Who  shall  turn  adequately  the  searchlight  of  our  science 
on  the  decline  of  the  homogeneous  stock  that  made  this 
nation,  and  the  capacity  for  self-government  of  its  suc- 
cessors? Who  shall  measure  the  gravity  of  the  change, 
the  sinister  meaning  of  the  fact  that  a  race  that  ran  out  its 
strength  in  a  century  is  recruiting  itself  from  nations  that 
have  had  a  thousand  years  of  history.?  Will  the  environ- 
ment that  is  burning  out  our  stock  so  quickly,  effect  the 
same  result  in  its  successors?    Will  these  composites  who 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  43 

are  assuming  the  lead  prove  equal  to  their  task?  What  of 
their  devotion  to  law?  Not  in  words,  but  in  deeds  and 
example?  Upon  Anglo-Saxon  reverence  for  law  has  been 
founded  and  reared  this  republic.  Are  there  not  signs  in 
the  restlessness  of  the  times  of  the  new  temperament  of  the 
composite? 

When  Emerson  wrote,  "the  eternal  public  is  always  right," 
he  little  dreamed  that  the  public  he  diagnosed  from  the 
serene  atmosphere  of  Concord  half  a  century  ago,  would 
be  transformed  into  the  conglomeration  of  peoples  which 
makes  our  public  opinion  of  today. 

Notwithstanding  our  declining  native  birth  rate,  the  swell- 
ing hordes  of  immigrants  with  their  fertile  families  are 
keeping  up  a  population  increase  which  embodies  a  phenom- 
enon without  parallel.  On  the  assumption  that  the  yearly 
increase  has  been  equal  to  one  tenth  of  that  shown  by  the 
decennial  census,  our  population  has  already  doubled  four 
times  since  1790;  and  if  immigration  continues  to  increase, 
notwithstanding  the  declining  birth  rate,  it  will  approximate 
300,000,000  by  the  year  2000.  What  is  to  be  the  economic 
status  of  this  coming  population,  approaching  in  numbers 
that  of  China?  Already  certain  tendencies  are  well  marked, 
and  significant,  if  not  ominous. 

VII 

How  swiftly  the  whole  economic  situation  in  our  country 
has  been  metamorphosed!  Prior  to  1840,  three  quarters  of 
the  population  was  engaged  in  agriculture.  In  1910,  very 
nearly  one  half  of  the  people  were  concentrated  in  cities  and 
towns  of  5,000  population  and  over;  and  we  have  195  cities, 
each  with  a  population  of  30,000  or  more.  Of  the  seven 
largest  cities  in  the  world.  New  York  ranks  second,  and 
Chicago  fourth.  These  195  American  cities  are  governed 
under  heterogeneous  charters  of  every  conceivable  variation, 
constantly  tinkered  or  replaced,  in  a  restless  search  for  some- 
thing better,  which  may  be  worse.  They  concentrate  within 
comparatively  narrpw  limits  the  problems  of  modern  civili- 


44  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

zation  in  their  intensest  forms.  Here  governmental  control 
of  public  utilities  is  most  necessary  and  often  the  most 
inefficient.  Here  the  immigrants  herd  ia  slums,  forming 
great  segregated  colonies  of  alien  races.  Here  the  tenement 
house  and  the  sweat-shop  flourish.  Here  pauperism  is 
chronic  in  given  areas.  Here  tuberculosis  is  self-breeding, 
and  sanitation  at  its  worst.  Here  crime  and  the  gin  shop 
are  partners,  sometimes  with  the  police  as  a  silent  member 
of  the  firm.  Here  the  white  slave  traffic  spreads  its  net,  and 
Adce  takes  on  its  most  hideous  forms.  Here  graft  is  ever  on 
the  alert  for  new  forms  of  illicit  profit.  Here  organized 
charity,  public  and  private,  finds  its  widest  and  most  difficult 
field. 

In  dealing  with  this  congeries  of  municipal  problems,  it  is 
imperative  that  there  shall  be  comparison  between  condi- 
tions and  results  in  different  municipalities,  so  that  each 
may  profit  from  the  experiments  of  all  the  rest;  and  only 
the  statistical  method  is  adapted  for  these  studies.  Es- 
pecially useful  is  it  to  have  a  basis  of  comparative  costs,  in 
all  cities,  of  all  forms  of  public  service;  for  it  is  in  the  cities 
that  public  debt,  expenditures,  and  taxes  are  increasing  at 
unprecedented  rates; — $2,399,932,026  was  the  funded  and 
floating  indebtedness  of  these  cities  in  1910 — larger  by  far 
than  national,  state  and  county  debts  combined.  The 
census  statistics  of  cities  illuminate  many  of  the  municipal 
problems.  They  reveal  their  multitude  and  their  immensity. 
But  they  suggest  no  method  whereby  can  be  arrested  the 
steady  flow  of  population  away  from  the  soil  and  into  the 
city. 

In  the  great  city  of  London,  the  official  reports  reveal  an 
army  of  124,000  paupers.  The  number  varies,  but  the 
tendency  is  to  increase.  Some  are  temporarily  unemployed; 
the  bulk  are  chronic  cases.  This  pitiful  army  appeals  to 
otu-  compassion;  but  we  do  not  want  to  add  it  to  our  popula- 
tion. Its  existence,  in  the  financial  center  of  the  world,  is 
a  hideous  commentary  upon  the  maladjustment  of  social 
conditions,  as  well  as  upon  the  unequal  usefulness  of  individ- 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  45 

ual  units  in  the  social  cosmos.  It  is  terrible  evidence  that 
the  human  race  is  made  up  of  differing  types  of  men  and 
women,  a  certain  measurable  proportion  of  whom  are  either 
valueless,  or  detrimental  to  the  rest  of  society,  economically 
and  from  every  other  point  of  view.  We  have  as  yet  no 
parallel  in  our  country  to  this  phase  of  municipal  life  in 
London.  But  are  not  conditions  such  that  we  may  yet 
duplicate  it? 

It  is  not  alone  the  immigrant  who  is  crowding  the  cities, 
and  steadily  increasing  their  drain  upon  the  food  production 
of  the  agricultural  sections.  The  allure  of  the  city  attracts 
the  young  men  and  young  women  of  the  farm.  They  are 
among  the  recruits  who  man  the  big  shops  and  overcrowd 
the  non-productive  occupations.  Our  modem  type  of 
immigrant  will  not  go  to  the  farm;  he  prefers  to  herd  with 
his  own;  while  back  in  the  coimtry  the  farmer  calls  in  vain 
for  help  to  plow  and  sow  and  reap.  We  have  here  no  peas- 
ant class,  such  as  clings  to  the  soil  for  generations  in  the 
European  countries.  With  an  increase  in  population  from 
1900  to  1910  of  21  per  cent.,  the  urban  population  increased 
34.8  per  cent,  and  the  rural  population  but  11.2  per  cent. 
In  certain  of  the  Eastern  and  Middle  West  States  many 
agricultural  counties  show  decreases  in  population,  even 
when  their  towns  and  villages  increase  in  size. 

The  increase  of  crops,  from  1899  to  1909,  was  but  10  per 
cent.,  as  against  this  increase  of  21  per  cent,  in  population. 
It  is  an  inevitable  inference  that  the  ability  of  the  country  to 
supply  its  own  food  products  is  soon  to  be  put  to  the  test. 
In  the  former  year,  we  cultivated  for  all  cereals,  240  acres  per 
thousand  of  population;  in  1909  only  208  acres.  The  increase 
was  only  Vv  of  1  per  cent. ;  yet  the  men,  women  and  children 
increased  by  fifteen  million. 

For  a  time  at  least  we  can  meet  this  growing  disparity  in 
food  production,  in  cereals  at  least,  by  reducing  agricultural 
exports.  Thus  our  domestic  problem  becomes  a  world 
problem;  for  the  older  nations  depend  upon  us  to  feed  them; 
they  show,  nearly  everywhere,  the  same  phenomenon — a 


46  MEMORUL  VOLUME 

lessening  ratio  of  increase  in  food  production,  as  compared 
to  the  population  increase.  We  need  not  look  beyond  these 
facts  for  the  most  important  explanation  of  the  world-wide 
increase  in  the  cost  of  living.  The  whole  problem  arises  out 
of  the  steadily  decreasing  proportion  of  the  people,  here  and 
elsewhere,  engaged  in  productive  agriculture.  But  we  do 
need  to  look  carefully  into  these  economic  conditions  which 
are  upsetting  the  economic  status  in  which  we  have  been 
living  without  realizing  what  its  causes  are,  what  its  effects 
are  certain  to  be.  The  tension  is  increasing  so  steadily,  that 
the  breaking  point  must  be  reached  in  time — ^perhaps  in 
our  life-time.  It  is  a  situation  which  calls  for  the  best 
thought  of  our  best  minds.  Able  men  are  studying  it  the 
world  over.  The  members  of  the  American  Statistical 
Association  can  find  no  more  fruitful  field  to  which  to  direct 
their  investigations. 

The  growth  of  our  cities,  with  their  vast  industrial  plants 
and  their  enormous  output  of  manufactured  goods,  is  ac- 
cepted as  the  evidence  of  ever  increasing  prosperity.  The 
relatively  small  growth  of  our  agriculture,  and  its  actual 
decline  in  sections  where  it  once  prospered,  must  just  as 
certainly  be  regarded  as  the  sign  of  decadence.  Conditions 
thus  justify  the  question  whether  our  apparent  prosperity  is 
not  in  some  degree  fictitious;  and  whether,  in  our  hurry  to 
develop  our  natural  resources  and  to  pile  up  wealth,  we  have 
not  overstimulated  industrial  exploitation,  and  are  destined 
to  pay  the  penalty. 

Our  country  is  the  one  in  which  the  science  of  statistics  has 
the  widest  opportunity,  the  largest  and  most  varied  field,  in 
which  results  not  only  are  the  most  interesting,  but  most  po- 
tent, in  determining  the  future  of  civilization.  It  is  an  in- 
spiring outlook  for  the  young  statistician.  There  is  real 
and  vital  work  for  him  to  do,  as  necessary  and  as  valuable  as 
that  which  falls  to  any  specialist  in  any  field.  Thus  it 
happens  that  the  study  of  statistics  has  been  introduced  in 
most  of  our  great  universities,  and  specialized  training  may 
be  obtained  in  any  statistical  field.     Twenty  five  years  ago 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  47 

the  subject  was  unrecognized  in  any  college  curriculum. 
Today  it  is  more  generally  taught  in  American  institutions 
of  learning,  than  in  those  of  any  other  country. 

vin 

But  the  vision  of  the  future  of  the  science  is  broader 
than  our  own  country;  it  reaches  out  over  the  whole 
family  of  nations,  where  co-laborers  are  at  work  along  the 
same  lines  as  ourselves,  with  equal  energy  and  enthusiasm, 
with  results  of  equal  importance. 

One  phase  of  this  world  work  in  statistical  investigation  is 
especially  important:  it  looks  to  the  unification  and  stand- 
ardization of  international  statistics,  so  that  the  application 
of  the  laws  which  the  science  develops,  may  become  universal. 

We  have  seen  that  the  governing  laws  of  the  social  body 
can  only  be  discovered  by  the  accumulation  of  statistical 
facts;  equally  true  is  it,  that  when  every  country  has  its  own 
peculiar  characteristics  and  types,  these  types  only  become 
^capable  of  complete  numerical  expression  when  compared 
with  those  of  other  countries.  Statistics  can  accomplish 
their  full  purpose  only  when  data  of  identical  character 
embrace  the  widest  possible  field.  It  is  the  dream  of  the 
true  statistician  that  the  day  will  some  time  arrive  when  the 
facts  of  demography  will  be  available,  on  identical  bases,  for 
the  entire  globe.  When  that  dream  is  realized;  when  com- 
parable international  statistics  actually  and  everywhere 
exist,  then  we  shall  know  the  laws  which  determine  human 
progress,  and  can  eflfectively  apply  them.  The  International 
Statistical  Institute*  has  become  a  powerful  agency,  among 
the  many  which  are  leading  to  this  goal. 

*  The  most  notable  paper  read  at  the  London  Statistical  Jubilee  of  1885  was  that 
of  Professor  von  Neuman-Spallart,  who  reviewed  the  work  of  the  nine  International 
Statistical  Congresses  which  had  been  held  in  the  various  capitals  of  Europe  from 
1853  to  1876,  and  had  then  ceased  to  reassemble.  These  nine  Statistical  Congresses 
were  held  at  Brussels,  in  1853;  Paris,  in  1855;  Vienna,  in  1857;  London,  in  1860; 
Beriin,  in  1863;  Florence,  in  1867;  The  Hague,  in  1869;  St.  Petersburg,  in  1872;  and 
Budapest,  in  1876.  Professor  Neuman-Spallart  epitomized  the  work  of  these  nine 
Congresses,  pointed  out  the  long  steps  in  advancing  international  statistics  which 


48  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Statistics  is  the  twin  sister  of  international  law,  in  multi- 
plying the  ways  and  methods  of  mutual  help,  cooperation 
and  understanding  between  the  nations.  Both  sciences 
supply  indispensable  links  in  the  lengthening  chain  of  world 
unity.  Scores  of  conventions  between  nations  regulate 
their  mutual  intercourse — such  as  the  Postal  Union;  the 
codification  of  "the  rules  of  the  road"  at  sea;  wireless  teleg- 
raphy regulations;  international  sanitary  regulations — and 
tend  to  make  the  world  "a  totality  of  interrelated  forces." 
Forty  nations  have  aheady  adopted  and  are  using  the  metric 
system  of  money,  weights  and  measures.  This  agency  for 
the  convenience  and  simplification  of  international  com- 
merce and  intercourse  has  brought  to  the  world  a  gain  which 
can  not  be  measured  even  in  statistical  terms.  May  we  not 
then  hope  that  the  time  will  come  when  all  the  great  nations 
wiU  recognize  and  accept  the  fact  that  the  unification  of 
international  statistics  will  prove  an  instrumentality  equally 
potent  for  the  uplift  of  the  human  race  in  every  land? 

The  greater  problems  to  the  solution  of  which  statistics 
lends  its  aid  are  world  problems;  each  nation  is  at  work  upon 
them,  each  in  its  own  environment,  according  to  its  own  lights, 
out  of  its  own  peculiar  experience.  The  language  which 
statistics  employs  is  a  imiversal  language;  but  its  terms  and 
methods  must  be  made  to  approach  that  exactness  and 
uniformity  which  will  make  its  lessons  alike  to  all.  By  the 
use  of  the  statistical  method,  all  nations  are  working  out 
these  problems  contemporaneously,  each  with  the  advantage 
of  knowledge  of  the  experience  of  every  other  nation,  and 
each  thus  lending  its  own  experience  to  all  the  others,  in  the 
common  quest  for  truth. 

Some  of  us  have  faith  to  believe  that  the  day  of  univer- 
sal justice  is  coming  to  the  world,  that  it  draws  yearly  nearer, 
and  that  in  the  end  it  will  make  international  wars  impossible. 

marked  the  deliberations  and  the  resolutions  of  each;  and  ended  by  a  strong  plea 
for  their  reorganization  in  the  form  of  a  free  International  Statistical  Institute — 
which  was  then  and  there  effected,  and  which  has  since  continued  in  biennial  meet- 
ings, to  render  valuable  service  in  the  imification  and  harmonizing  of  a  comparable 
system  of  International  statistics. 


SEVENTY  FIVE  YEARS  OF  PROGRESS  49 

We  recognize  no  agency  more  effective  to  this  end  than  the 
statistical  method,  through  which  alone  we  can  gain  com- 
plete knowledge  of  ourselves  and  of  other  peoples,  and 
measure  the  relative  progress  of  each  and  of  all. 

Thus  the  science  of  Statistics  in  the  large  sense  is  the 
greatest  of  all  the  sciences;  for  beyond  all  others  it  becomes 
the  international  bond  of  union.  Behold  therefore  within 
the  life-time  of  the  Association,  through  this  young  science 
of  ours  the  whole  world  is  akin ! 


BOOK  II 

HISTORY  AND  DEVELOPMENT  OF  OFFICIAL 
STATISTICS  IN  MANY  COUNTRIES 


AUSTRALIA 


THE    HISTORY    AND    DEVELOPMENT    OF    THE 
STATISTICAL  SYSTEM  OF  AUSTRALIA 

By  George  Handley  Knibbs,  C.M.G.,  F.S.S. 

Honorary  Member  A.S.A.,  Member  I.I.S.,  etc. 

On  the  23d  August,  1770,  Captain  Cook  took  possession 
"of  the  whole  eastern  coast  from  lat.  38°  to  (this  place) 
lat.  103^°  S.  in  right  of  His  Majesty  King  George  the  Third." 
Sovereignty  on  behalf  of  the  British  crown  was  thus  pro- 
claimed over  what  are  now  the  eastern  parts  of  New  South 
Wales  and  Queensland.  Formal  possession  of  the  whole  of 
the  eastern  part  of  the  Australian  continent  and  Tasmania 
was  taken  on  the  26th  January,  1788,  when  Captain  Phillip, 
the  first  governor,  read  his  commission  to  the  people  whom 
he  had  brought  with  him  in  the  " First  Fleet."  The  territory 
of  New  South  Wales  over  which  the  governor  had  jurisdic- 
tion, and  of  New  Zealand,  which  may  be  included,  although 
Cook's  annexation  was  not  properly  given  eflfect  to  until 
1840,  was  thus  in  square  miles — ^Australia,  east  of  135°, 
1,454,312;  Van  Diemen's  Land,  26,215;  New  Zealand, 
104,471;  that  is,  a  total  of  1,584,998  square  miles.  The 
western  part  of  Australia,  containing  1,494,054  square  nules, 
was  later  annexed.  In  1863  Australasia  had  been  divided 
into  seven  colonies.  (See  table  hereunder.)  The  Northern 
Territory  was  formerly  a  portion  of  South  Australia,  i.e., 
from  1863  to  1910,  but  is  now  federal  territory,  and  the 
Federal  Capital  Territory  was  part  of  New  South  Wales. 

On  the  1st  January,  1901,  the  colonies  mentioned  above, 
with  the  exception  of  New  Zealand,  were  federated  under 
the  name  "  Commonwealth  of  Australia,"  and  the  component 
colonies  were  thenceforward  known  as  states. 

What  has  preceded  will  render  intelligible  the  evolution 
of  statistics  in  Australia.  From  the  period  of  the  first 
settlement  to  the  introduction  of  responsible  government, 


56 


MEMORIAL  VOLUME 


DATES  OP  CREATION  AND  AREAS  OF  THE  SEVERAL  COLONIES  AND 

TERRITORIES 


State. 

1  ^ 

Sq.M. 

State. 

0 

Sq.  M. 

New  South  Wales*.  . 

1786 
1825 
1829 

1834 

309,460 

26,215 

976,920 

380,070 

1841 
1851 
1859 
1863 
1911 

104,751 

Tasmania 

Victoria 

87,884 

670,500 

South  Australia 

(DroDcr) 

Northern  Territory .... 
Fed.  Capital  Territory. 

523,620 
912 

CoTnmonwealth 2,974,581  square  miles. 

*  Exclusive  of  Federal  Capital  Territory. 


the  governor  of  New  South  Wales,  and,  from  the  separation 
of  their  respective  colonies,  the  governors  of  these  colonies 
were  required  to  furnish  annual  reports  to  the  Colonial 
Office.  For  a  number  of  years  these  reports  dealt  mainly 
with  administrative  matters,  the  only  statistical  question 
dealt  with  being  that  of  population,  but  from  about  1820 
onward  they  contain  information  of  a  more  varied  nature, 
and  particulars  in  regard  to  schools,  to  judicial  matters,  to 
the  finances  of  the  colony,  and  finally  shipping  and  commercte 
are  added.  The  reports  have  now  become  "Blue  Books," 
and  it  is  in  these  Blue  Books  that  practically  all  statistical 
information  relating  to  Australia  in  the  first  half  of  the 
nineteenth  century  is  to  be  obtained.  As  soon  as  the  gov- 
ernor was  assisted  in  his  official  duties  by  a  council,  officers 
were  appointed  to  administer  various  departments  of  the 
government.  Of  these  officers  one,  generally  called  "  colonial 
secretary,"  and  in  some  cases  "chief  secretary,"  acted  as 
the  priacipal  intermediary  between  the  governor  and  the 
people  of  the  colony.  He  countersigned  orders,  and  grad- 
ually became  charged  with  a  multitude  of  functions,  amongst 
which  the  one  interesting  to  us  from  a  statistical  point  of 
view  was  the  annual  preparation  of  the  "Blue  Book."    For 


AUSTRALIA  57 

a  number  of  years  three  manuscript  copies  were  written  out, 
one  for  transmission  to  the  Colonial  Office,  one  for  the  gov- 
ernor, and  one  for  the  colonial  secretary  himself.  In  due 
course  of  time  parts  of  the  Blue  Book  seemed  to  have  been 
asked  for  by  the  general  public  so  that  it  became  necessary 
to  print  them.  Census  tables  were  printed  very  early,  but 
financial  statements  and  trade  returns  are  available  in  man- 
uscript only  till  well  towards  the  middle  of  the  century. 

When  government  departments  began  to  multiply,  one  of 
the  chief  subordinate  officers  of  the  colonial  secretary  was 
everywhere  the  registrar-general,  very  properly  so  called  as 
he  was  not  only  charged  with  the  registration  of  births, 
deaths,  and  marriages,  but  also  with  the  registration  of 
titles  to  land,  mortgages,  and  sometimes  patents  and  copy- 
right. The  preparation  of  the  Blue  Book  naturally  devolved 
upon  this  officer,  and  when  the  Colonial  Office,  after  the 
introduction  of  responsible  government,  no  longer  asked  for 
it,  the  governments  of  the  various  states  continued  the  publi- 
cation on  their  own  account,  its  name  being  now  changed  to 
that  of  "Statistical  Register,"  while  the  name  "Blue  Book" 
was  retained  exclusively  for  the  annual  list  of  public  officers. 

There  is  reason  to  believe  that  the  registrars-general  were 
inclined  to  look  upon  the  compilation  of  the  annual  "  Statis- 
tical Register"  as  an  onerous  addition  to  their  legitimate 
work,  and  that,  therefore,  no  serious  attempts  were  made 
to  improve  the  publications.  New  offices  could  be  created 
only  under  parliamentary  authority,  which  might  or  might 
not  have  been  difficult  to  obtain  if  it  had  been  asked  for. 
But  it  does  not  appear  that  any  of  the  state  governments 
took  much  interest  in  the  matter,  and  it  was  not  until  1873 
that  the  state  of  Victoria  appointed  a  "  Government  Statist," 
who,  in  addition  to  his  statistical  duties,  was  also  charged 
with  the  registration  of  births,  deaths,  and  marriages.  The 
New  South  Wales  statistical  office,  established  in  1886,  was 
the  first  office  which  was  altogether  separated  from  other 
offices,  and  the  only  one  which  has  remained  more  or  less  free 
from  extraneous  work  ever  since. 


58  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

It  was  probably  the  healthy  rivalry,  which  was  not  long  in 
showing  itself,  between  the  Victorian  and  New  South  Wales 
offices  which  led  to  the  great  improvement  in  statistical  work 
from  1886  to  1906.  Valuable  contributions  to  statistical 
inquiry  were  also  made  by  the  Tasmanian  statistician,  and 
Western  Australia  did  not  wait  long,  after  obtaining  self- 
government  in  1890,  before  bringing  its  statistical  methods 
up  to  date. 

The  range  of  statistical  data  with  which  the  state  bureaus 
were  dealing  during  that  period  were  approximately  as  fol- 
lows: 

(a)  Statistics  collected  and  compiled  entirely  by  the  bureaus: 

Agriculture. 
Dairy  Farming. 
Live  Stock. 
Manufactories. 
Municipal  Administration. 
Hospitals,  Asylums,  etc. 

(b)  Statistics  compiled  in  the  bureaus  from  data  collected  by  other  public  depart- 

ments: 
Population. 

Births,  Deaths,  and  Marriages. 
Banks. 

Life  Assurancie. 
Trade. 
Shipping. 
Criminal  Justice. 

(c)  Statistics  collected  and  compfled  by  other  departments,  and  enlarged,  con- 

densed, coordinated,  or  otherwise  adapted  for  publication  by  the  bureaus: 
Public  Finance. 
Railways  and  Tramways. 
Posts,  Telegraphs,  and  Telephones. 
Land  Settlement. 
Meteorology. 
Mining  Production. 
Water  Conservation  and  Lrigation. 
Civil  Justice. 
Public  Instruction,  Scientific  Societies,  Museums,  etc. 

The  unequal  manner  in  which  the  state  governments 
equipped  their  bureaus  both  with  officers  and  with  funds 
was  the  main  cause  of  the  degree  of  completeness  with  which 
many  of  the  data  enumerated  could  be  tabulated,  and  as 


AUSTRALIA  59 

time  went  on  the  want  of  cobrdination  began  to  make  itself 
felt  seriously. 

Attempts  to  overcome  this  diflBeulty  were  made  especially 
in  the  "Victorian  Year  Book,"  which  contained  a  large 
amount  of  information  relating  to  the  whole  of  the  states, 
and  in  the  publication  of  the  New  South  Wales  Bureau, 
originally  called  "The  Seven  Colonies  of  Australasia,"  and 
afterwards  changed  to  "A  Statistical  Account  of  Australia 
and  New  Zealand." 

In  addition  the  New  South  Wales  Bureau  published  an- 
nually "The  Wealth  and  Progress  of  New  South  Wales," 
which  was  continued  later  as  "The  Official  Year  Book  of 
New  South  Wales."  This  book  as  well  as  the  Victorian 
Year  Book  have,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  gaps,  appeared 
annually  from  the  dates  of  their  first  publication  to  the 
present  time.  Queensland,  South  Australia,  Western  Aus- 
tralia, and  Tasmania  have  also  issued  similar  publications 
at  irregular  intervals. 

Several  conferences  of  the  state  statisticians  were  held 
during  that  period  to  deal  with  matters  where  coordination 
was  most  urgently  required,  and  in  some,  if  not  in  all,  cases 
improvements  resulted  therefrom.  This  was  notably  so  in 
regard  to  the  Censuses  of  1891  and  1901,  and  to  the  collection 
of  statistics  of  manufactories. 

There  was,  however,  no  authority  in  existence  which  could 
enforce  the  decisions  of  these  conferences,  and  it  began, 
therefore,  to  be  recognized  that  a  different  arrangement  was 
required.  The  opportunity  to  do  so  presented  itself  with 
the  federation  of  the  six  Australian  states,  which  took  place 
as  from  1st  January,  1901.  The  fifty  first  section  of  the 
Commonwealth  Constitution  Act  contains,  among  a  list  of 
thirty  nine  different  subjects  concerning  which  the  common- 
wealth is  authorized  to  legislate,  as  No.  11,  the  item  "Census 
and  Statistics."  It  was,  however,  not  until  the  8th  Decem- 
ber, 1905,  that  the  "Census  and  Statistics  Act,  1905," 
passed  by  the  federal  parliament,  became  law.  This  Act, 
the  main  provisions  of  which  are  quoted  below,  provided  for 


60  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

the  appointment  of  a  federal  statistician  and  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  Federal  Bureau  of  Census  and  Statistics. 

Present  Statistical  Organization 
The  "Census  and  Statistics  Act,  1905"  provides: 

(1)  For  the  appointment  of  a  commonwealth  statistician  and  for  the  delegation 

of  his  powers; 
(i8)  For  the  taking  of  a  census  in  1911,  and  every  tenth  year  thereafter; 
(3)  For  the  annual  collection  of  statistics  in  relation  to  all  or  any  of  the  following 

matters: 

(a)  Population. 

(b)  Vital,  Social,  and  Industrial  Matters. 

(c)  Employment  and  Non-employment. 

(d)  Imports  and  Exports. 

(e)  Interstate  Trade. 

(f)  Postal  and  Telegraphic  Matters. 

(g)  Factories,  Mines,  and  Productive  Industries  generally. 

(h)  Agricultural,    Horticultural,    Viticultm-al,    Dairying,    and    Pastoral 

Industries, 
(i)  Banking,  Instu-ance,  and  Finance, 
(j)  Railways,  Tramways,  Shipping,  and  Transport, 
(k)  Land  Tenure  and  Occupancy;  and 
(1)  Any  other  prescribed  matters. 

Under  the  authority  of  this  Act,  a  commonwealth  statis- 
tician was  appointed  early  in  1906,  and  as  it  appeared  desir- 
able that  the  nucleus  of  his  staff  should  be  appointed  from 
among  the  officers  of  the  existing  state  bureaus,  he  soon 
afterwards  undertook  a  journey  to  each  of  the  six  state 
capitals  in  order  to  inquire  into  the  methods  adopted  in 
the  collection  and  compilation  of  statistics,  the  qualifications 
of  individual  officers,  and  into  the  legal  and  administrative 
powers  possessed  by  the  different  bureaus  for  the  collection 
of  their  statistics.  On  his  return  he  made  certain  recom- 
mendations to  the  government,  and  soon  afterwards  a  num- 
ber of  officers  were  appointed,  so  that  the  Bureau  of  Census 
and  Statistics  was  able  to  commence  operations  in  November, 
1906. 

Practically  the  first  matter  of  importance  to  be  considered 
was  the  question  of  the  relations  between  the  Commonwealth 


AUSTRALIA  61 

Bureau  and  the  existing  state  bureaus.  Two  methods  of 
procedure  were  open  to  the  federal  government. 

The  first  was  the  complete  unification  of  all  statistical 
organizations  in  Australia.  If  this  had  been  adopted  the 
Commonwealth  Bureau  would  have  controlled  all  statistical 
work,  and  would  have  been  represented  in  each  state  by  a 
branch  office  which  would  have  undertaken  the  collection 
and  first  tabulation  of  statistical  data  under  the  direction  of 
the  central  bureau.  A  second  method  was  to  preserve  the 
internal  independence  of  the  state  bureaus,  and  to  arrange 
for  them  to  furnish  the  federal  bureau  with  data  compiled 
according  to  a  system  agreed  upon.  The  federal  govern- 
ment chose  the  second  method  as  being,  at  present,  and  in 
view  of  all  circimistances,  more  suitable  to  the  actual  con- 
dition of  Australian  statistics,  and  it  was  thereupon  resolved 
to  hold  a  conference  of  statisticians  which  should  discuss 
the  arrangements  to  be  made  in  order  to  satisfy  the  require- 
ments of  the  state  government  as  well  as  those  of  the  fed- 
eral government. 

A  statistical  conference  met  in  Melbourne  in  November 
and  December,  1906,  under  the  presidency  of  the  common- 
wealth statistician,  and  all  the  states  of  the  commonwealth 
were  represented  as  well  as  the  dominion  of  New  Zealand.  A 
number  of  resolutions  were  passed,  and  a  set  of  statistical 
forms  approved,  on  which  the  state  statisticians  undertook 
to  furnish  compilations  of  the  data  collected  in  their  respec- 
■  tive  states.  It  was  recognized,  however,  that  the  collection 
of  such  a  uniform  set  of  statistics  would  meet  with  difficul- 
ties in  those  states  whose  offices  were  insufficiently  staffed, 
and  a  further  resolution  was,  therefore,  unanimously  agreed 
to,  by  which  the  statisticians  undertook  to  make  represen- 
tations to  their  governments  in  regard  to  the  supply  of  the 
means  and  the  staff  necessary  to  the  carrying  out  of  their 
obligations  towards  the  Commonwealth  Bureau  of  Statis- 
tics. It  was  further  resolved  to  adopt,  in  the  compilation 
of  vital  statistics,  the  nosological  classification  of  the  Inter- 
national  Statistical  Institute.     At   the  wish  of  the  stat- 


62  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

isticians,  the  commonwealth  statistician  undertook  the 
preparation  of  a  translation  of  the  latest  French  issue  of  the 
classification. 

In  the  main,  relations  between  the  Commonwealth  Bureau 
and  the  state  bureaus  have  continued  on  the  basis  estab- 
lished by  the  1906  conference,  but  it  was  soon  found  neces- 
sary for  the  Commonwealth  Bureau  to  undertake  original 
compilations,  and  to  develop  the  scope  of  the  work  beyond 
the  mere  summarization  and  analysis  of  returns  furnished 
by  the  state  bureaus. 

The  first  branch  of  statistics  taken  over  for  compilation 
by  the  Commonwealth  Bureau  was  that  relating  to  com- 
merce and  shipping.  Beturns  are  received  direct  from  the 
various  customs  houses  and  compiled  in  this  Bureau.  Not- 
withstanding the  provisions  of  the  Census  and  Statistics 
Act,  it  has  been  found  necessary  to  omit  the  interstate  trade 
from  the  compilation  during  recent  years,  inasmuch  as  the 
Customs  Department  has  ceased  to  collect  data  in  relation 
thereto. 

It  was,  moreover,  soon  found  that  a  compilation  of  vital 
statistics,  based  on  the  compilations  made  in  the  six  state 
bureaus,  would  not  only  be  very  late  in  appearing,  but  would 
not  make  the  best  use  of  the  information  to  be  extracted 
from  the  registers  of  births,  deaths,  and  marriages,  it  being 
self-evident  that  the  pace  made  by  the  slowest  of  the  bureaus 
limited  the  Commonwealth  Bureau,  and  that  the  scope  of 
the  information  would  be  determined  by  the  bureau  making 
the  most  meager  use  of  the  information  at  its  command. 
It  was,  therefore,  decided  to  undertake  the  original  com- 
pilation of  vital  statistics  in  the  Commonwealth  Bureau, 
and  arrangements  were  made  under  which  the  registrars- 
general  of  the  states  supply  the  Bureau  quarterly  with  copies 
of  all  registrations  effected  in  their  states.  These  copies  are 
furnished  on  individual  cards,  and  enable  the  compilation  to 
progress  continuously  during  the  year,  so  that  the  Bureau 
now  finds  it  possible  to  issue  the  complete  vital   statistics 


AUSTRALIA  63 

of  the  commonwealth  about  six  months  after  the  completion 
of  the  year. 

It  has  been  stated  on  a  previous  page  that  the  New  South 
Wales  Statistical  Bureau  had  been  publishing  annually  since 
1891  "The  Seven  Colonies  of  Australasia,"  succeeded  later 
by  "A  Statistical  Account  of  Australia  and  New  Zealand." 
It  was  considered,  on  the  estabhshment  of  the  Common- 
wealth Bureau,  that  the  compilation  of  a  publication  of  that 
nature  properly  fell  within  the  sphere  of  the  federal  authori- 
ties, and  arrangements  were  therefore  made  for  the  publi- 
cation of  the  "OflBcial  Year  Book  of  The  Commonwealth," 
the  first  issue  of  which  appeared  in  1907,  and  which  has  been 
continued  annually  since  that  date.  The  publication  of 
the  "Statistical  Account"  came  to  an  end  in  1904. 

The  "Census  and  Statistics  Act,  1905  "  provided,  amongst 
other  things,  for  the  annual  collection  of  statistics  in  rela- 
tion to  industrial  matters,  and  to  employment  and  non- 
employment.  It  was  not  until  1910  that  this  work  could 
be  taken  in  hand.  An  inquiry  was  then  made  into  the  cost 
of  living  by  means  of  householders'  budgets  covering  the 
period  from  1st  July,  1910,  to  30th  June,  1911,  and  the  re- 
sults were  published  in  December,  1911.  This  was  followed 
in  December,  1912,  by  a  Report  on  Prices,  Price  Indexes, 
and  the  Cost  of  Living,  and  in  April,  1913,  by  a  further  Re- 
port on  Trade  Unionism,  Unemployment,  Wages,  Prices, 
and  Cost  of  Living,  1891  to  1912.  In  this  connection  an 
investigation  was  made  to  determine  the  technical  pro- 
cedure which  would  yield  satisfactory  results,  and  a  method 
of  aggregate  expenditure  on  a  complex-unit  was  adopted 
after  having  been  shown  to  have  the  maximum  theoretical 
as  well  as  practical  advantage.  Since  then  a  Labor  Bulle- 
tin has  been  published  quarterly  which  deals  with  the  fol- 
lowing matters : 

Industrial  Conditions. 

Unemployment. 

Retail  Prices,  House  Rent,  and  Cost  of  Living. 

Wholesale  Prices. 


64  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Industrial  Disputes. 

Changes  in  Rate  of  Wages. 

Assisted  Immigration. 

State  Free  Employment  Bureaus. 

Industrial  Accidents. 

Distribution  of  Wages  in  Manufacturing  Industries. 

Reports  from  Industrial  Centers  in  the  Several  States. 

Reports  of  Labor  Departments  and  Bureaus  in  Aus- 
tralia. 

Labor  Matters  Abroad  and  Imperial  and  Foreign  Pub- 
lications. 
In  accordance  with  the  "Census  and  Statistics  Act,"  the 
Commonwealth  Bureau  carried  out  the  first  Commonwealth 
Census  in  1911.  This  implied  the  employment  of  about 
400  enumerators  (supervisors  of  Census  Districts),  7,000 
collectors,  a  maximum  of  280  tabulators,  and  an  expendi- 
ture of  £170,000.  A  nnimber  of  preliminary  census  bulletins 
have  been  published,  and  the  complete  work,  including  a 
voluminous  report,  should  shortly  be  received  from  the 
printers. 

The  officers  at  the  head  of  the  several  statistical  bureaus 
of  Australia,  both  the  "statisticians"  themselves  and  their 
principal  officers,  have  received  their  training  through  prac- 
tical work.  This  has  been  necessitated  by  the  fact  that 
there  were  no  professional  courses  in  the  universities  having 
special  regard  to  statistics,  a  subject  which  has  not  been 
undertaken  by  the  Australian  universities.  At  the  present 
time,  however,  there  are  courses  on  commerce  and  economics 
in  Sydney  and  Melbourne.  It  is  perhaps  desirable  to  ex- 
plain that  both  in  the  commonwealth  and  in  the  states  there 
are  public  service  acts  in  existence  which  make  it  practically 
impossible,  with  the  exception  of  the  case  of  purely  profes- 
sional officers,  for  officers  to  be  appointed  to  the  service  after 
they  have  passed  a  certain  age  limit,  and  otherwise  than  to 
the  lowest  class  of  the  service.  It  follows,  therefore,  that 
the  statistical  bureaus  are  principally  recruited  from  raw 
material,  and  that  they  have  to  undertake  the  training  of 


AUSTRALIA  65 

their  own  officers.  Of  course  there  are  possibilities  of  trans- 
ferring suitable  officers  from  other  departments,  and  for 
transferring  officers  from  the  state  services  to  the  federal 
service.  This  system,  though  by  no  means  perfect,  works 
fairly  well,  in  those  offices  at  least  where  the  heads  take 
sufficient  interest  in  their  junior  officers  to  see  that  they  do 
not  merely  pick  up  the  routine  of  their  work,  but  that  they 
devote  some  of  their  spare  time  to  private  study.  The 
system,  however,  leaves  much  to  be  desired  and  could  be 
greatly  improved. 

A  list  of  publications  issued  by  the  Commonwealth  Bureau 
and  by  the  several  state  bureaus  is  appended.  The  list 
also  contains  those  publications  of  a  more  or  less  statistical 
nature  which  are  periodically  issued  by  other  government 
departments. 

Future  Development  of  Statistical  Organization 

The  defects  at  present  existing  in  the  statistical  organi- 
zation of  Australia  may  be  divided  into :  (1)  Administrative 
defects,  and  (2)  Defects  in  the  scope  of  the  statistics. 

With  respect  to  the  former,  it  may  be  said  that,  although 
as  regards  the  destinies  and  development  of  its  five  million 
people,  Australia  is  a  unity — and  consequently  its  statistics 
should  be  on  a  common  basis  throughout — ^there  is  at  pres- 
ent no  satisfactory  method  of  ensuring  xmiformity  in  the 
collection  of  data  and  in  the  compilation  of  its  statistics. 
For  so  small  a  population,  the  compilation,  for  the  entire 
continent,  one  would  think,  should  be  undertaken  at  one 
center,  at  the  earliest  possible  moment  and  in  a  uniform 
manner.  As  a  matter  of  fact  this  is  done  only  for  statistics 
of  population,  vital  statistics,  trade  and  shipping,  banking, 
insurance,  cost  of  living,  labor,  and  wages  statistics,  while 
the  important  fields  of  statistics  of  production,  involving 
agricultural,  pastoral,  dairying,  mining,  manufacturing, 
forestry  and  fisheries,  etc.,  are  independently  collected  and 
computed  by  individual  states,  and  there  is  no  one  center 
where  all  the  details  are  available  for  systematic  study.     It 


66  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

is  obvious  that  only  by  authoritative  direction  from  some 
one  central  authority  can  further  fuhdamental  improve- 
ment now  be  readily  secured.  Uniform  efficiency  in  the 
machinery  of  statistical  administration  in  the  several  states 
cannot  readily  be  secured  since  the  equipment  in  per- 
sonnel and  material  is  diflferent  in  each  state:  a  central 
bureau  is  powerless  to  remedy  this  without  being  in  gen- 
eral control.  Under  the  Census  and  Statistics  Act  of  the 
Commonwealth  adequate  powers  exist  to  do  all  that  is 
necessary,  and,  if  radical  improvement  is  to  be  effected,  it 
may  become  necessary  for  the  latent  powers  of  the  com- 
monwealth to  be  exercised  to  a  greater  extent  than  at 
present.  The  existing  scheme  is  only  a  modus  vivendi,  and 
appears  to  have  inherent  limitations  which  even  the  most 
cordial  response  on  the  part  of  the  state  statistical  authori- 
ties could  not  entirely  remove.  Administrative  direction 
as  regards  the  entire  scheme  of  collecting  and  compiling 
statistics  should  be  centralized.  This  would  secure  not  only 
uniformity  but  should  also  greatly  reduce  the  aggregate 
cost,  and  would,  moreover,  properly  subordinate  the  merely 
local  to  the  general  interest.  This  is  an  essential  for  any 
fundamental  improvement. 

Throughout  the  world,  social  and  economic  changes  are 
so  rapid  that  their  acciu-ate  statistical  measurement  becomes 
increasingly  important.  The  relations  of  labor  and  capital, 
moreover,  are  becoming  more  and  more  subject  to  state 
interference,  and  an  adequate  statistic  for  the  appraisement 
of  its  consequence  has  become  essential.  To  accurately 
appreciate  the  magnitude  of  the  dynamic  force  of  economic 
changes,  and  to  forecast  the  consequences  of  labor  and 
general  legislation,  there  never  was  a  greater  need  for  an 
appropriate  statistic.  Nor  was  there  ever  a  time  when 
statistics  were  more  needed  as  a  guide  to  future  legislation. 
The  necessary  data  need  to  be  compiled  and  statistical 
analyses  to  be  made.  In  this  connection  may  be  men- 
tioned such  features  as  variations  in  the  cost  of  living  due  to 
changes,  both  in  the  standard  and  in  the  prices  of  commodi- 


AUSTRALIA  67 

ties.  The  labor  policy  of  forcing  up  wages,  and  its  eco- 
nomic, industrial  and  political  consequences,  necessitate 
the  most  careful  study.  Considerations  of  this  nature  in- 
dicate that  future  legislation  will  do  well  to  be  guided  by 
statistical  research,  and  that  its  effects  need  to  be  subjected 
to  statistical  analysis. 

The  details  of  the  various  problems  will,  however,  no 
doubt  present  different  features  in  different  countries,  so 
that,  in  regard  to  international  cooperation,  there  can  only 
be  a  general  agreement  as  to  technique  and  method. 

In  connection  with  the  question  of  securing  the  largest 
possible  amount  of  international  cooperation,  it  may  be 
said,  that  for  comparative  purposes,  the  wider  the  range 
of  uniformity  the  more  valuable  will  be  the  statistics. 
To  bring  about  a  satisfactory  issue,  it  is  essential  that  some 
person  with  a  suflBcient  staff  shall  study  the  entire  scheme  and 
all  the  details  of  the  collection  and  compilation  of  the  statis- 
tics of  each  country.  By  means  of  such  a  study,  a  wide 
scheme  of  unification  could  be  developed  and  submitted 
for  the  consideration  of  the  statisticians  of  individual  coip- 
tries  for  their  criticisms  and  observations.  Thjs  draft, 
amended  after  receiving  such  criticism,  and  then  submitted 
to  an  international  conference,  would  probably  lead  to  val- 
uable results.  Nothing  short  of  this  will,  in  my  judgment, 
be  successful,  and  it  would  be  an  international  labor,  well 
worthy  to  be  undertaken.  The  International  Statistical 
Institute  is  already  moving  in  this  direction. 

The  mqde  of  selecting  and  appointing  officers  in  Australia 
has  already  been  referred  to.  Unquestionably  considerable 
improvement  can  be  made  in  securing  appropriate  quali- 
fication and  the  proper  training  of  statistical  officers.  A 
statistical  bureaiu  requires  two  classes  of  assistants,  namely: 

(1)  Tabulators,  compilers,  and  arithmetical  computers;  and 

(2)  mathematical  and  general  analysts. 

The  ordinary  tabulator,  compiler  and  computer  has,  in 
the  main,  merely  a  routine  occupation.  The  technique 
which  he  has  to  acquire  is  not  really  difficult,  and  his  daily 


68  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

activities  demand  little  more  than  arithmetical  expertness 
and  general  shrewdness.  He  may  be  said  to  belong  to  the 
army  of  superior  clerks,  and  to  possess  what  are  essentially 
clerical  qualifications. 

The  mathematical  and  general  analyst  and  higher  com- 
puter must,  in  addition  to  the  special  mathematical  knowl- 
edge, possess  considerable  powers  of  analysis,  aptitude  for 
original  research,  and  the  special  ability  to  penetrate  the 
hidden  significance  of  statistical  data  in  any  department 
to  which  he  may  apply  himself.  It  is  on  ability  of  this 
kind  that  the  just  interpretation  of  the  statistical  results 
depends,  and  for  this  reason  he  needs  to  be  a  man  of  higher 
education. 

Under  the  existing  scheme  in  Australia,  there  is  no  ade- 
quate official  provision  for  securing  men  of  the  necessary 
education  and  natural  aptitude.  It  hardly  needs  to  be 
pointed  out  that  routine  training  will  not  develop  the 
necessary  talent.  As  in  all  higher  callings,  it  is  essential 
to  make  a  selection  from  people  with  natural  endowments 
in  the  required  direction.  The  public  service  system  prob- 
ably everywhere  tends  to  appraise  mere  shrewdness  more 
highly  than  specialized  ability.  The  type  of  man  needed 
for  higher  statistical  work  is  the  scientific  type.  Because  of 
this,  and  because  the  officer  of  the  highest  qualffication 
loves  his  calling,  and  has  not  time  to  keep  superficial  attain- 
ments constantly  in  evidence,  he  is  in  perpetual  danger  of 
being  overlooked  in  so-called  official  advancement.  Ad- 
vance in  these  instances  should  be  possible  and  should  be 
awarded  for  increasing  efficiency  in  the  special  field.  The 
men  who  are  most  able  and  most  deVoted  to  their  special 
fields  will  have  the  least  time  to  devote  to  the  usual  methods 
of  attaining  advancement.  Since  the  very  character  of 
his  special  qualifications  tends  to  minimize  his  chances  of 
promotion,  it  is  necessary  to  place  its  financial  inducements 
on  a  higher  plane  than  those  of  mere  clerical  and  admin- 
istrative positions. 


AUSTRALIA  69 


APPENDIX 

Statistieal  Publications  of  Australia 

(I)  iNTKODtrcTOKT. — ^The  official  statistical  publications  of  Australia  may  be 
divided  bibliographically  into  two  main  divisions,  viz.: — (1)  Commonwealth  pub- 
lications dealing  both  individually  and  collectively  with  the  several  states  of  the 
commonwealth,  and  (2)  state  publications  dealing  with  individual  states  only. 
Besides  these  there  are  a  large  nimiber  of  publications  issued  regularly,  which, 
though  not  wholly  statistical,  necessarily  contain  a  consideiable  amount  of  statis- 
tical information.  These  are  included  in  the  lists  given  hereunder,  which  are 
revised  to  the  end  of  1913. 

(II)  Commonwealth  Ptiblications. — Commonwealth  publications  may  be 
grouped  under  two  heads,  viz.: — (a)  Publications  issued  by  the  Commonwealth 
Statistician,  and  (b)  Departmental  Reports  and  Papers. 

{a)  Publications  issued  by  the  Commonwealth  Statistician.  The  following  is 
a  list  of  statistical  publications  issued  from  the  Commonwealth  Bureau  of  Cen- 
sus and  Statistics  since  its  inauguration  and  up  to  31st  December,  1913. 
The  annual  Demography,  Finance,  Production,  and  Transport  and  Commimica- 
tion  Bulletins  cover  statistics  from  1901.  The  Year  Book  contains  figures  from 
earlier  years. 

Census  Bulletins — Jffo.  1 — ^Population  of  States  and  Territories;  No.  2 — 
Persons  of  Non-European  Race;  No.  3 — ^Ages;  No.  4 — Population  of  Coun- 
ties, Local  Government  Areas,  etc.;  No.  5 — ^Population  of  Electoral  Divi- 
sions, Provinces,  and  Districts;  No.  6 — Birthplaces;  No.  7 — ^Length  of  Resi- 
dence in  Australia;  No.  8— Religions;  No.  9 — ^Education;  No.  10 — Blindness 
and  Deafmutism;  No.  11 — Schooling;  No.  12 — Conjugal  Condition;  No. 
13 — ^Localities;  No.  14 — ^Mortality  Investigation;  No.  IS — Families;  No. 
16 — Occupations;  No.  17 — Occupied  Dwellings. 
Finance — Bulletins,  annually,  1907  to  1912. 

Labour  and  Industrial  Statistics — ^Explanatory  Memorandum  on  the  Proposed 
Scheme.    Report  No.  1 — ^Prices,  Price-Indexes  and  Cost  of  Living  in  Aus- 
tralia.   Report  No.  2 — ^Trade  Unionism,  Unemployment,  Wages,  Prices, 
and  Cost  of  Living  in  Australia,  1891  to  1912. 
Labour  Bulletins — Quarterly,  May,  August,  and  November,  1913. 
Inquiry  into  the  Cost  of  Living  in  Australia,  1910-11 — Reports  on  Prices,  Price 
Indexes,  and  the  Cost  of  Living,  1912.    Report  on  Trade  Unionism,  Unem- 
ployment, Wages,  Prices,  and  Cost  of  Living,  1913.    Labour  Bulletins 
(quarterly)  Nos.  1  to  4. 
Monthly  Summary  of  Australian  Statistics — Bulletins,  monthly,  since  January, 

1912. 
Population  and  Vital  Statistics  Bulletins — Determination  of  the  Population  of 
Australia,  1901  to  1906.    Commonwealth  Demography,  annually,  1906  to 
1910.    Vital  Statistics,  annually,  1907  to  1910.    Commonwealth  Demog- 


70  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

raphy  (.comprising  matter  previously  included  in  two  last-named  Bulletins) 
1911  and  1912.  Vital  Statistics,  quarterly,  1907  to  June,  1911.  The 
Nomenclature  of  Diseases  and  of  Causes  of  Death,  1907.  New  Edition, 
1910. 

Production — ^Bulletins,  annually,  1906  to  1911. 

Professional  Papers — ^No.  1 — ^The  Classification  of  Diseases  and  Causes  of 
Death,  from  the  standpoint  of  the  Statistician;  Nos.  2  and  3 — On  the  Influ- 
ence of  Infantile  Mortality  on  Birthrate  (2  papers) ;  No.  4 — On  the  Statistical 
Opportunities  of  the  Medical  Profession;  No.  6 — ^Tuberculosis  Duration 
Frequency  Curves,  and  the  number  of  existing  cases  ultimately  fatal;  No. 
6 — The  Problems  of  Statistics;  No.  7 — ^The  Evolution  and  Significance  of  the 
Census;  No.  8 — Census  Taking,  by  C.  H.  Wickens,  A.I.A.;  No.  9 — Studies 

p 
in  Statistical  Representation — On  the  nature  of  the  curve        ^   "*"*  ;  No. 

10 — Studies  in  Statistical  Representation — Statistical  Application  of  the 
Fourier  series;  No.  11 — Suicide  in  Australia;  No.  12 — ^An  Extension  of 
the  Principle  Underlying  Woolhouse's  Method  of  Graduation,  by  C.  H. 
Wickens,  A.I.A.;  No.  13 — ^The  First  Commonwealth  Census;  No.  14 — 
Mathematical  Analysis  of  CK^iatological  Physiology;  No.  16 — The  Inter- 
national Nosological  Classification,  etc.;  No.  16 — Secular  Progress  of  Pul- 
monary Tuberculosis  and  Cancer,  etc.;  No.  17 — The  Improvement  in  Infan- 
tile Mortality,  etc.;  No.  18 — Secular  and  Annual  Fluctuations  of  Deaths 
from  Several  Diseases,  etc. 

Railway  Statistics — ^Report  on  the  Desirability  of  Improved  Statistics  of 
Government  Railways  in  Australia,  February,  1909. 

Shipping — Shipping  and  Oversea  Migration,  annually,  1906  to  1912. 

Social  Insurance — ^Report  to  the  Hon.  the  Minister  of  Trade  and  Customs. 

Superannuation  for  the  Commonwealth  Public  Service — ^Report  to  the  Hon.  the 
Minister  of  Home  Affairs. 

The  Australian  Commonwealth:  Its  Resources  and  Production — Annually,  1908 
to  1913. 

Trade  and  Customs — ^Trade,  and  Customs  and  Excise  Revenue,  annually,  1906 
to  1912. 

Trade,  Shipping,  and  Oversea  Migration — ^Monthly,  January,  1907,  to  De- 
cember, 1911  (now  discontinued;  issued  as  part  of  Monthly  Summary  of 
Australian  Statistics). 

Transport  and  Communicaiion — Bulletins,  annually,  1906  to  1912. 

Social  Statistics — Bulletins,  annually,  1907  to  1911. 

Official  Year  Book  of  the  Commonwealth — Aimually,  1907  to  1912. 

Pocket  Compendium  of  Commonwealth  Statistics — Official  Statistics,  1913. 
(6)  Commonwealth  Parliamentary  and  Departmental  Reports  and  Papers.    The 
following  are  the  principal  official  reports  and  papers  containing  statistical  matter 
which  have  been  issued  since  the  inauguration  of  the  commonwealth: 

Arbitration  Coiui;:    Returns  of  Awards,  Conferences,  Agreements,  etc. 

Australia  for  Farmers,  1910. 

Australia:    The  Wheat  Country. 

Australian  Notes:  Correspondence  relating  to  the  Gold  Reserve  in  respect  of 
the  issue  of. 


AUSTRALIA  71 

Budget,  annual,  1901-02  to  1913-14. 

Chief  of  the  General  Staff:    Memo,  re  Defence. 

Commonwealth  Bank:    Balance  Sheets  and  Reports  of  Auditor-General. 

Commonwealth  Factories:    Reports  on  Clothing,  Cordite,  Small  Arms,  and 

Harness  and  Leather  Factories. 
Commonwealth  Meteorologist:    Bulletins  of  Climate  and  Meteorology  of 

Australia;  Rainfall  Maps  of  Australia;  Professional  Papers  and  Charts 

(various);  Monthly  Meteorological  Reports,  commencing  January,  1910. 
Commonwealth  Military  Journal,  issued  quarterly,  April,  1911,  to  October, 

1913. 
Contract  Immigrants  Act  and  Immigration  Restriction  Act:  Returns  annually, 

1902  to  1912. 
Defence:    Inspector-General  of  Military  Forces:    Reports,   1905  to   1907. 

Extracts  from  Report,  annual,  1910  to  1913. 
Defence:    Memorandimi  on  Australian  Military  Defence  and  its  progress  since 

Federation. 
Defence:    Memorandum  on  the  Defence  of  Australia,  by  Field-Marshal  Lord 

Kitchener. 
Defence:    Military  Board — Reports,  1905  and  1906. 

Defence:    Naval  Defence  of  Australia — Memorandum  by  Admiral  Sir  Regi- 
nald Henderson. 
Defence:    Report  on  Dockyards,  Canteens  at  Camps,  Royal  Military  College, 

Universal  Training,  Cadets,  Organization  and  Distribution,  etc. 
Director  of  Naval  Forces:    Report  for  1906. 
Electoral  Act:  Commissioners'  Special  Reports. 

Electoral  Rolls:    Statement  by  Commonwealth  Statistician  re  Inflation. 
Electoral  Statistical  Returns  re  Referenda  of  1911  and  1913. 
Electoral  Statistics  of  Commonwealth  Elections:    1903,  1906,  1910  and  1913. 
Estimates:    1901-2  to  1913-14.    Also  Supplementary  Estimates. 
Federal  Capital  City  Designs. 
Fisheries:    Reports  of  the  Director  on  Fishing  Experiments  carried  out  by  the 

F.I.S.  "Endeavour." 
Fisheries:    Reports  on  Pearling  Industry. 

Fisheries:    Zoological  Results  of  Fishing  Experiments.    Parts  1  to  3. 
Fleet  Unit:  Memorandimi  re  arrangement  for  providing  and  training  personnel . 
Fruit  Industry:    Report  of  Royal  Commission. 
Handbooks  of  the  Territory  of  Papua. 
High  Commissioner  of  the  Commonwealth:    Reports,  annual,  1910  to  1912. 

Reports  on  Australian  Butter  Market  in  England.    Visit  to  Canada  and 

United  States. 
Home  Affairs:    Schedule  of  the  Department,  compiled  from  the  Minister's 

Digests.    Nos.  1  to  14. 
Invalid  and  Old-Age  Pensions:    Statements  re. 
Land  Tax  Assessment  Act:    Annual  Reports  of  Commissioner,  1910-11  an  V 

1911-12. 
Lands  and  Surveys:    Report  of  Confeience  of  Commonwealth  Director  and 

States  Surveyors-General . 
Lighthouses:    Reports  of  I  nspections,  etc. 


72  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Manufactures  Eucouragement  Act:    Returns  of  Bounties  Paid;  annual. 

Military  and  Naval  Forces  Lists.    Also  Cadet  Forces  Lists. 

Naturalization  Act  1903 :    Returns. 

Northern  Territory:    Bulletins  Nos.  1  to  8. 

Northern  Territory:  Report  of  the  Government  Resident  for  1910  (previous 
reports  to  Government  of  South  Australia). 

Northern  Territory:  Report  of  the  Acting  Administrator  for  1911.  Admin- 
istrator's Report,  1912. 

Northern  Territory:    Reports,  various. 

Papua:    Reports,  annual,  1904-5  to  1911-12,  and  returns  to  accompany  same. 

Papua:    Reports,  various. 

Parliamentary  Papers  (miscellaneous);  Reports  of  Committees,  Commissions, 
Conferences,  etc. 

Patents  Statistics,  1904  to  1913. 

Postal  Services  Royal  Commission. 

Postmaster-General's  Department:     Annual  Reports,  1910  and  1911-12. 

Postmaster-General's  Department:  Statement  of  Business  transacted  and 
details  of  Receipts  and  Expenditure,  1907,  1908  and  1909. 

Press  Cable  Subsidy:    Amount  paid,  etc. 

Public  Service  Commissioner:  Report,  1901-4,  and  Annual  Reports,  1905  to 
1912,  and  Public  Service  Lists,  1903  to  1912-13. 

Quarantine:    Reports. 

Railways:  Reports,  various,  re  Gauges  of  Australian  Railways,  Unification  of 
Gauges,  etc. 

Railways:    Reports  of  Engineei^in-Chief. 

Representation  Act  1905:    Retiu-ns. 

Royal  Commission  on  Tasmanian  Customs  Leakage. 

Secret  Remedies:    Based  on  British  Medical  Association's  Analyses. 

Social  Insurance:  Report  by  the  Hon.  Sir  John  Cockbum  on  the  Hague 
Conference  of  1910. 

Sugar:  Statistics,  1901-2  to  1910-11  re  White  and  Black  Labour,  Production, 
Duties,  Excise,  Bounties,  etc. 

Sugar  Industry:    Report  of  Royal  Commission. 

Tariff  Guide:     1903  to  1912.    Also  Tariff  Schedules. 

Trade  and  Customs  Returns,  1903  to  1905;  compiled  by  the  New  South  Wales 
Government  Statistician  for  the  Minister  for  Customs. 

Trade  Marks  Statistics,  1904  to  1913. 

Treasurer's  Statements  and  Reports  of  Auditor-General,  annual,  1901-2  to 
1911-12. 

Treasury  Notes:  Amounts  issued  to  the  respective  Banks  of  the  Common- 
wealth. 

Treasury  Statements  of  Receipts  and  Expenditure,  issued  quarterly  in  the 
Commonwealth  Gazette. 

Tropical  Diseases:    Report  by  Dr.  Breinl. 

(Ill)  State  Publications. — The  chief  statistical  publications  of  each  state 
issued  since  Federation  may  be  most  conveniently  grouped  under  the  following 
heads,  viz.: — (a)  PubUcations  issued  by  the  government  statist,  (6)  parliamentary 


AUSTRALIA  73 

and  departmental  reports  and  papers,  and  (c)  reports  and  statements  of  local  and 
public  bodies.    These  are  set  out  hereunder  for  each  state: 

(o)  New  South  Waibs. — (1)  Publications  by  Government  Statistician: 
The  Wealth  and  Progress  of  New  South  Wales,  1900-1. 
The  Seven  Colonies  of  Australasia,  1901-2. 

A  Statistical  Accoimt  of  Australia  and  New  Zealand,  1902-3,  1903-4. 
The  Official  Year  Book  of  New  South  Wales,  1904-5  to  1912. 
Six  States  of  Australia  and  New  Zealand  (annual  statistics),  1901  to  1905. 
Monthly  Statistical  Bulletin,  1905  to  September,  1913. 
Statistical  Registers,  1901  to  1911,  and  1912  (parts). 
Census  of  New  South  Wales,  1901. 

Vital  Statistics  (annual),  1901  to  1912;  and  monthly  issues  to  September,  1913. 
Agricultural  and  Live  Stock  Statistics,  1901  to  1912. 
Statistical  View  of  the  Progress  of  New  South  Wales  during  50  years,  1856  to 

1906. 
Friendly  Societies'  Experience,  New  South  Wales,  1900-8. 
Comparative  Legislation  relating  to  the  Industrial  Classes. 
Population  of  New  South  Wales  and  movements  of  population  between  New 

South  Wales  and  other  Countries,  quarterly,  December,  1911,  to  June,  1913. 
Annual  and  other  Reports  on  Agricultural,  Dairying,  and  Pastoral  Industries, 

on  Manufactories  and  Works,  and  on  Value  of  Production. 
Statesman's  Year  Book,  1913. 
(2)  Departmental  Papers,  Annual  Reports  of: 
Aborigines. 
Australian  Museum. 
Board  of  Public  Health. 
Chief  Commissioner  of  Railways. 
Chief  Medical  Officer. 
Comptroller-General  of  Prisons. 
Department  of  Agriculture. 
Department  of  Crown  Lands. 
Department  of  Mines. 
Department  of  Police. 
Department  of  Public  Works. 
Director  of  Botanical  Gardens  and  Domain. 
Director  of  Labour. 
Factories  and  Shops  Act;  Minimiun  Wage  Act;  Early  Closing  Acts;  Shearers' 

Accommodation  Act,  etc. 
Fisheries  Board. 
Forestry  Department. 
Government  Bureau  of  Microbiology. 
Government  Railways,  Superannuation  Account. 
Government  Savings  Bank. 
Immigration  and  Tourist  Bureau. 
Indtxstrial  Schools. 
Inspector-General  of  Insane. 
Labour  Commissioners. 
Leprosy  (Board  of  Health). 


74  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Miners'  Accident  Relief  Fund. 

Minister  of  Public  Instruction. 

National  Art  Gallery. 

National  Park  Trust. 

Pharmacy  Board. 

Public  Disaster  Relief  Fund. 

Public  Library. 

Public  Service  Board. 

Registrar  of  Friendly  Societies,  Building  Societies,  and  Trade  Unions. 

Registrar-General. 

Sayings  Bank. 

State  Brickworks. 

State  Children's  Relief  Board. 

State  Debt  Commissioners. 

Superintendent  of  Carpenterian  Reformatory. 

Technological  Museums. 

University  of  Sydney. 

Western  Land  Board. 

Public  Service  Lists. 

The  Estimates  of  Revenue  and  Expenditure. 

Parliamentary  Papers  (miscellaneous);  Reports  of  Committees,  Commissions, 
Conferences,  etc. 

Trade  Reports,  various. 

Observatory  Reports  and  Bulletins. 

Public  Accounts  and  Report  of  the  Auditor-General. 

Treasiirer's  Financial  Statement,  and  Papers  to  accompany. 

General  Election,  1910.    Double  Voting.    Synopsis  of  the  Voting. 

The  New  South  Wales  Industrial  Gazette  (monthly). 

State  Contracts  for  the  Public  Service. 

Agricultural  Gazette  (monthly). 

Records  of  the  Geological  Survey. 

Statement  of  Assets  and  Liabilities  of  Public  Companies  (quarterly). 

Statement  of  Assets  and  Liabilities  of  Banks  (quarterly). 

Quarterly  Return  of  Gold  Yields. 
(3)  Reports  and  Statements  of  Local  Bodies: 

Annual  Statements  of  Municipalities. 

Eire  Commissioners  (formerly  Fire  Brigades  Board). 

Hospitals. 

Hunter  District  Water  Supply  and  Sewerage  Board. 

Metropolitan  Board  of  Water  Supply  and  Sewerage. 

OfiBcial  Handbook  of  the  Port  of  Sydney. 

Sydney  Harbour  Trust  Commissioners. 

Town  Clerk  of  the  City  of  Sydney. 
(6)  Victoria. — (1)  Publications  hy  the  Government  Statist: 

Statistical  Re^sters,  1901  to  1911,  and  1912  (parts). 

The  Victorian  Year  Books,  1902  to  1911-12,  and  1912-13  (parts). 

Quarterly  Statistical  Abstracts,  1904  to  30th  June,  1913. 

Quarterly  Returns  of  Vital  Statistics,  1901  to  30th  June,  1913. 


AUSTRALIA  75 

Vital  Statistics,  1911  and  1912. 

Monthly  Returns  of  Oversea  Imports  and  Exports,  1901  to  September,  1913. 
Statistics  of  Manufactories,  Works,  etc.,  1901  to  1911. 
Australasian  Statistics,  1901-2,  with  Summaries  for  Previous  Years. 
The  First  Fifty  Years  of  Responsible  Government  in  Victoria,  1866  to  1906. 
Census  of  Victoria,  1901. 

Annual  Reports  on  Agricultural,  Viticultural,  Dairying,  and  Pastoral  Indus- 
tries, and  on  Value  of  Production. 
ASnnual  Report  on  Friendly  Societies. 
Annual  Report  on  Trade  Unions. 
(2)  Departmental  Papers,  Annual  Reports  of: 
Board  for  the  Protection  of  Abori^es. 
Board  of  Public  Health. 
Board  of  Visitors,  Observatory. 
Chief  Engineer  for  Railway  Construction. 
Chief  Inspector  of  Explosives. 
Chief  Inspector  of  Factories,  Workrooms  and  Shops. 
Coal  Miners'  Accidents  Relief  Fund. 
Committee  of  Public  Accounts. 
Conservator  of  Forests. 
Council  of  Judges. 
Council  of  Public  Education. 
Department  of  Agriculture. 
Department  of  Crown  Lands  and  Survey. 
Government  Astronomer. 
General  Manager  of  State  Coal  Mines. 
Indeterminate  Sentences  Board. 
Inspector  of  Charitable  Institutions. 
Inspector-General  of  the  Insane. 
Inspector  of  Inebriates'  Institutions. 
Inspector  of  Neglected  Children  and  Reformatory  Schools. 
Inspector-General  of  Penal  Establishments,  Gaols,  and  Reformatory  Prisons. 
Inspector-General  of  Savings  Banks. 
Lands  Purchase  and  Management  Board. 
Licenses  Reduction  Board. 
Marine  Board  of  Victoria. 
Minister  of  Public  Instruction. 
Parliamentary  Standing  Committee  on  Railways. 
Public  Service  Commissioner. 
Registrar  of  Friendly  Societies. 
Railways  Commissioners. 
Secretary  for  Mines. 

State  Rivers  and  Water  Supply  Commission. 
Trustees  of  the  Public  Library,  Museums,  and  National  Gallery. 
Vice-Chancellor  of  Melbourne  University. 
Public  Service  List. 

Accounts  of  the  Trustees  of  Agricultural  Colleges  and  the  Council  of  Agricul- 
tural Education. 


76  MEMOEIAL  VOLUME 

The  Budget. 

Returns  under  the  Banks  and  Currency  Act  1890,  the  Companies  Act  1890,  and 
the  Electric  Light  and  Power  Act  1896. 

Parliamentary  Papers  (miscellaneous);  Reports  of  Committees,  Commissions, 
Conferences,  etc. 

Statement  of  Expenditure  imder  the  Constitution  Statute. 

The  Estimates  of  Revenue  and  Expenditure. 

Treasurer's  Statement  and  Report  of  the  Auditor-General. 

Determinations  of  Wages  Boards. 

The  Law  relating  to  Factories  and  Shops  in  Victoria. 

Agricultural  Journal  (monthly). 

Register  of  Teachers  and  Register  of  Schools. 

Quarterly  Returns  of  Yield  of  Goldfields. 

Memoirs  and  Bulletins  of  the  Geological  Survey. 

Vaccination  Progress  Report. 

Bank  Liabilities  and  Assets. 
(3)  Reports  of  Local  Bodies: 

Annual  Reports  of  the  Melbourne  Harbour  Trust  Commission. 

Aimual  Reports  of  the  Fire  Brigades  Board. 

Annual  Statements  of  Municipal  and  Shire  Councils. 

Geelong  Municipal  Waterworks  Trust. 

Hospitals. 

Report  and  Statement  of  Tramways  Trust. 

Statement  of  Accounts  of  the  Melbourne  and  Metropolitan  Board  of  Works, 
and  Report, 
(c)  Queensland. — (1)  Publicaiions  by  Government  Statistician: 

The  Queensland  Official  Year  Book,  1901. 

The  Census  of  1901. 

A.B.C.  of  Queensland  Statistics,  1905  to  1913. 

Vital  Statistics  (annual),  1901  to  1912;  and  monthly  issues  to  September,  1913. 

Statistical  Registers,  1901  to  1912. 

Annual  Reports  on  Agricultural,  Dairying,  and  Pastoral  Statistics, 
(2)  Departmental  Papers,  Annual  Reports  of  the: 

Agent-General. 

Bureau  of  Sugar  Experiment  Stations. 

Chief  Protector  of  Aboriginals. 

Chief  Lispector  of  Machinery  and  Scaffolding. 

Commissioner  of  Public  Health. 

Commissioner  of  Income  Tax. 

Commissioner  of  Police. 

Commissioner  for  Railways. 

Comptroller-General  of  Prisons. 

Curator  of  Intestate  Estates. 

Department  of  Agriculture  and  Stock. 

Department  of  Public  Lands. 

Department  of  Public  Works. 

Director  of  Forests. 

Director  of  Labour  and  Chief  Inspector  of  Factories  and  Shops. 


AUSTRALIA  77 

Engineer  for  Harbovirs  and  Rivers. 

Government  Analyst. 

Government  Central  Sugar  Mills. 

Government  Life  Insurance  and  Annuity  Business. 

Government  Resident  at  Thursday  Island. 

Government  Savings  Bank. 

Hydraulic  Engineer  on  Water  Supply. 

Immigration  Agent. 

Inspector  of  Hospitals  for  the  Insane. 

Inspector  of  Orphanages. 

Institute  of  Tropical  Medicine. 

Manager  of  the  Government  Savings  Bank. 

Marine  Department. 

Medical  Inspector  of  Schools. 

Officer  in  Charge,  Government  Relief. 

Official  Trustee  in  Insolvency. 

Public  Service  Board. 

Registrar  of  Friendly  Societies,  Building  Societies,  and  Trade  Unions. 

Secretary  for  Public  Instruction. 

State  Children's  Department. 

Trustees  of  the  Agricultural  Bank. 

Trustees  of  the  National  Art  Gallery. 

Trustees  of.  the  Public  Library. 

UndeivSecretary  for  Mines. 

University  of  Queensland. 

Workers'  Dwellings  Board. 

Blue  Book. 

Public  Service  Lists. 

The  Estimates  of  Revenue  and  Expenditure. 

Parliamentary  Papers  (miscellaneous);  Reports  of  Committees,  Commissions, 
Conferences,  etc. 

Public  Accounts  and  Report  of  the  Auditor-General. 

Treasurer's  Financial  Statement  and  Tables  relating  thereto. 

Determinations  of  Wages  Boards. 

Agricultmal  Journal  (monthly). 

The  Queensland  Sugar  Industry,  1913. 

Reports  of  the  Geological  Survey. 

Monthly  Reports  on  Mining,  Crown  Lands,  etc. 
(3)  Reports  and  Statements  of  Local  Bodies: 

Brisbane  Board  of  Waterworks. 

Bimdaberg  Harbour  Board. 

Engineer  for  Harbours  and  Rivers. 

Hospitals,  Sanatoria,  Asylums,  etc. 

Annual  Statements  of  Municipalities. 

Metropolitan  Water  and  Sewerage  Board, 
(d)  South  Australia. — (1)  Publicaiions  by  the  Under-Secretary  and  Government 
Statist: 

Statistical  Registers,  1901  to  1911,  and  1912  (parts). 


78  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

MontMy  Returns  of  Births  and  Deaths,  1901  to  September,  1913. 
OflScial  Year  Book  of  South  Australia,  1912  and  1913. 
The  Census  of  1901. 
Blue  Book. 

Statistical  Summary  of  South  Australia  from  its  (oimdation,  1836  to  1910. 
Annual  Reports  on  Manufactories  and  Works,  Live  Stock,  Wheat  Harvest, 
Agricultural  and  Viticultural  Statistics. 

(2)  Departmental  Papers,  Annual  Reports  of  the: 
Actuary  on  Friendly  Societies  1900-4,  and  1905-9. 
Agent-General. 

Audit-Commissioner. 

Chief  Inspector  of  Factories. 

Chief  Inspector  of  Fisheries. 

Chief  Inspector  of  Oyster  Fisheries. 

Chief  Inspector  of  Stock. 

Commissioner  of  Police. 

Commissioner  of  Railways. 

Conmiissioners  of  the  National  Park. 

Department  of  Public  Works. 

Department  of  Woods  and  Forests. 

Destitute  Board. 

Gaols  and  Prisons. 

Government  Astronomer. 

Government  Geologist. 

Government  Resident  of  Northern  Territory  to  1909  (subsequent  reports  to 

Commonwealth  Government). 
Governors  of  the  Public  Library,  Museum,  and  Art  Gallery. 
Hospital  for  the  Insane. 
Marine  Board. 
Minister  for  Agriculture. 
Minister  for  Education. 
Public  Service  Superannuation  Board. 
Registrar-General  of  Births,  Deaths,  and  Marriages. 
Registrar  of  Trade  Unions. 
State  Children's  Council. 
Smrveyop-General. 
Trustees  of  the  Savings  Bank. 
Parliamentary  Papers  (miscellaneous);  Reports  of  Committees,  Commissions. 

Conferences,  etc. 
The  Estimates  of  Revenue  and  Expenditure. 

Financial  Statement  of  the  Treasurer  and  appendices  relating  thereto. 
Determinations  of  Wages  Boards. 

Mining  Operations:  Halt-Yearly  Reviews,  1904  to  1913. 
Records  and  Reports  of  Geological  Survey. 
Journal  of  the  Department  of  Agriculture  (monthly). 

(3)  Reports  and  Statements  of  Local  Bodies: 
Hospitals. 

Schools  of  Mines  and  Industries. 


AUSTRALIA  79 

Fire  Brigades  Boards. 

Municipal  Tramways  Trust. 

City  of  Adelaide  Year  Book. 

Municipalities. 

East  Torrens  County  Board  of  Health, 
(e)  Western  Australia. — (1)  Publications  by  Government  Statistician: 

The  Census  of  1901. 

Statistical  Registers,  1901  to  1911  and  1912  (parts). 

Monthly  Statistical  Abstracts,  1901  to  September,  1913. 

Year  Book  of  Western  Australia,  1900-3,  1902-4,  1905  (part). 

Quarterly  and  Annual  Reports  on  Population  and  Vital  Statistics. 

Monthly  Return  of  Vital  Statistics. 

Crop  and  Live  Stock  Returns. 

Blue  Book. 

Statistical  View  of  84  years'  progress  in  Western  Australia,  1829  to  1912. 

Comparative  Statistics,  1890  to  1912. 

Annual  Reports  on  Agricultural,  etc..  Statistics. 

Report  on  Interstate  Trade  Returns  for  the  Two  Years  1911  and  1912. 
(2)  Departmental  Papers,  Annual  Reports  of  the: 

Aborigines  Department. 

Agent-General. 

Agricultural  Bank. 

Art  Galleries. 

Chief  Inspector  of  Explosives. 

Chief  Inspector  of  Fisheries. 

Commissioner  of  Police. 

Commissioner  of  Railways. 

Conmiissioner  of  Taxation. 

Comptroller-General  of  Prisons. 

Department  of  Agriculture. 

Department  of  Lands  and  Surveys. 

Department  of  Mines. 

Department  of  Public  Works. 

Department  of  Woods  and  Forests. 

Education  Department. 

Geological  Survey. 

Government  Analyst. 

Government  Astronomer. 

Government  Labour  Bureau. 

Government  Savings  Bank. 

Harbour  and  Light  Department. 

Inspector-General  of  Insane. 

Lands  Titles  Department. 

Museum  and  Art  Gallery. 

Public  Library. 

Principal  Medical  Officer  on  Medical,  Health,  Factories,  Early  Closing,  Vac- 
cination and  Quarantine. 

Public  Service  Commissioner. 


80  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Registrar  of  Friendly  Societies. 

Registrar  of  Friendly  Societies  in  connection  with  Industrial  Conciliation  and 
Arbitration,  and  Trade  Unions. 

Stock  Department. 

Superintendent  of  Charities  and  Inspector  of  Industrial  and  Reformatory 
Schools. 

Surveyor-General. 

Parliamentary  Papers  (miscellaneous);  Reports  of  Committees,  Commissions, 
Conferences,  etc. 

The  Estimates  of  Revenue  and  Expenditure. 

Public  Accounts  and  Report  of  the  Auditor-General. 

Agricultural  Journal  (monthly). 

Reports  of  proceedings  before  Boards  of  Conciliation  and  Court  of  Arbitration. 

Bulletins  of  the  Department  of  State  Medicine  and  Public  Health. 

Reports  and  Bulletins  of  the  Geological  Survey. 

Government  Savings  Bank,  Comparative  Return  (monthly) . 

Western  Australia,  1912. 
(3)  Ueparts  and  Statements  of  Local  Bodies: 

Cemetery  Boards. 

Fire  Brigades. 

Fremantle  Harbour  Trust  Commissioners. 

Fremantle  Municipal  Tramways  and  Electric  Lighting  Board. 

Metropolitan  Waterworks  Board. 

Municipalities,  Road  Boards,  and  Boards  of  Health. 

Public  Hospitals. 

Waterworks  Boards  (country). 
(f)  Tasmania. — (1)  Publications  by  Government  Statistician: 

The  Census  of  1901. 

Statistical  Registers,  1901  to  1911-12. 

Reports  on  Vital  Statistics  and  Migration  (annual),  1901  to  1911;  and  monthly 
issues  to  October,  1912. 

Reports  on  Agricultural  and  Live  Stock  Statistics,  1901  to  1911-12. 

Statistical  Summaries,  1901  to  1910-11. 

Gold  Yield  for  1908  and  previous  10  years. 

Annual  Reports  on  Agricultural  Production,  etc..  Statistics. 

The  Statistician's  Pocket  Year  Book  of  Tasmania,  1913. 
^2)  Departmental  Papers,  Annual  Reports  of  the: 

Agent-General. 

Agriculttu-al  Bank  of  Tasmania. 

Charitable  Grants  Department. 

Chief  Inspector  of  Factories. 

Chief  Inspector  of  Stock. 

Commissioner  of  Taxes. 

Department  of  Agriculture. 

Department  of  Education. 

Department  of  Mines. 

Department  of  Neglected  Children. 

Department  of  Public  Health. 


AUSTRALIA  81 

Engineer-in-Chief  of  Public  Works. 

Explosives  Department. 

General  Manager  of  Government  Railways. 

Hobart  and  Launceston  Gaols. 

Inspector  of  Machinery. 

Lands  and  Survey  Department. 

Museum  and  Botanical  Gardens. 

Police  Department. 

Public  Library. 

Public  Service  Board. 

Recorder  of  Titles. 

Registrar  of  Friendly  Societies  and  Trade  Unions. 

Savings  Bank. 

University  of  Tasmania. 

Public  Service  List. 

The  Budget. 

The  Estimiates  of  Revenue  and  Expenditure. 

Parliamentary  Papers  (miscellaneous);  Reports  of  Committees,  Commissions, 

Conferences,  etc. 
Public  Debts  Sinking  Fund. 
Report  of  the  Auditor-General. 
Financial  Statement  of  the  Treasurer. 
Wages  Boards  Determinations. 
Geological  Survey  Bulletins. 
Progress  of  the  Mineral  Industry  (quarterly). 
(3)  Reports  and  Statements  of  Local  Bodies: 
Country  Libraries. 
Fire  Brigade  Board. 
Harbour  Trusts. 
Hobart  Drainage  Board. 
Hospitals. 
Industrial  Schools. 
Life  Assurance  Societies. 
Marine  Boards. 
Municipalities. 


AUSTRIA 


THE  fflSTORY  AND  DEVELOPMENT  OF  GOVERN- 
MENT STATISTICS  IN  AUSTRIA 

By  Dr.  Robebt  Meter* 

Privy  Councillor,  former  Minister  of  Finance,  late  President  of  the  Imperial  and 
Royal  Central  Statistical  Commission 

I.  The  Development  of  Government  Statistix;s  in  Austria  up 
to  the  Establishment  of  the  Imperial  and  Royal  Central 
Statistical  Commission  {1863) 

The  beginnings  of  government  statistics  in  Austria  extend 
far  back  into  the  past. 

Apart  from  the  periodical  commercial,  financial,  and  mil- 
itary surveys,  made  in  the  reigns  of  Maximilian  I  and  Charles 
V,  which  were  very  imperfect  technically,  our  interest  is 
especially  attracted  in  the  more  remote  period  by  the  at- 
tempts of  Maria  Theresa  and  Joseph  II,  whose  aim  it  was 
to  ascertain  the  movement  of  the  population  by  censuses 
varying  in  extent. 

The  rescripts  of  October  13,  1753,  and  of  January  7  and 
February  16,  1754,  ordered  a  double  census  of  the  real,  i.e., 
present,  population  according  to  sex,  age  and  citizenship. 

By  the  rescripts  of  April  24  and  May  22,  1762,  a  regular 
investigation  of  the  movement  of  the  population  was  insti- 
tuted. 

The  imperial  charter  of  March  10,  1770,  ordained  a  num- 
bering of  all  dwellings,  both  inhabited  and  uninhabited,  as 
well  as  a  description  of  the  whole  native  population,  with  a 
detailed  section  referring  to  the  male  sex  only.  The  charter 
of  December  17,  1777,  at  last  ordered  a  detailed  survey  of 
both  sexes,  an  inventory  of  the  beasts  of  burden,  and  that 
a  record  of  the  data  ascertained  should  be  kept  in  the  so- 
called  "census  books." 

But  it  was  not  until  the  separation  of  the  imperial  patri- 

*Dr.  Meyer  died  in  May,  1914,  shortly  after  the  compilation  of  this  article. — ^Ed. 


86  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

monial  dominions  from  the  Roman-German  Empire  and 
their  inclusion,  constitutionally  and  administratively,  in 
the  Empire  of  Austria,  that  a  number  of  government 
measures  were  brought  to  a  head,  which  had  in  view  the 
organization  of  continuous  statistics  in  all  possible  branches 
of  the  administration.  First  of  all  by  the  charter  (patent) 
of  October  25,  1804,  and  then,  on  the  same  basis,  by  the 
imperial  decree  of  September  2, 1817,  the  Emperor  Francis  I 
ordained  conscription  (the  conscript  system)  for  nearly 
all  the  countries  united  under  his  rule. 

The  chief  aim  of  conscription  was  the  dedication  of  qual- 
ified individuals  to  military  service.  By  this  enactment 
dwelling-houses  were  counted  and  numbered;  a  survey  of 
the  population,  with  its  increase  and  departures,  was  made; 
a  census  of  the  male  population  was  taken  and  individuals 
were  classified;  lastly  a  census  was  made  of  the  various 
kinds  of  live  stock.  Apart  from  some  unimportant  changes, 
the  census  system  in  the  monarchy  now  remained  stationary 
till  the  fifties  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

The  efforts  of  Konferenzrat  Baron  von  Baldacci  and  of 
Count  O'Donnel,  president  of  the  exchequer,  led  Emperor 
Francis  to  suggest  the  estabhshment  of  a  statistical  depart- 
ment in  the  exchequer. 

This  was  done  in  a  document  addressed  to  Prince  Kohary, 
vice-president  of  the  exchequer,  the  duties  of  the  suggested 
department  having  special  reference  to  agricultural  statistics. 
The  plan  failed,  however,  owing  to  the  war  of  the  ensuing 
years,  and  was  not  taken  up  again  until  after  the  Congress 
of  Vienna  (1815).  A  nimiber  of  private  statistical  works 
on  the  whole  monarchy  or  separate  parts  of  it  contributed 
essentially  to  the  furtherance  of  the  movement,  especially 
those  by  de  Luca,  Baron  liechtenstern,  R.  von  Cbckelberghe, 
Demian,  Schaller,  MiiUner,  Schwartner,  Sartori,  Benigniv, 
Mildenberg  and  others. 

It  is  remarkable  that  the  initiative  was  not  taken  by  the 
central  authorities,  but  by  the  provinces,  owing  to  a  scheme 
thoroughly  worked  out  by  the  Stjo-ian  Councillor  (Guber- 


AUSTRIA  87 

nialrat)  SchSttl  R.  von  Schinnern.  The  deliberations  which 
now  followed  within  the  pale  of  the  Council  of  State,  the 
result  of  which  was  influenced  considerably  by  Baron  von 
Liechtenstein's  indefatigable  advocacy,  led  to  the  imperial 
decree  of  February  3,  1819,  ordaining  the  establishment  of 
a  topographical  oflBce  of  statistics  in  connection  with  the 
Council  of  State,  State  Councillor  Baron  von  Schwizen 
being  the  prospective  president  of  the  same.  However,  at 
that  time  the  administration  had  apparently  not  made  the 
necessary  provision  for  the  efficiency  of  the  department,  so 
Emperor  Francis  found  himself  compelled  to  repeal  his 
decree.  In  the  next  ten  years  we  hear  but  little  of  govern- 
ment statistics.  The  progress  of  statistics  in  the  univer- 
sities and  the  urgent  need  of  practice  made  a  statistical 
survey  of  the  separate  departments  of  the  administration 
more  and  more  desirable. 

Baron  von  Baldacci,  who  was  then  at  the  head  of  the 
Directorate  General  of  Accounts  (Generalrechnungsdirek- 
torium),  succeeded  by  his  efforts  in  persuading  Emperor 
Francis  to  grant,  by  an  order  in  Council  of  April  6,  1829, 
the  establishment  of  a  regular  administrative  statistical 
service,  the  management  of  which  was  entrusted  to  the 
above-mentioned.  He  incorporated  the  Bureau  of  Sta- 
tistics (created  for  the  necessary  work),  with  the  Auditing 
Board  of  Control  (RechnungskontroUbehorde),  and  assigned 
the  accomplishment  of  the  work  to  Baron  von  Metzburg, 
vice-president  of  the  Directorate  General  of  Accounts. 

Metzburg  succeeded  in  organizing  a  regular  annual  report 
of  the  government  departments  concerned,  which  was  com- 
piled in  a  tabular  form  in  the  Tables  of  Statistics.  These 
Tables,  which  included  the  year  1828  in  the  first  set,  were 
the  authoritative  Austrian  statistics  until  1865.  At  first 
they  were  kept  strictly  secret  and  reserved  exclusively  for 
government  purposes,  but  by  degrees  they  were  made  acces- 
sible to  larger  circles.  Baron  von  Metzburg,  the  author  of 
the.  Tables,  intended  to  add  a  scientific  appendix,  and  for 
his  purpose  he  wrote  a  Manual  of  Statistics  for  the  year 


88  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

1830,  which,  however,  he  was  not  allowed  to  publish.  Full 
publicity  did  not  come  until  it  was  brought  about  by  the 
storms  of  1848. 

It  was  not  long  before  the  administrative  statistical  serv- 
ice was  found  insufficient  to  do  justice  to  the  continually 
increasing  demands  on  the  government  statistics.  After 
Metzburg's  death.  Baron  von  Kiibeck,  then  president  of 
the  Directorate  General  of  Accounts,  strove  to  mould  the 
department  into  a  suitable  form. 

Owing  to  his  influence  the  Emperor  Ferdinand  I  issued 
an  imperial  decree  on  March  31,  1840,  creating  a  special 
office  with  a  permanent  staff.  This  office  was  directly  sub- 
ordinate to  the  chair  of  the  Directorate  General  of  Accounts, 
and  its  duty  was  to  collect,  investigate  and  compile  statis- 
tical data.  After  it  had  been  temporarily  managed  by 
R.  V.  Lucan,  councillor  of  finance,  and  Hopfgartner,  sec- 
retary to  the  court,  Karl  Czoernig  became  head  of  the  board. 
Czoernig's  professional  education,  great  knowledge  and 
indefatigable  energy  enabled  him  to  create  a  new  era  in  the 
history  of  government  statistics  in  the  monarchy. 

He  paved  the  way  for  a  regular  scientific  treatment  of 
figures,  and  he  not  only  turned  to  account  the  data  from 
official  sources,  but  also  worked  out  a  system  of  control  by 
which  private  estimates  could  be  made  use  of  for  the  pur- 
poses of  government  statistics. 

The  census  system  became  general  by  the  law  of  March 
23,  1857.  By  this  law  the  census  was  considered  exclu- 
sively as  the  object  of  political  administrative  activity;  a 
definite  term  day  was  fixed,  but  only  the  native  population 
was  to  be  included  in  the  census.  The  results  of  the  census 
were  published  in  the  Statistical  Survey  of  Population  and 
Live  Stock,  According  to  the  Census  of  October  31,  1857. 
This  was  published  by  the  Home  Department. 

Czoernig's  work  was  of  especial  importance  for  the  better 
understanding  of  ethnographic  and  industrial  conditions  in 
the  monarchy.  His  efforts  to  interest  larger  circles  in  the 
results  of  government  statistics  ought  also  to  be  emphasized. 


AUSTRIA  89 

A  small  Manual  of  Statistics  was  published  for  daily  use 
only.  The  Intelligence  of  the  Department  of  Statistics  was 
established  as  an  organ  of  larger  extent. 

77.     The  Organization  of  the  Central  Statistical  Commission 

In  spite  of  all  the  success  that  had  been  achieved,  the 
lack  of  internal  organization  in  government  statistics  was 
being  felt  more  and  more,  as  was  also  the  need  of  a  proper 
combination  with  science.  New  bases  for  the  constitution 
and  administration  of  the  monarchy  were  created  by  the 
October  Patent  (1860)  and  the  February  Patent  (1861). 
At  this  time  the  direction  of  government  statistics  was  in 
the  hands  of  the  Head  Auditing  OflSce  (Oberste  Rechnungs- 
controUbehorde),  after  being  temporarily  administered  by 
the  Board  of  Trade. 

Count  Mercandin,  as  president  of  the  auditing  office,  now 
took  preparatory  steps  to  follow  the  example  of  foreign  coun- 
tries by  creating  a  Central  Statistical  Commission  for  the 
monarchy.  The  statutes  for  the  new  institution  were 
worked  out  very  carefully,  and  they  received  imperial  ratifi- 
cation by  the  decree  of  January  31,  1863.  The  monarchy 
was  the  twelfth  state  to  establish  a  Central  Statistical  Com- 
mission. 

The  statutes  provided  that  the  Central  Commission  should 
furnish  the  central  departments  of  the  administration  with 
the  necessary  information  regarding  conditions  at  home  and 
abroad.  This  information  was  to  be  given  in  as  concise  and 
complete  a  form  as  possible.  It  thus  behooves  the  Com- 
mission to  execute  orders  from  headquarters,  to  give  advice 
on  questions  submitted  to  it,  and  to  strive  in  every  way  to 
bring  about  united  cobperation  between  the  various  depart- 
ments of  the  government  and  the  statistical  department. 
The  Central  Commission  has,  furthermore,  to  draw  up  and 
carry  out  the  plan  for  government  statistics  for  the  whole 
empire.  In  order  to  do  this  it  must  consider  formularies  for 
ascertaining  statistical  data  and  must  determine  these  in 
agreement  with  the  respective  central  departments;  it  must 


90  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

collect  and  examine  the  statistical  materials  for  all  depart- 
ments that  have  been  gained  on  this  basis  or  otherwise 
procured  by  the  central  departments;  it  must  direct  the 
compilation  and  publication  of  these  materials. 

The  Central  Commission  consists  of  the  following  mem- 
bers: the  President,  one  representative  of  each  office  of  the 
central  government  (including  the  head  auditing  office), 
the  secretary  and  the  clerk.  Men  who  have  distinguished 
themselves  in  science  or  political  economy  may  become 
honorary  members  of  the  commission. 

The  imperial  decree  of  December  22,  1870,  granted  the 
Commission  the  right  to  appoint  corresponding  members, 
provided  that  their  election  be  approved  by  the  minister 
of  public  worship  and  instruction. 

The  Emperor  reserves  the  right  of  appointing  the  Presi- 
dent; the  representatives  of  the  central  departments  (and 
their  substitutes)  are  appointed  by  the  chiefs  of  the  respect- 
ive departments,  while  the  honorary  members  are  appointed 
by  the  minister  of  pubhc  worship  and  instruction,  upon 
presentation  by  the  Central  Commission. 

The  Central  Commission  appoints  the  secretary  and  clerk 
from  the  staff  of  the  Bureau  of  the  I.  R.  Central  Statistical 
Commission.  The  Central  Commission  is  empowered  to  call 
in  professional  men  to  their  deKberations  or  to  ask  their 
advice.  The  regular  meetings  of  the  Commission  are  held 
once  a  month;  the  President  may  call  special  meetings. 

The  central  departments  of  the  government  are  kept  in- 
formed orally  by  suitable  representatives,  instructions  are 
given  on  one  hand  and  abstracts  of  the  minutes  on  the  other; 
but  on  more  important  occasions  both  instructions  and 
reports  are  given  by  correspondence.  Representatives  of 
the  central  departments  must  give  the  President  notice  of 
matters  on  which  the  departments  desire  the  Commission's 
advice;  the  President  will  then  bring  them  forward  for  dis- 
cussion by  adoption  in  the  order  of  the  day. 

The  Commission  was  incorporated  with  the  Board  of 
Trade  for  a  short  time,  but,  by  the  imperial  decree  of  August 


AUSTRIA  91 

28,  1870,  it  became  subordinate  to  the  Board  of  Public 
Worship  and  Instruction.  This  was  done  in  view  of  the  fact 
that,  owing  to  its  composition  and  its  sphere  of  activity, 
the  Commission  was  well  adapted  to  solve  problems,  and 
therefore  should  be  under  this  department,  just  as  the 
government  institutions  of  art  and  science  were.  The  com- 
bination that  was  created  in  this  way  had  proved  its  effi- 
ciency and  offers  the  best  guarantee  for  continuous  progress 
in  the  scientific  work  of  the  Central  Commission. 

The  board  of  directors  of  government  statistics  continued 
to  be  the  executive  organ  of  the  Commission  until  1884, 
when  it  was  abolished  and  replaced  by  the  Bureau,  this 
being  directly  subordinate  to  the  President  of  the  Central 
Commission. 

According  to  the  procedure  laid  down  by  the  statutes 
(which  still  subsist,  and  rightly  so),  the  business  of  the 
Central  Statistical  Commission  is  managed  by  the  President 
and  his  bureau,  by  the  whole  body  of  members,  and  by 
special  committees. 

The  President  presides  at  the  general  meetings,  opens  and 
closes  them  and  conducts  the  discussions  and  voting. 

He  appoints  the  special  committees  and  has  a  vote  in  each; 
he  despatches  x^gent  or  less  important  documents  himself 
and  assigns  the  others  to  individual  members  or  commit- 
tees; these  committees  may  be  already  in  existence  or  may 
be  formed  for  the  purpose. 

The  President  represents  the  Commission  outside;  he 
therefore  signs  all  documents  issued  by  it  with  the  exception 
of  reports  and  abstracts  of  the  minutes.  He  must  always 
be  well  informed  with  regard  to  the  work  of  the  Bureau  of 
the  Central  Statistical  Commission  and  of  its  individual 
officers;  he  has  to  provide  the  books  and  cards  required  for 
the  work  of  the  Central  Statistical  Commission  and  for  the 
library  of  the  Bureau  of  the  Central  Commission;  the  ex- 
penditure for  these  must  be  in  the  fixed  appropriation.  The 
President  also  negotiates  the  exchange  of  pubUcations  with 
foreign  bureaus  of  statistics.     In  case  of  his  absence,  the 


92  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

President  is  represented  by  the  regular  member  of  the  Com- 
mission next  in  rank.  The  secretary  formulates  the  resolu- 
tions of  the  Central  Commission,  attends  to  the  correspond- 
ence under  the  President's  supervision,  superintends  the 
conduct  of  legal  business — which  is  attended  to  by  the  staff 
of  the  Bureau  of  the  Central  Commission — ^he  invites  mem- 
bers of  the  general  assembly  and  of  special  committees  to 
their  sessions  by  informing  them,  in  due  time,  of  the  order 
of  the  day  arranged  by  the  President;  he  superintends  the 
preparation  of  the  minutes  and  composes  the  abstracts  of 
the  same,  which  are  intended  for  pubUcation  in  the  official 
gazette  of  Vienna. 

The  clerk  prepares  the  minutes  under  the  secretary's 
supervision  and  assists  the  latter  in  his  other  duties. 

A  majority  of  representatives  of  the  central  departments 
constitutes  a  quorum  in  the  general  assembly.  Every  mem- 
ber is  free  to  make  a  motion;  he  may  also  bring  forward 
subjects  for  discussion  which  are  not  in  the  order  of  the  day, 
this  being  done  by  putting  questions  to  the  President. 
However,  no  debate  takes  place  on  the  answer  given,  unless 
it  be  a  case  of  recognized  urgency.  As  a  rule  the  debate  is 
not  based  on  a  resolution  itself,  but  rather  on  the  report  that 
is  to  be  made  concerning  it.  An  absolute  majority  of  the 
members  present  is  generally  considered  decisive.  The 
President  only  gives  a  casting  vote  whenever  the  votes  are 
equal  on  both  sides.  When  the  subject  under  discussion 
belongs  to  the  jurisdiction  of  a  department,  no  motion  may 
be  made  on  it  in  the  absence  of  the  proper  representative; 
if  the  representative  be  present,  but  in  the  minority,  he  has 
the  right  to  consult  his  chief  once  more,  without  whose 
consent  the  resolution  in  question  cannot  take  effect.  The 
assembly  determines  the  manner  and  extent  of  the  Bureau's 
work  and  gives  instructions  with  regard  to  it.  It  has  author- 
ity to  estimate  the  number  of  officials  required  for  the  work 
and  to  procure  whatever  materials  may  be  needed  for  it. 

Special  committees  are  formed  from  the  general  assembly 
for  the  elaboration  of  extensive  subjects  or  to  give  an 


AUSTRIA  93 

on  various  matters;  these  committees  may  call  in  profes- 
sional men  to  their  deliberations. 

Three  members  of  a  special  committee  are  sufficient  for  a 
quorum,  provided  that  at  least  one  of  these  be  also  a  mem- 
ber of  the  general  assembly.  Each  special  committee 
chooses  a  reporter  from  its  own  number,  who  has  to  present 
the  resolutions  of  the  committee  to  the  general  assembly. 

Honorary  and  corresponding  members  are  proposed  by 
ballot  which  must  give  a  majority  of  at  least  two  thirds  of 
those  voting. 

Every  regular  and  honorary  member  of  the  Commission 
is  entitled  to  propose  corresponding  members,  and  the  num- 
ber of  corresponding  members  is  unUmited. 

The  corresponding  members  are  expected  to  advance  the 
interests  of  statistics  and  to  give  advice  when  called  upon 
to  do  so;  as  far  as  circumstances  permit  they  are  also  required 
to  collect  and  compile  statistical  data  or  to  stimulate  and 
negotiate  such  work;  lastly,  they  are  required  to  take  part 
in  any  deliberations  to  which  they  may  be  invited.  Corre- 
sponding members  are  allowed  the  use  of  the  hbrary  and  the 
documents  of  the  Central  Commission  besides  twenty  five 
copies  of  their  own  works,  published  by  the  Commission. 

Apart  from  the  President's  office,  the  hbrary,  the  office 
of  the  Smithsonian  Institute  and  the  pubUshing  office 
(Expedite),  the  present  organization  of  the  Bureau  is  divided 
into  the  following  eight  departments: 

Dept.        I.     International  statistics. 
Agricultural  statistics. 

Editorial  staff  of  the  Austrian  Manual  of 
Statistics,  the  Statistical  Monthly,  and  the 
Statistical  Intelligence. 

Dept.      II.     The  Census,  statistics  of  the  changes  of  popu- 
lation, office  of  topographical  statistics. 

Dept.     III.    Agrarian  statistics. 

Dept.     IV.     Statistics  of  organizations,  associations,  banks, 
savings  banks,  and  trade. 


94  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Dept.       V.     Statistics  of  finance,  and  of  the  autonomous 

administration . 
Dept.     VI.    Judicial  statistics. 
Dept.    VII.     Religious  and  educational  statistics. 
Dept.  Vni.    Health  and  foreign  trade  statistics. 

III.     The  Development  of  the  Central  Statistical  Commission 

It  was  a  great  advantage  to  the  Central  Statistical  Com- 
mission to  have  Charles,  Baron  von  Czoernig,  as  its  first 
president  (1863-1865). 

The  Commission  owes  its  stability  and  the  great  results 
attained  during  the  very  first  years  of  its  existence  to 
Czoernig's  personality  and  reputation. 

Czoernig  continued  at  first  to  publish  the  Tables  of 
Statistics,  and  besides  these  he  published  complete  govern- 
ment statistics  in  a  condensed  form  in  the  Statistical  Annual. 
After  the  abolition  of  the  Tables  in  1865,  the  Annual  may 
be  considered  authoritative.  In  order  to  familiarize  govern- 
ment officials  with  the  peculiarities  of  the  statistical  service 
and  to  educate  them  to  be  reliable  collaborators,  he  estab- 
lished practical  courses,  which  were  given  by  professional 
men  in  the  offices  of  the  Commission  during  the  winter  term 
of  the  years  1864  to  1868.  Czoernig  was  obliged  to  leave 
the  service  owing  to  a  serious  illness  brought  on  by  over- 
exertion. 

His  place  as  head  of  the  office  was  taken  by  Glanz  Ritter 
von  Eicha,  councillor  of  state,  who  was  next  in  rank  in  the 
Commission,  and  who  held  the  position  for  nearly  five  years 
(1865-1870).  We  owe  the  law  of  March  29,  1869,  to  his 
tireless  energy.  By  this  law  the  Austrian  census  system 
was  put  on  a  thoroughly  modern  footing,  and  it  is  still  in 
force. 

The  law  assigned  the  taking  of  the  census  to  the  Home 
Department,  but  the  comparison  of  the  sum  total  for  the 
various  countries  and  the  whole  monarchy,  as  well  as  the 
compilation  for  administrative  and  scientific  purposes,  was 
reserved  for  the  Central  Commission. 


AUSTRIA  95 

The  primary  collection  of  data  and  the  compilation  of 
the  same  by  townships,  parishes  and  districts,  were  to  be 
undertaken  in  a  decentralized  manner.  The  actual  popula- 
tion was  to  be  ascertained.  December  31  was  fixed  as  term- 
day.  The  vocational  section  and  residential  conditions  were 
only  taken  in  outUne.  An  enumeration  of  physical  infirm- 
ities and  of  domestic  animals  was  included  in  the  census. 
It  was  now  enacted  that  the  census  should  be  taken  at  the 
end  of  every  year  ending  with  "0." 

The  later  development  of  the  system  shows  remarkable 
progress.  In  1880  new  data  were  added  to  the  census, 
recording  extra  earnings,  the  colloquial  language,  the  knowl- 
edge of  reading  and  writing,  and  the  number  of  mentally 
deficient  persons  (lunatics  and  idiots). 

The  Census  of  1890  shows  a  considerable  extension  of 
vocational  statistics  as  well  as  an  extensive  record  of  land 
and  house  property  and  Uving  conditions.  The  first  esti- 
mates for  household  and  family  statistics  were  obtained  by 
inquiries  into  the  composition  of  the  households  in  each 
dwelling.  The  figures  were  worked  out  by  an  electric  adding 
machine. 

The  Census  of  1900  was  distinguished  by  a  comprehensive 
survey  of  dwellings,  more  or  less  extensive  according  to  the 
size  of  the  places.  A  census  of  the  unemployed  was  also 
taken  in  connection  with  this. 

The  Census  of  1900  made  it  possible  to  have  a  general 
vocational  section,  in  which  the  relation  to  the  chief  vocation 
was  included,  not  only  for  the  day  on  which  the  census  was 
taken,  but  also  for  the  end  of  1907.  By  this  means  valuable 
materials  were  obtained  for  judging  of  the  social  conditions 
arising  from  a  change  of  calling.  There  was  also  a  new 
record  made  with  reference  to  those  practising  an  extra 
calling,  either  simultaneofusly  or  alternately  with  their  chief 
vocation. 

The  statistical  survey  of  houses  was  extended  still 
further. 

The  following  figures,  showing  the  expenditure  of  the 


96  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Commission  from  decade  to  decade,  will  give  an  idea  of  the 
increased  work  of  the  census : 

1869 crowns  39 .408 

1880 crowns  51.876 

1890 crowns  617.085 

1900 crowns  794.205 

1910 crowns  1,143.000 

At  the  busiest  time  of  the  work  of  the  census,  the  Central 
Commission  employs  5  draughtsmen,  8  computing  ofl5- 
cials,  3  permanent  and  380  extra  assistants,  and  lastly  12 
occasional  assistants.  Ten  adding  machines  are  used,  which 
are  worked  by  electricity,  also  200  punching  machines, 
worked  by  haoid,  for  punching  the  cards. 

The  first  of  the  above-mentioned  censuses  was  published 
in  the  Austrian  Census  of  December  31,  1869.  Reports 
from  those  following  are  given  in  Austrian  Statistics.  Since 
1890  the  preliminary  results  have  also  been  published  as 
quickly  as  possible. 

A  Complete  Topographical  Register  of  the  Kingdoms  and 
Provinces  represented  in  the  Imperial  Senate,  according  to 
the  Census  of  December  31,  1880,  was  published,  giving  a 
complete  record  of  the  political  divisions  of  the  state  terri- 
tory, and  a  classification  of  parishes  and  townships.  This 
work  was  continued  under  the  same  title  in  connection  with 
the  Census  of  1890;  in  1900  it  appeared  as  the  General 
Topographical  Directory,  in  1910  as  a  General  Directory 
of  Townships  and  Parishes. 

The  Special  Register  for  the  Kingdoms  and  Provinces 
represented  in  the  Imperial  Senate  was  published  after  the 
Census  of  1880.  It  consisted  of  13  volumes  and  comprised 
all  the  imperial  dominions  except  Dalmatia.  It  is  indis- 
pensable as  a  guide  for  all  practical  purposes  of  public  and 
private  administration  and  is  also  invaluable  to  the  geog- 
rapher, philologer  and  historian. 

In  connection  with  the  Census  of  1900  a  Municipal  Lexicon 
was  published  for  each  of  the  14  Austrian  dominions;  this 


AUSTRIA  97 

was  on  a  much  broader  basis  than  the  Special  Register. 
It  contains  a  record  of  the  various  institutions  provided 
for  in  each  community,  employing  the  usual  abbreviations; 
it  also  records  the  registered  and  taxable  municipalities 
of  each  revenue  district  separately. 

This  work  was  found  too  costly,  and  an  improved  Special 
Register  was  again  published  after  the  Census  of  1910. 

During  the  time  that  the  department  was  under  Glanz' 
management,  statistics  of  organizations  were  collected,  and 
a  detailed  census  of  the  public  schools  were  taken.  The 
school  census  was  repeated  every  5  years  until  1885,  and 
thenceforth  every  10  years;  it  was  published  independently 
in  1870,  1873  and  1876.  The  following  censuses  appeared 
in  the  authoritative  publications.  An  independent  publica- 
tion was  also  issued  for  the  years  1890  and  1900,  which  was 
called  Plans  for  National  and  City  Schools.  Since  1900 
the  public  school  census  has  been  discontinued.  After 
Glanz'  retirement,  the  management  of  the  department  was 
continually  changing  at  short  intervals. 

First  of  all  Baron  Louis  von  HohenbUhel,  councillor  of 
public  instruction,  was  appointed  president  (1870-1872). 
After  him  the  management  was  undertaken  by  Franz  Ritter 
von  Astrenberg,  councillor  in  the  defence  department,  then 
it  passed  into  the  hands  of  Dr.  Adolf  Ficker,  councillor  of 
public  worship  and  instruction. 

Ficker  had  been  splendidly  prepared  for  the  work  by  his 
long  years  of  service  on  the  board  of  directors  of  govern- 
ment statistics.  We  owe  to  him  the  establishment  of  the 
scientific  periodical,  The  Monthly  Journal  of  Statistics, 
which  took  the  place  of  the  Intelligence  in  1875. 

The  readjustment  of  political  relations  with  Hungary 
limited  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Central  Commission  (1867). 
Ficker  succeeded  in  publishing  an  official  manual  of  the 
Austro-Hungarian  monarchy,  in  which  he  was  assisted  by 
Councillor  Karl  Keleti,  director  of  the  Hungarian  Provincial 
Office  of  Statistics.    This   manual  comprised  the  period 


98  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

from  1867  to  1876;  it  was  continued,  under  Inama,  for  the 
decade  1877-1886. 

Among  the  larger  separate  official  pubUcations  which  did 
not  appear  in  the  above-mentioned  periodicals  were  the 
following:  Statistics  of  Judaism,  by  G.  A.  Schimmer;  The 
Compilation  of  the  Periodical  Press,  by  J.  Winckler;  Period- 
ical Health  Statistics  for  1873  to  1879;  Statistical  Refer- 
ences on  the  Rate  of  Interest  on  Mortgages  for  1879.  A 
process  of  disintegration  unfortunately  began  in  Picker's 
time.  The  central  departments  now  found  it  necessary  to 
have  their  statistics  procured  under  their  own  supervision; 
this  led  to  the  organization  of  sections  of  statistics,  whose 
sphere  of  activity  was  gradually  extended  by  taking  over 
some  of  the  work  formerly  done  by  the  Central  Commission. 

After  Picker's  death  in  1880,  Schonwald  von  Bingenheim, 
head  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Finance  (Oberster  Rechnungs- 
hof),  became  director  of  the  office,  and  two  years  later 
Councillor  Lorenz  von  Liburnau  of  the  department  of 
agriculture.  The  latter  deserves  special  credit  for  intro- 
ducing statistics  of  harvests  and  cultivation.  In  the  year 
1881,  Charles  Theodore  von  Inama-Sternegg,  professor  of 
political  economy  at  Prague  University,  became  director  of 
government  statistics,  and  three  years  later  he  was  appointed 
President  (the  fourth)  of  the  Central  Commission.  This 
distinguished  man  not  only  possessed  remarkable  profes- 
sional ability,  but  he  was  also  gifted  with  an  abundance  of 
youthful  energy,  and  his  appointment  marks  the  beginning 
of  a  new  and  brilliant  era  in  the  history  of  Austrian  govern- 
ment statistics.  As  a  scholar  and  a  statesman,  a  teacher 
and  a  leader  in  movements  for  the  welfare  of  humanity, 
his  influence  bore  rich  fruit  in  many  directions. 

The  intellectual  and  personal  relations  he  had  won  in  his 
large  sphere  of  activity  were  of  the  greatest  value  to  the 
dignity  and  position  of  the  office  which  he  directed  for  nearly 
a  quarter  of  a  century.  During  this  time  the  department 
itself  reaped  with  him  the  results  of  his  extensive  and  suc- 
cessful hfe  work.     Inama  changed  the  board  of  directors 


AUSTRIA 

of  government  statistics  into  a  bureau  of  the  Central' Gd^- 
mission;  in  doing  so  he  created  the  preliminary  condition 
that  was  indispensable  for  the  accomplishment  of  unified 
work  with  a  definite  aim.  Then  he  went  to  work  on  the 
extension  of  government  statistics.  Nearly  every  branch 
of  government  statistics  bears  the  stamp  of  his  reforms, 
and  he  opened  up  countless  fields  of  scientific  research  by 
his  indefatigable  energy. 

He  paid  especial  attention  to  statistics  of  population  and 
agriculture.  He  also  brought  about  the  inclusion  of  trade, 
dwelling,  family  and  household  statistics  in  the  census  and 
the  central  revision  of  these  by  means  of  an  electrical  adding 
machine;  he  created  statistics  of  foreign  trade,  and  improved 
emigration  statistics.  Under  his  direction  the  first — ^and  so 
far  the  only — ^agricultm-al  and  industrial  census  was  taken 
in  1902;  this  was  published  in  the  Austrian  Statistics. 
Inama  had  data  on  agricultural  wages  collected,  and  created 
statistics  of  landed  property,  etc. 

These  Austrian  Statistics  now  replaced  the  Manual  of 
Statistics  as  the  authoritative  Austrian  statistics.  They 
present  the  separate  branches  of  government  statistics  in 
their  natural  sequence,  compiled  analytically  and  numeric- 
ally according  to  the  subject  matter.  A  condensed,  purely 
tabular  survey  of  the  collective  government  statistics  is  also 
given  now  in  the  Austrian  Manual  of  Statistics  which  ap- 
pears annually. 

At  the  instigation  and  with  the  assistance  of  the  depart- 
ment of  agriculture  the  Information  about  the  Whole 
Domain  of  Agriculture  was  established  for  agricultural  pur- 
poses. At  first  this  was  a  weekly  publication,  but  it  now 
appears  monthly.  Fuller  details  will  be  given  later  of  the 
organization  for  the  cooperation  of  the  body  politic  with  self- 
governing  bodies  in  statistical  matters.  This  resulted  from 
Inama's  efforts  and  led  to  the  publication  of  the  Statistical 
Manual  of  the  Autonomous  Provinces  (yearly)  and  the 
Austrian  Municipal  Register  (every  two  years). 

The  Manual  of  Associations  (1892)  should  be  mentioned 


100  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

among  the  independent  publications  of  Inama's  time.  He 
contrived  to  combine  his  official  position  with  his  academic 
duties  in  a  way  that  was  invaluable  to  the  department. 
Most  of  the  colleagues  whom  he  needed  to  carry  out  his 
great  reforms  were  obtained  from  his  seminar. 

Inama  was  succeeded  by  his  colleague  Francis  Ritter  von 
Juraschek.  Under  him  considerable  progress  was  made  in 
statistics  of  population,  agricultural,  and  electoral  statistics 
(for  which  the  calling  of  qualified  electors  was  investigated). 

In  connection  with  agricultural  statistics  the  work,  Grain 
in  International  Commerce,  was  published,  largely  with 
Juraschek's  collaboration.  By  order  of  the  Public  Works 
Department  a  census  was  taken  of  tenement  houses  (gemein- 
nuzige  Kleinwohnungsanlagen),  which  was  published  in  1910. 
In  Juraschek's  time  the  preliminary  steps  were  taken  for  a 
census  of  the  institutions  and  organizations  for  the  protec- 
tion and  care  of  young  people  and  children;  this  was  pub- 
lished in  a  Register  for  Lower  and  Upper  Austria,  Salzburg 
and  Styria,  in  the  year  1913. 

Juraschek  sought  to  popularize  statistics  by  means  of  the 
Statistical  Intelligence,  which  gave  a  synopsis  of  the  most 
recent  statistical  data  twice  monthly. 

This  energetic  man  died  suddenly  in  the  midst  of  his 
labors  on  the  Census  of  1910.  Then  Councillor  Charles 
Eisler  Ritter  von  Eiserhort  directed  the  department  for  a 
while,  after  which  Dr.  Robert  Meyer  took  charge  of  it. 

Dr.  Meyer  was  head  of  the  I.  R.  Department  of  Finance 
and  honorary  professor  of  political  economy  at  Vienna  Uni- 
versity, and  had  been  a  regular  member  of  the  Central 
Commission  since  1897,  having  represented  the  Department 
of  Finance. 

Meyer  at  once  took  in  hand  the  preparation  of  the  Census 
of  1910,  but  shortly  after  its  completion  he  was  called  away 
from  this  sphere  of  activity  to  the  Crown  Council  (Rat  der 
Krone)  ia  order  to  become  Minister  of  Finance. 

One  of  Inama's  pupils.  Dr.  Ernest  Mischler,  professor  of 
statistics  and  administrative  law  at  Gratz  University,  was 


AUSTRIA  101 

appointed  as  Meyer's  successor.  He  first  of  all  took  hold 
of  the  compilation  of  the  census,  then  turned  his  attention 
to  the  reform  and  reconstruction  of  official  publications. 
Mischler's  aim  was  to  render  the  pubKcation  of  the  Austrian 
Statistics  and  other  statistical  works  as  expeditious  as 
possible. 

The  new  Publikationstype  was  turned  to  good  account  in 
the  Manual  of  Austrian  Legal  Statistics  and  the  Live- 
stock Lexicon,  which  deals  with  the  live-stock  census  of 
the  year  1910.  He  now  made  good  use  of  the  executive 
ability,  which  had  been  proved  in  his  previous  position,  for 
the  benefit  of  the  Central  Commission.  One  of  the  impor- 
tant acts  of  his  administration  of  the  office  was  to  create  a 
special  department  to  take  charge  of  agricultural  statistics. 
Mischler  died  suddenly  after  holding  the  office  for  two  years; 
thus  many  of  his  plans  of  reform  were  left  unaccomplished. 

In  February,  1913,  Dr.  Robert  Meyer,  in  compliance  with 
the  wish  of  the  government,  became  President  of  the  Central 
Commission  for  the  second  time. 

IV.     The  Statistical  Offices  of  the  Central  Departments 

As  has  already  been  mentioned,  the  Central  Statistical 
Commission  is  not  the  only  producer  of  government  sta- 
tistics. 

The  separate  departments  of  the  government  manage 
their  own  statistical  work  in  various  degrees.  Li  most  of 
the  central  departments  there  is  a  special  office  for  dealing 
with  statistical  memoranda. 

In  the  Board  of  Trade  a  separate  office  was  created  as 
far  back  as  1872.  This  office  took  charge  of  the  industrial, 
commercial  and  foreign  statistics,  which  were  published  in 
the  Statements  of  Austria's  Trade.  This  publication  was 
originally  started  by  the  Board  of  Government  Statistics, 
and  was  then  carried  on  by  the  Central  Statistical  Com- 
mission. 

The  Central  Commission  made  a  special  publication  of  the 
Review  of  Imports  and  Exports  for  the  years  1863  to  1870. 


102  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

The  provisional  results  were  published  in  the  Austria,  a 
periodical  which  was  first  issued  by  the  Board  of  Trade  in 
1849  as  a  daily  paper;  in  1856  it  was  changed  to  a  weekly, 
and  in  1883  to  a  monthly.  The  Austria  was  the  archives 
of  regulations  and  statistics  in  the  Departments  of  Industry, 
Trade  and  Navigation;  but  in  1901  it  was  merged  in  the 
Archives  of  Austrian  Political  Economy.  These  in  turn 
were  replaced  by  the  Zollkompass,  which  appeared  in  1910 
and  in  which  the  commercial  conditions  of  the  various  states 
are  dealt  vdth  in  turn. 

In  1877  The  Permanent  Commission  on  Commercial 
Values  was  founded  on  the  model  of  the  French  Commis- 
sion Permanente  des  Valeurs.  It  is  the  business  of  this 
commission  to  determine  yearly,  by  valuation,  the  average 
commercial  value  of  the  imports  and  exports  for  the  past 
year.  In  1890  the  statistics  of  foreign  trade  were  thoroughly 
reformed  and  the  whole  matter  passed  into  the  hands  of  the 
statistical  department  of  the  Board  of  Trade.  The  latter 
now  publishes  the  statistics  of  foreign  trade  annually  in  the 
Statistics  of  Foreign  Trade  for  the  District  included  in  the 
Customs  Union  (VertragszoUgebiet)  of  both  states  of  the 
Austro-Hungarian  monarchy.  This  is  a  very  detailed  and 
comprehensive  work,  consisting  of  four  large  volumes  deal- 
ing with:  a.  Special  Trade;  b.  Freight  and  Transit  Trade; 
c.  Trade  with  the  Separate  Countries  of  Departure  and 
Destination;  d.  Ocean  and  Harbor  Trade. 

Monthly  statistical  reports  also  appear  in  the  Statistical 
Review  of  Foreign  Trade  for  the  District  included  in  the 
Customs  Union,  etc. 

Since  1900  the  statistics  have  been  published  annually 
under  the  title  of  Statistics  of  Interstate  Trade  between 
the  Kingdoms  and  Provinces  represented  in  the  Imperial 
Senate  and  the  Provinces  of  the  Holy  Hungarian  Crown. 
Monthly  statements  are  also  published  in  the  Monthly 
Reference  of  Interstate  Trade. 

The  first  volume  of  the  annual  publication  gives  a  detailed 
historical  report  of  the  whole  district.     In  1901  a  Perma- 


AUSTRIA  103 

nent  Commission  on  Interstate  Trade  (analogous  to  the 
other  permanent  commission  founded  in  1877)  was  estab- 
lished for  the  purpose  of  estimating  the  amount  of  trade 
for  interstate  trade  statistics. 

The  Oflfice  of  Statistics  for  Foreign  and  Interstate  Trade 
in  the  Board  of  Trade  is  at  present  under  the  management 
of  Aulic  Councillor  Demel  Hitter  von  Elswehr.  In  con- 
nection with  this  oflfice  an  annual  publication  has  been  issued 
since  1901,  entitled  Foreign  and  Interstate  Trade  of  the 
Kingdoms  and  Provinces  represented  in  the  Imperial  Senate 
and  the  Provinces  of  the  Holy  Hungarian  Crown.  This 
periodical  shows  Austria's  and  Hungary's  share  of  the  foreign 
trade  separately,  and  the  total  trade  of  each.  This  is  done 
by  a  comparison  of  the  Foreign  Trade  Statistics  of  the 
Customs  Union,  the  Interstate  Trade  Statistics,  and  the 
Hungarian  Statistics  of  Foreign  Trade.  This  oflfice  has  also 
begun  to  publish  periodically  instructions  for  the  composi- 
tion and  compilation  of  data  for  the  purposes  of  trade 
statistics  in  Bases  of  Statistics  of  Foreign  Trade. 

Two  Outlines  of  Comparative  Statistics  for  a  Series  of  Years 
were  published  for  the  years  1903  to  1907  and  1905  to  1909. 

The  Statistics  of  Navigation  and  Maritime  Trade  in  Aus- 
trian Harbors  is  published  annually  by  order  of  the  Board 
of  Trade  on  the  basis  of  official  data  from  the  Chamber  of 
Commerce  and  Industry  of  Trieste.  Pertinent  data  are  also 
published  by  the  Marine  Board  in  the  Navigazione  Austro- 
Ungarica  all'Estero  and  in  the  Annuario  Marittimo. 

In  1898  an  office  for  labor  statistics  was  installed  in  the 
Board  of  Trade,  whose  task  it  was  to  collect  and  compile 
labor  statistics  for  the  purpose  of  economical  and  social 
legislation  and  administration,  and  also  to  publish  them 
periodically.  These  data  were  to  have  "special  reference  to 
the  condition  of  the  working  classes,  particularly  in  agri- 
cultural pursuits;  and  to  the  efficiency  of  the  rules  and  regu- 
lations for  the  furtherance  of  the  welfare  of  the  working 
classes,"  The  department  was  also  to  give  corresponding 
attention  to  the  "extent  and  condition  of  production." 


104  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

The  department  is  directly  subordinate  to  the  Board  of 
Trade,  but  has  the  greatest  possible  liberty  in  its  own  special 
sphere  of  activity.  It  has  been  provided  with  an  advisory 
board  to  assist  it  in  the  preparation  of  statistics;  this  board 
consists  of  professional  men,  representatives  of  employers 
and  employes  and  of  the  central  departments  concerned. 
Whoever  may  be  President  of  the  Central  Commission  is  a 
permanent  member  of  this  consulting  body. 

"Sektionschef"  Mataja  is  the  head  of  the  Labor  Sta- 
tistics Office.  The  office  publishes  annual  reports  on :  labor 
strikes  and  lock-outs;  hours  of  labor  in  factories;  labor 
arbitration;  labor  and  wage-agreements,  etc.  Since  1900 
this  department  has  also  published  the  monthly  "Soziale 
Rundschau"  (Social  Review),  which  gives  as  complete  as 
possible  a  survey  of  all  measures  and  conditions  of  impor- 
tance in  the  realm  of  social  service  at  home  and  abroad.  For 
the  assistance  of  this  branch  of  the  service  a  "Sozialpoli- 
tisches  Archiv"  was  established  in  the  Labor  Statistics 
Office  in  1910.  A  large  number  of  monographs  were  com- 
piled by  order  of  this  office,  deahng  with  special  labor  prob- 
lems within  the  limits  of  certain  industries  and  localities. 

Most  of  these  monographs  were  collected  in  the  Commu- 
nications of  the  Department  of  Labor  Statistics,  which 
appeared  from  time  to  time.  Li  1910  a  special  department 
was  established  for  industrial  statistics  (in  connection  with 
the  Labor  Statistics  Office),  which  soon  published  a  Reg- 
ister of  Industrial  Associations  and  their  Unions.  Since 
August,  1912,  the  Board  of  Trade  and  Agriculture,  also  the 
Central  Statistical  Commission,  have  published  a  weekly 
Price  List,  which  quotes  the  wholesale  prices  of  the  most  im- 
portant raw  materials  on  the  largest  exchanges  at  home  and 
abroad;  it  also  contains  reports  of  the  trade  in  the  Vienna 
stock-yards,  and  the  prices  of  cattle  and  meat  in  Vienna. 
The  Price  List  is  also  the  organ  for  the  regular  reports  on 
city  prices  of  provisions. 

Since  1862  the  Board  of  Trade  has  compiled  post  and 
telegraph  statistics.    The  two  numbers  The  Austrian  Post 


AUSTRIA  105 

and  Telegraph  System,  1868  and  1869,  were  followed  by 
the  regular  publications  in  the  Industrial  and  Commercial 
News  for  the  years  1870-1903.  Since  1904  postal  and  tele- 
graphic statistics  have  been  published  independently  by  the 
Board  of  Trade  in  quarto  volumes  under  the  title  Statistics 
of  the  Austrian  Post  and  Telegraph  System. 

The  progressive  development  of  the  post  and  telegraph 
system  led  to  a  further  extension  of  these  statistics  by  the 
inclusion  of  the  telephone  system  (1887)  and  the  sum  total 
of  the  post  oflSce  savings  banks  (1903).  Detailed  statistics 
of  the  latter  have  been  published  in  their  own  annual  state- 
ments since  1882.  The  economic  importance  of  the  postal 
savings  banks  is  illustrated  by  their  annual  Statement  of 
Business  and  Accounts. 

The  Chambers  of  Commerce  and  Industry  also  perform 
some  of  the  tasks  of  a  statistical  department,  that  come 
within  the  scope  of  their  organization.  They  conduct  a 
register  of  the  industries  under  their  jurisdiction,  which  is 
kept  thoroughly  up  to  date,  by  means  of  the  statements  of 
the  Treasury  Board  and  "An-und  Abmeldungen." 

The  reports,  published  upon  instructions  from  the  cham- 
bers by  the  Board  of  Trade,  are  of  great  value  in  assisting  to 
recognize  dislocations  in  the  structure  of  industrial  work- 
shops (Produktionsstatten). 

Another  important  branch  of  statistics  undertaken  by  the 
chambers  is  that  of  industrial  production. 

In  1873  the  Board  of  Agriculture  created  a  department  of 
Statistics  of  Agriculture,  Forestry  and  Mines.  This  board 
publishes  the  Manual  of  the  Board  of  Agriculture,  which 
gives  data  on  all  subjects  pertaining  to  the  department. 
Since  that  time  the  Forests  of  the  Public  and  Landed  Prop- 
erty under  the  Jurisdiction  of  the  I.  R.  Board  of  Agriculture 
appeared  (1885),  and  in  1907,  as  a  continuation  of  this  pub- 
lication, the  Manual  of  Public  and  Landed  Property  was 
published.  During  the  years  1906  to  1911  statistics  of 
peat-bogs  were  collected  for  Lower  and  Upper  Austria, 
Styria,  Carinthia,  Camivola,  the  Tyrol  and  Moravia. 


106  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

These  were  published  in  1911  as  an  Information  about 
Peat-bogs  for  the  above-mentioned  countries,  and  they 
went  further  than  the  periodical  report  that  came  into  being 
in  1901. 

The  Board  of  Agriculture  has  also  compiled  statistics  of 
the  dams  in  mountain  streams  (Wildbachverbauimgen)  for 
the  years  1883-1894,  which  were  published  separately. 

In  1902  the  Board  of  Agriculture  published  Dairy  Com- 
panies and  other  Enterprises  for  the  Utilization  of  Dairy 
Products;  this  furnished  extensive  statistics  on  the  milk 
trade,  and  in  1911  it  was  turned  into  the  Yearly  Report  on 
the  Condition  of  the  Milk  Trade.  The  Board  of  Agricul- 
ture publishes  annual  reports  on  the  Spread  of  Phylloxera. 
The  Statistics  of  the  Schools  of  Forestry  and  Agriculture  are 
published  in  the  Gazette  of  Forestry  and  Agriculture. 

The  Home  Department  takes  charge  of  the  insurance 
statistics.  No  oflScial  statistics  were  compiled  until  the 
eighties.  At  that  time  laws  were  enacted  providing  for 
compulsory  insurance  against  accident  and  sickness  (for 
workmen),  and  the  government  was  obliged  to  procure  the 
bases  necessary  for  this  branch  of  government  provision  for 
the  working  classes;  it  also  became  incumbent  upon  the 
government  to  supervise  the  autonomous  institutions  for 
workmen's  insurance.  The  control  of  private  insurance 
companies  also  required  that  there  should  be  a  special  de- 
partment for  this  branch  of  government  statistics.  The 
section  possessing  the  most  technical  knowledge  was  placed 
in  charge  of  it,  viz.:  the  technical  insurance  office  of  the 
Home  Department.  This  office  publishes  several  state- 
ments every  year  which  are  based  on  reports  from  the  gov- 
ernment departments  and  the  insurance  companies,  and 
these  statements  are  brought  before  the  senate.  The  mat- 
ters chiefly  considered  in  these  statements  are:  The  sum 
total  and  general  results  of  accident  and  health  insurance, 
and  a  report  of  the  registered  insurance  companies.  A 
statement  of  the  private  insurance  companies  is  also  pub- 
lished. 


AUSTRIA  107 

Reports  on  mine  insurance  companies  were  first  compiled 
in  the  Workmen's  Insurance  Department  of  the  Home 
Office. 

Besides  furnishing  these  reports  to  the  Senate,  the  depart- 
ment also  compiles  these  statistics  separately  and  publishes 
them  periodically;  up  to  the  present  time  three  such  works 
have  appeared,  for  the  following  periods:  1890-1896;  1897- 
1901;  1902-1906. 

Health  statistics  are  published  annually  by  the  Health 
Insurance  Offices  (Offices  for  Insurance  against  Sickness); 
these  are  compiled  according  to  the  age  and  calling  of  those 
insured.  Such  statistics  were  published  for  the  year  1890 
and  for  the  five  years  1891  to  1896. 

In  1898  a  publication  was  issued  on  The  Conditions  of 
Private  Employes  for  the  year  1896,  and  constituted  the 
statistical  basis  on  which  the  Pension  Law  of  1906  was 
founded.  The  results  of  the  insurances  brought  about  by 
this  law  have  been  reported  by  the  Pension  Office  and  the 
Institutions  for  Compensation.  A  uniform  official  com- 
pilation is  being  prepared. 

The  report  on  privalte  insurance  was  published  in  detail 
during  the  first  decade  of  these  statistics.  This  was  pub- 
lished with  a  synthetic  text.  Since  1908  complete  statistics 
are  being  compiled  only  every  five  years,  and  the  last  was 
in  1912.  During  the  intervals  the  statistics  are  published 
in  an  abridged  form  without  an  accompanying  text. 

The  Board  of  Health  of  the  Home  Department  publishes 
The  Austrian  Health  Department,  a  weekly  paper,  which 
furnishes  valuable  materials  for  health  statistics. 

Railway  statistics  were  originally  compiled  and  pub- 
lished by  the  Central  Statistical  Commission;  they  appeared 
in  the  work.  The  Railways  of  the  Austro-Hungarian  Mon- 
archy and  their  Traffic  in  1868 — which  also  appeared  for  the 
following  year.  Upon  the  inauguration  of  a  statistical 
department  in  the  Board  of  Trade,  the  railway  statistics 
were  transferred  to  it  (1870).  Railway  statistics  were 
now  published  under  the  title  Statistical  Record  of  the 


108  MEMORUL  VOLUME 

Austro-Hungarian  Railways.  From  1879  on,  the  combined 
statistics  of  the  Austro-Hungarian  railways  were  published 
by  the  boards  of  both  countries  in  the  German  and  Hun- 
garian languages,  so  that  the  Statistical  Record  now  ap- 
peared in  both  languages;  it  was  published  regularly  till 
1893. 

In  1885  international  railway  statistics  were  published  by 
the  Board  of  Trade  under  the  title  of  European  Railway 
Statistics  for  the  Year  1882.  In  1896  the  statistical  office 
of  the  recently  organized  Railway  Department  took  over 
this  branch  of  the  work,  and  published  the  Sum  Total  of 
Austrian  Railway  Statisticsf  or  each  of  the  years  1895,  1896 
and  1897  separately.  From  1898  to  1902  this  office  pubhshed 
Statistics  of  the  Locomotive  Railways  in  Operation  in  the 
Elingdoms  and  Provinces  Represented  in  the  Imperial  Senate. 

Besides  this,  special  Statistics  of  the  Electric  Railways, 
Cable-roads,  and  Horse-tramways  in  Austria  were  pub- 
lished for  each  year  from  1898  to  1902.  Since  1903  these 
two  publications  have  been  replaced  by  the  Austrian  Rail- 
way Statistics,  which  appear  annually  in  two  parts.  The 
first  comprises  Statistics  of  Trunk  and  Local  Railways, 
and  the  second  those  of  Short  Lines  and  Truck-roads. 

The  Department  of  Railways  has  also  published  the  fol- 
lowing: Austrian  Railways  of  Minor  Importance  (1908); 
Financial  Proceeds  of  Lines  operated  by  the  Government 
on  Account  of  their  Owners  in  the  years  1897  to  1906;  The 
Vienna  City  Railway  from  its  Inauguration  in  1898  to 
1908  (published  in  1909);  The  Austrian  Government  Rail- 
ways from  the  Establishment  of  the  Railway  Department 
in  1896  to  1908;  lastly  Austrian  Government  Railways  dur- 
ing the  Years  1901-1910  (pubhshed  in  1912). 

The  various  departments  of  the  Treasury  Board  have 
evolved  a  number  of  new  spheres  of  activity  since  this  cen- 
tral department  was  established.  The  Treasury  Board 
was  much  stimulated  in  the  work  of  financial  statistics  by 
the  great  reforms  made  in  the  administration  of  finance  and 
taxation.     Very    careful   preparation    was    now   required, 


AUSTRIA  109 

which  could  only  be  obtained  by  a  thorough  study  of  the 
development  of  the  various  departments  of  finance.  For 
instance,  one  needed  a  knowledge  of  the  direct  and  indirect 
taxation  of  the  fifties;  of  the  reports  on  indirect  taxes  which 
were  levied  before  the  "Quotendeputationen";  of  the  sub- 
ject-matter of  bills  dealing  with  duties  on  spirits,  beer  and 
sugar;  of  the  general  taxation  laws,  etc., — lastly  a  knowl- 
edge was  required  of  the  tables  of  statistics  which  were  used 
in  framing  the  reform  of  direct  taxation  in  1874.  More 
recent  works  to  be  studied  were:  The  Report  on  the  Re- 
sults of  the  Regulation  of  the  Ground-tax  (1884);  Results 
of  the  Revision  of  the  Land  Register,  by  Virtue  of  the  Law 
of  June  12,  1896;  Subjects  under  Discussion  and  Reports 
on  them,  for  the  Reform  of  Direct  Personal  Taxation;  Tables 
of  Statistics  on  the  Problem  of  the  Fixed  Standard  for  the 
Austro-Hungarian  Monarchy  (1892)  (which  were  continued 
in  the  Tables  of  Statistics  on  the  Fixed  Standard) ;  the  ma- 
terials for  a  probate  bill;  the  detailed  reports  for  the  draft 
on  the  reform  of  taxes  on  buildings  (1908),  the  Statistics  of 
Dwellings  Taxable  on  the  House-rent,  according  to  condi- 
tions in  1908  (published  in  1909);  Statistics  of  the  Law 
for  Laborers'  Dwellings  (1902);  and  others.  Income  tax 
statistics  were  published  repeatedly. 

The  Treasury  Board  compiled  very  valuable  materials 
almost  exclusively  for  administrative  purposes,  and  these 
were  made  public  only  in  part  in  the  Austria,  a  periodical 
published  by  the  Board  of  Trade.  In  order  that  these  mate- 
rials might  be  accessible  to  a  larger  circle  the  Gazette  of  the 
I.  R.  Treasury  Board  was  established  in  1894,  which  appears 
in  annual  sets.  The  Gazette  contains  detailed  and  almost 
complete  statistics  of  direct  and  indirect  taxes  and  duties, 
including  stamp  duties,  and  the  branches  of  revenue  related 
thereto.  This  gives  an  insight  into  the  total  burden  of  the 
population  by  computing  the  assessments  and  additional 
payments  of  the  provinces.  Of  late  years  the  indebtedness 
of  the  provincial  treasuries  is  also  included  in  the  report. 
The  commercial  and  industrial  conditions  in  our  govern- 


110  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

ment  enterprises,  especially  the  government  monopolies, 
furnish  interesting  material  for  Statistics  of  Production 
(Produktionsstatistik),  By  means  of  them,  statistics  of 
health,  accidents,  and  dwellings  may  be  classified  according 
to  the  various  categories  of  labor.  Finance  and  credit  in 
this  half  of  the  empire  and  the  technicalities  of  the  budget 
are  dealt  with  in  the  Gazette,  which  also  treats  very  thor- 
oughly of  the  Austrian  tobacco  and  salt  monopolies.  The 
income  tax  has  been  considered  in  the  columns  of  the 
Gazette,  partly  in  serial  and  partly  in  single  articles.  The 
article  by  Baron  Drotlefif  von  Friedenfels  on  The  Amoimt 
of  Income  according  to  Sex  and  Calling  of  those  Assessed 
deserves  special  mention. 

A  detailed  report  on  the  subject  also  appeared  in  two  of 
the  Treasury  Department's  pubhcations,  viz. :  Materials  for 
Income  Tax  Statistics  for  1898  and  Compiled  Assessments 
for  the  Income  Tax  for  1903,  Arranged  According  to  the 
Calling  of  those  Assessed.  In  the  last  annual  set  appeared 
Statistics  of  the  Movement  of  Individuals  liable  to  Income 
Tax,  and  the  Amount  of  their  Income  for  the  Years  1906- 
1908.  The  results  of  government  monopolies  are  issued 
periodically  in  special  publications. 

Since  1894  we  have  The  Tables  of  Statistics  on  the  Aus- 
trian Tobacco  Monopoly;  The  Statistical  Information  about 
the  Austrian  Tobacco  Monopoly  (published  by  the  Board 
of  the  Tobacco  Trust) ;  and  since  1901  Departmental  Infor- 
mation about  the  Austrian  Tobacco  Trust.  The  output  of 
salt  for  1898-1902  was  dealt  with  in  The  Salt  Works  of  Aus- 
tria, and  since  1903  in  the  Information  about  the  Austrian 
Salt  Monopoly.  Since  1905  reports  on  the  social  and  indus- 
trial conditions  in  the  alpine  salt  works  have  been  published 
by  the  Treasury  Board  in  Linz. 

In  connection  with  the  inquiry  into  the  Solvency  of  the 
Provincial  Finances  in  1908,  a  wealth  of  material  was  placed 
at  the  disposal  of  the  experts  by  the  Treasury  in  the  publi- 
cation Finances  of  the  Kingdoms  and  Provinces  represented 


AUSTRIA  111 

in  the  Imperial  Senate,  According  to  Assessment  for  the 
Year  1905. 

Originally  the  national  debt  was  computed  by  comparing 
the  statements  of  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  National 
Debt  with  the  reports  of  the  Commission  on  the  National 
Debt,  but  since  1862  it  has  been  done  by  the  annual  reports  of 
the  Auditing  Commission  of  the  National  Debt  in  the  Senate. 

In  conclusion,  we  must  remember  the  Public  Works  De- 
partment. The  compilation  of  all  mining  statistics  (with 
the  exception  of  the  Bruderladen,  which  are  dealt  with  in 
the  Home  Department)  was  transferred  from  the  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture  to  the  Public  Works  Department  in 
1908.  This  department,  while  retaining  the  mode  of 
publicity  previously  in  vogue,  also  arranges  the  materials 
on  a  broader  basis  in  a  journal  called  Mining  Statistics  in 
Austria,  which  appears  as  a  supplement  to  the  Manual  of 
the  Department  of  Agriculture.  The  police  reports  on  mines 
are  published  in  The  Inspection  of  Mines  in  Austria.  Lat- 
terly the  Public  Works  Department  has  also  been  publishing 
a  supplement  in  the  Mining  Manual. 

The  Board  of  Water  Supply  in  the  Home  Department 
has  introduced  a  systematic  count  and  listing  of  the  national 
supplies  of  water  power,  the  results  of  which  have  been 
published  continuously  since  1909  in  the  Austrian  Water 
Register. 

The  Journal  of  Industrial  Education  is  also  edited  by  the 
Public  Works  Department;  this  journal  publishes  period- 
ically the  statistics  of  industrial  schools  compiled  by  the 
Central  Commission. 

The  data  for  military  statistics  are  kept  by  the  technical 
committee  of  the  War  Office.  In  connection  with  the  new 
law  regarding  military  service,  an  Annual  of  Military  Sta- 
tistics was  published  in  the  early  seventies.  This  was  done 
at  the  instigation  of  Lieutenant  Fieldmarshal  Baron  von 
Kuhn,  who  was  then  minister  for  war.  This  work  was 
entrusted  to  a  special  section  of  the  technical  and  adminis- 
trative committee  on  military  matters. 


112  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

This  year-book  or  annual  contained  recruiting  statistics, 
statistics  of  rank,  statistics  of  sanitation;  the  department 
of  military  education  and  the  administration  of  penal  law 
were  also  comprised  in  it;  it  had  a  land  register,  and  statistics 
on  the  diseases  and  mortality  of  horses  and  of  the  supply  of 
cavalry  horses.  The  annual  continued  to  appear  until  1894. 
Since  that  time  the  matters  dealt  with  in  it  have  been  pub- 
lished only  in  part,  although  compiled  mostly  in  the  same 
manner.  Extracts  of  the  various  parts  are  published  in  the 
Austrian  Manual  of  Statistics. 

The  decentrahzation  of  government  statistics,  as  shown 
by  the  facts  we  have  given,  has  been  brought  about  by  the 
division  of  labor.  It  has  been  advanced  by  the  progressive 
speciaUzation  in  statistical  methods  and  by  the  efficiency 
of  the  central  departments.  However,  this  decentralization 
often  causes  inconveniences,  which  the  statistical  department 
must  try  to  prevent.  Of  course,  there  must  be  a  lack  of 
uniformity  in  the  treatment  of  statistical  data  owing  to  the 
fact  that  the  work  is  distributed  among  various  offices. 
The  continuous  extension  of  departmental  statistics  in  each 
office  of  the  central  government  makes  it  almost  impossible 
to  obtain  a  survey  of  the  whole  domain  of  government 
statistics. 

This  often  leads  to  two  concurrent  counts  being  made, 
thus  increasing  the  cost  besides  causing  uncertainty  and 
dissatisfaction  in  the  organization  of  government  statistics. 
The  consciousness  of  imiform  management  with  a  definite 
aim  is  most  essential  for  the  success  of  any  collection  of 
statistics.  The  settlement  of  this  difficulty  is  only  possible 
if  the  Central  Commission  has  an  exact  insight  into  all  the 
collections  made  and  all  the  statistical  needs  in  the  various 
branches  of  the  department,  and  this  leads  to  the  conclusion 
that  not  a  single  branch,  of  statistics  should  be  concealed 
from  the  Central  Commission  in  any  phase  of  its  official 
treatment. 

However,  the  Central  Commission  has  contrived  to  main- 
tain an  honored  position  in  the  center  of  administrative 


AUSTRIA  113 

statistical  work  in  spite  of  the  extensive  division  of  labor. 
The  Central  Commission  has  secured  a  most  extensive 
survey  of  the  whole  province  of  statistics,  partly  by  collecting 
the  whole  material  for  government  statistics  and  partly 
by  maintaining  a  close  connection  with  all  branches  of 
national  and  autonomous  government.  Even  though  it 
may  temporarily  get  out  of  touch  with  the  various  sections 
of  the  statistical  service,  the  thread  can  soon  be  taken  up 
again,  so  that,  in  spite  of  all  difficulties,  the  Central  Com- 
mission stands  out  as  the  head  of  the  whole  organization. 

V.  '  Statistics  of  Self-Governing  Bodies 

The  Austrian  constitution  provides  that  both  the  com- 
munal and  provincial  statistics  of  the  self-governing  states 
should  be  much  more  independent  and  comprehensive  than 
those  of  the  other  states,  in  which  communal  and  provincial 
statistics  merely  represent  integral  parts  of  the  national 
statistics. 

Upon  the  amendment  of  the  constitution,  the  self-govern- 
ing states  were  destined  to  have  judicial  problems  of  their 
own  to  solve,  and  the  statistical  departments  in  those  states 
were  given  equal  power  to  that  of  the  national  statistical 
service.  These  departments  in  the  self-governing  states 
had  to  assist  the  legislative  and  administrative  functions  of 
the  cities  and  provinces  in  their  respective  states.  In  this 
way  they  naturally  became  an  auxiliary  to  the  national 
statistical  service.  Being  more  closely  related — ^both  objec- 
tively and  geographically — ^to  the  various  phenomena  of 
social  and  agricultural  life,  this  service  is  able  to  enter  more 
into  detail  and  to  suggest  the  solution  of  problems  for  lim- 
ited districts  which  cannot  be  dealt  with  by  the  national 
service,  owing  to  the  fact  that  its  jurisdiction  covers  the 
whole  empire.  By  intelligent  treatment  of  special  local 
problems  the  autonomous  statistical  service  may  explain  and 
popularize  statistics  and  arouse  the  people  to  an  apprecia- 
tion of  the  imperial  statistics. 

Almost  all  the  provinces  are  developing  great  efficiency 


114  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

in  statistics;  still  the  comparison  of  statistical  data  has  only 
been  accomplished  by  degrees  in  the  provincial  offices,  and 
by  but  few  of  the  crown  lands  at  all.  The  collections  and 
publications  of  the  provincial  offices  are  at  the  disposal  of 
the  administration.  Special  problems  are  dealt  with  scien- 
tifically. At  the  same  time  special  attention  is  given  to 
the  detailed  compilation  of  the  great  national  censuses, 
especially  of  the  census  of  population  and  live  stock,  and 
the  survey  of  industrial  and  agricultural  pursuits  and  so  on. 

The  provincial  statistical  office  of  Galicia  is  the  oldest 
(1872)  and  also  shows  the  greatest  literary  efficiency.  This 
province  publishes  a  Gazette,  which  now  comprises  24 
annual  sets;  in  this  publication  all  departments  are  dealt 
with,  partly  in  provincial  numbers  and  partly  in  exhaustive 
single  ones.  All  the  data  of  Galicia's  autonomous  govern- 
ment have  been  published,  since  1887,  in  a  statistical  manual. 
In  the  years  1883-1898  a  special  section  for  industrial  and 
trade  statistics  was  created,  which  published  a  very  instruct- 
ive work  on  the  Condition  of  Industry  and  Mining  in 
Galicia  in  1910. 

The  provincial  department  in  Bukowina  was  established 
in  1870,  and  published  its  work  in  a  Gazette,  which  now 
comprises  16  books.  This  office  also  recently  published  an 
Annual  of  Statistics  for  the  self-governing  Duchy  of  Buko- 
wina for  the  year  1907-8,  which  was  repeated  for  the  year 
1908-9. 

The  Styrian  provincial  office  was  established  in  1893  and 
has  published  up  to  date  a  Gazette  comprising  25  volumes. 
In  the  years  1899  and  1912  the  statistical  data  were  also 
compiled  in  a  Manual. 

In  Bohemia,  a  provincial  office  of  statistics  for  special 
districts  existed  as  far  back  as  1861.  The  regular  provincial 
office,  inaugurated  in  1898,  publishes  the  results  of  its  work 
in  a  Gazette,  which  has  increased  to  21  volumes.  The  total 
statistics  of  the  crown  land  were  compiled  in  1909  and  1913 
in  a  Manual  of  Statistics. 


AUSTRIA  115 

A  provincial  oflBce  was  created  in  Moravia  in  1899,  but 
has  published  little  up  to  the  present. 

The  Silesian  provincial  office  was  also  established  in  1899; 
it  publishes  a  Manual  of  Statistics  of  its  own,  which  already 
consists  of  nine  annual  parts.  In  addition  the  office  has 
published  several  extensive  monographs. 

The  provincial  office  of  statistics  of  Lower  Austria,  estab- 
lished in  1907,  compiles  the  provincial  finances  in  an  inde- 
pendent publication. 

The  creation  of  a  provincial  office  of  statistics  in  the  Tyrol 
has  been  under  consideration  of  late.  In  the  remaining 
provinces  statistical  work  is  still  carried  on  as  part  of  the 
national  statistics. 

As  soon  as  the  cities  grew  prosperous  and  acquired  politi- 
cal independence  (or  an  independent  government),  they 
began  to  turn  their  attention  to  administrative  statistics,  in 
which  they  have  developed  remarkable  efficiency.  Owing 
to  the  peculiar  nature  of  the  problems  arising  from  condi- 
tions in  the  large  centers  of  population,  communal  statistics 
occupy  a  place  of  their  own  in  government  statistics. 

The  organization  of  the  statistical  service  in  the  cities  is 
very  varied.  As  a  rule  communal  statistics  are  managed  in 
close  connection  with  the  city  government,  which  usually 
has  an  independent  service  for  its  various  departments. 
Only  in  a  few  cases  is  the  statistical  work  concentrated  in 
one  office.  We  shall  now  briefly  discuss  only  those  forms 
which  show  a  large  degree  of  independence  in  statistics 
within  the  scope  of  the  city  government. 

The  oldest  established  independent  office  of  statistics  is 
that  of  Vienna,  founded  in  1861.  The  Bureau  was  turned 
into  a  department  of  the  municipal  council  in  1883.  It  then 
began  to  publish  the  Statistical  Annual  of  the  City  of  Vieima, 
which  is  still  in  existence.  Besides  this  the  department  also 
publishes  weekly  and  monthly  reports  on  almost  all  depart- 
ments of  the  administration. 

The  city  of  Prague  estabhshed  a  Bureau  of  its  own  in 
1870;  this  Bureau  works  along  the  same  hnes  as  that  of 


116  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Vienna,  and  publishes  a  Manual,  the  first  number  of  which 
appeared  in  1871. 

The  organization  of  an  office  of  statistics  in  Lemberg 
ensued  in  1872.  The  lack  of  efficiency  in  this  office  led  to 
its  reorganization  ia  1890.  Since  then  the  office  has  pub- 
lished an  annual  as  well  as  the  Statistical  Gazette  for  the 
City  of  Lemberg;  a  monthly  statistical  journal  since  1906. 

Great  results  have  been  achieved  by  the  statistical  service 
of  Cracow.  Here  we  have  numerous  reports  on  specific  city 
problems  which  date  back  as  far  as  1868,  but  it  was  not  until 
1884  that  an  office  of  statistics  was  established  in  this  city. 
This  office  now  publishes  annual  reports  on  the  movements 
of  population  and  sanitary  conditions,  besides  monthly 
reports  on  various  other  administrative  matters. 

The  establishment  of  a  Bureau  of  Statistics  in  Trieste 
dates  from  1873.  Since  1874  this  office  has  been  publishing 
monthly  reports  on  various  subjects,  and  since  1902  weekly 
demographical  and  meteorological  reports  besides. 

In  1880  a  municipal  statistical  office  was  organized  in 
Reichenberg;  to  this  office  we  owe  several  important  works 
on  communal  statistics. 

In  Aussig  the  statistical  memoranda  have  been  compiled 
since  1885  by  the  Board  of  Health,  which  handles  the  annual 
reports  on  the  demographical  and  hygienic  conditions  in  the 
city. 

Briinn  does  not  possess  a  bureau  of  its  own,  but  its  city 
council  publishes  a  report  on  communal  enterprises  and 
statistics. 

The  statistical  service  in  OlmUtz  and  Tetschen  is  organized 
in  a  similar  manner  to  that  of  Briinn.  Since  about  1888 
these  three  cities  have  published  reports  on  health  and  ad- 
ministration, mostly  comprising  five  years  each. 

Trient  has  had  an  office  of  statistics  for  some  time  now. 

One  more  extremely  valuable  organization  remains  to  be 
mentioned,  by  which  cooperation  between  the  national  and 
autonomous  governments  in  statistical  matters  is  secured. 
In  November,  1886,  Inama  invited  a  number  of  Austrian 


AUSTRIA  117 

cities  to  send  in  statistics  on  uniform  formulae.  The  invi- 
tation was  sent  to  all  corporate  towns  and  to  all  others  of 
more  than  15,000  inhabitants,  but  the  voluntary  participa- 
tion of  smaller  places  was  also  considered.  These  reports 
were  all  combined  in  an  Austrian  municipal  manual,  which 
was  laid  before  the  diet  of  the  fourth  United  Demographical 
and  Hygienic  Congress  in  Vienna.  A  conference  of  Austrian 
municip£ll  statisticians  was  held  in  connection  with  the  diet; 
this  conference  resolved  to  form  the  Austrian  municipal 
manual  into  a  regular  oflScial  statistical  publication. 

The  work  is  organized  on  the  principle  of  voluntary  con- 
tributions which  are  furnished  on  uniform  schedules,  these 
being  drawn  up  by  the  Central  Commission  in  agreement 
with  representatives  of  the  cities.  The  Conference  of  Mu- 
nicipal Statisticians,  which  meets  in  Vienna  every  two  years, 
determines  the  principles  on  which  the  work  shall  be  done. 

Under  the  influence  of  the  impetus  given  municipal  sta- 
tistics by  holding  inter-communal  conferences  and  the  pub- 
lication of  the  municipal  manual,  the  Diets  of  Silesia  and 
Moravia  almost  simultaneously  passed  a  resolution  to  come 
to  an  understanding  with  the  Central  Statistical  Commis- 
sion and  the  provincial  committees  of  the  other  crown  lands 
in  regard  to  the  mutual  extension  of  provincial  statistics. 

After  exhaustive  preliminary  discussions  the  publication 
of  a  Statistical  Annual  of  the  Autonomous  Provinces  was 
decided  on,  which  was  to  include  all  the  Austrian  crown 
lands.  The  materials  contributed  by  each  province  were 
gradually  to  extend  to  all  departments  of  their  administra- 
tion. A  periodical  compilation  of  separate  subjects  was  to 
be  made  at  longer  intervals,  mostly  five  years. 

The  whole  plan  for  the  work  is  laid  down  in  as  detailed  a 
manner  as  possible  at  general  conferences.  These  confer- 
ences met  only  in  Vienna  at  first,  but  since  1903  the  meeting- 
place  has  been  changed  each  time,  in  order  to  give  the 
representatives  of  the  various  provinces  an  opportunity  to 
inspect  personally  the  special  institutions  in  each  district. 
The  President  of  the  Central  Statistical  Commission  pre- 


118  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

sided  at  these  conferences,  and  the  necessary  preparations 
for  them  were  made  by  the  Central  Commission,  which 
also  has  charge  of  the  uniform  publication  of  the  materials. 

Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  the  Central  Commission  not  only 
had  a  direct  influence  on  the  organization  of  statistics  in  the 
autonomous  states,  but  also  assisted  in  their  development. 
The  advice  and  opinions  of  the  Commission  were  helpful  to 
provinces  and  cities  in  organizing  their  oflSces  of  statistics; 
the  Presidents  of  the  Commission  assisted  largely  by  per- 
sonal intervention;  it  was  also  an  inducement  to  many 
autonomous  offices  to  raise  their  standard  of  efficiency  to 
the  minimum  required  in  order  to  participate  in  the  general 
conferences. 

The  Treasury  Board,  as  has  already  been  mentioned, 
takes  a  lively  interest  in  provincial  and  municipal  finances; 
it  has  already  published  works  on  this  subject  and  is  con- 
tinuing to  do  so. 

With  all  due  appreciation  of  these  organizations,  there  are 
certain  faults  which  cannot  be  overlooked  in  a  just  criticism. 
The  present  organization  of  the  Provincial  and  Municipal 
Manual  is  based  on  the  principle  of  individual  liberty  with 
regard  to  the  contributions,  while  the  program  is  discussed 
jointly  but  not  accepted  as  binding  on  any  one.  The  success 
of  such  a  system  depends  very  largely  on  the  suggestive 
influence  of  the  leading  personalities  in  the  organization,  so 
that  no  system  can  be  created  on  a  permanent  basis  in  this 
manner.  The  lack  of  "executive  authority"  is  felt  here  as 
well  as  in  many  branches  of  national  statistics;  the  leading 
statistical  office  of  a  state  should  have  this  at  its  disposal  in 
order  to  ensure  successful  results. 

VI.     Conclusion 

There  is  no  fixed  rule  for  ffiling  the  leading  positions  in 
the  national  and  autonomous  offices  of  statistics;  indeed 
the  conditions  are  too  various  to  permit  of  a  uniform  custom. 
Of  late  years  the  President  of  the  Central  Commission  has 
been  chosen  from  the  ranks  of  men  who  have  been  aca- 


AUSTRIA  119 

demic  teachers  of  subjects  pertaining  to  statistics  and  have, 
at  the  same  time,  had  practical  experience  in  the  field  of 
government  statistics.  The  heads  of  the  offices  of  statistics 
in  the  central  department  usually  have  merely  practical 
office  training. 

The  autonomous  offices  of  statistics  are  conducted  partly 
by  former  officials  of  the  Central  Commission,  partly  by 
university  professors,  and  partly  by  men  who  have  received 
their  training  in  the  office  itself  or  in  similar  positions. 

The  experience  of  the  Central  Statistical  Commission 
with  regard  to  its  staff  has  proved  that  the  one-sided  training 
of  professional  statisticians  is  not  altogether  to  be  recom- 
mended for  positions  of  responsibihty.  For  such  positions 
a  thorough  grasp  of  administrative  matters  in  general  is 
essential,  for  statistical  research  alone  does  not  suffice  to 
unravel  the  tangled  threads  of  conditions  arising  from 
peculiar  causes. 

On  the  other  hand,  it  is  only  by  an  exact  knowledge  of 
the  separate  departments  of  the  administration  that  sta- 
tistics can  be  fitted  to  given  needs  and  thus  be  of  greater 
practical  value  without  detriment  to  scientific  research. 

In  the  statistical  service  of  the  central  departments  pro- 
fessional knowledge  of  these  departments  is  absolutely 
necessary  for  positions  of  responsibility;  this  is  especially 
the  case  in  the  "special  departments"  (Fachdepartements) 
of  the  Treasury  Board,  in  the  technical  insurance  office  in 
the  Home  Department,  etc. 

The  mere  numerical  compilation  of  the  materials  is 
mostly  in  the  hands  of  clerks  of  an  audit  office  who  have 
passed  a  government  examination.  A  special  technical 
examination  is  required  only  for  the  department  of  foreign 
and  interstate  trade  statistics. 

The  administration  of  statistics  is  assisted  in  manifold 
ways  by  various  offices  and  organizations. 

The  "competent"  (kompetent)  boards  naturally  coop- 
erate in  the  work,  but,  besides  these,  the  following  also 
assist:    The  advisory  Board  of  the  Office  of  Labor  Statis- 


120  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

tics;  the  Permanent  Commission  for  Estimating  Trade 
Values  in  the  Board  of  Trade.  In  compiling  harvest  sta- 
tistics the  chief  agricultural  corporations  have  the  assistance 
of  the  agricultural  unions,  the  district  associations  and 
clubs.  They  also  employ  permanently  confidential  men 
belonging  to  agricultural  circles,  such  as  teachers  in  agri- 
cultural colleges,  landed  proprietors,  farmers  and  other 
appropriate  persons. 

Statistical  work  in  Austria  has  been  directly  assisted  by 
the  pastors  of  the  religious  denominations  recognized  by 
law,  who  keep  "enrolment  books"  (Matrikenbiicher)  for 
this  purpose. 

The  Central  Commission  maintains  the  friendliest  rela- 
tions with  the  statistical  service  of  foreign  countries,  and 
the  directors  of  government  statistics  in  Austria  have  always 
regarded  it  as  a  privilege  to  assist  in  cultivating  these  rela- 
tions. Austria  was  one  of  the  first  states  that  made  the 
largest  appropriation  for  the  decrees  of  the  International 
Statistical  Congress,  which  held  its  third  session  in  Vienna 
in  1857.  The  diet  of  the  International  Statistical  Institute 
has  since  taken  the  place  of  the  Congress,  and  Austria 
has  become  more  closely  connected  than  ever  with  foreign 
countries  in  matters  of  statistics.  The  decrees  of  this 
scientific  association  are  regarded  as  a  standard,  not  only 
for  the  extension  of  the  work  in  new  departments,  but  also 
for  the  reconstruction  and  reformation  of  the  methods  and 
technique  of  the  whole  statistical  service. 

At  the  fourteenth  session  of  the  Institute,  held  recently 
in  Vienna,  a  resolution  was  passed  providing  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  an  international  Bureau  of  Statistics.  This 
Bureau  already  has  definite  prospects  of  specific  subsidies 
from  the  governments  of  various  states.  Thus  the  interna- 
tional interchange  of  ideas  on  cultural  work  of  mutual 
interest  has  been  greatly  advanced. 

The  appreciation  that  is  felt  for  Austria's  efficiency  in  the 
domain  of  international  statistics  has  been  proved  by  the 
fact  that  Inama  was  appointed  president  of  the  Institute 


AUSTRIA  121 

from  1899-1908,  while  Dr.  Meyer,  the  present  President 
of  the  Central  Commission,  is  now  vice-president  of  the 
Institute. 

The  Central  Commission  and  the  statistical  oflSces  of  the 
central  departments  maintain  a  permanent  correspondence 
with  a  number  of  independent  international  institutes. 
Among  these  are  the  Industrial  Institute  of  Agriculture  in 
Rome;  the  International  Bureau  for  Legal  Protection  of 
Labor  at  Basle;  the  International  Union  for  Dealing  with 
the  Problem  of  the  Unemployed  in  Ghent,  etc. 

The  cooperation  of  the  Central  Commission  and  the 
statistical  offices  of  the  central  departments  is  by  no  means 
restricted  to  the  members'  and  officers'  interest  and  partici- 
pation in  the  deliberations  of  the  Institute;  indeed  these 
departments  have  always  striven  to  call  the  attention  of 
foreign  experts  to  their  work,  especially  at  the  congresses 
and  the  larger  international  expositions. 

There  is  no  prospect  of  any  fundamental  change  in  Aus- 
trian statistics.  Although  the  present  highly  developed 
system  of  decentralization  has  the  disadvantages  that  have 
been  described,  it  also  has  the  advantage  of  facilitating 
the  adaptation  of  statistical  work  to  the  vicissitudes  of 
agricultural  and  social  life,  which  sometimes  occur  rather 
suddenly.  The  legal  bases  of  statistics  are  not  sufficiently 
developed  yet;  only  in  certain  departments  are  there  any 
definite  rules  to  regulate  the  obligation  to  assist  in  taking 
the  census,  whether  it  be  by  furnishing  reports  or  collecting 
data;  for  various  reasons  there  are  special  difficulties  in  the 
way  of  perfecting  legislation  along  these  lines  in  Austria. 
Both  these  reasons,  the  excessive  division  of  labor  and  the 
unequal  distribution  of  legislative  bases,  place  great  diffi- 
culties in  the  way  of  an  equable  development  of  statistics. 

With  regard  to  the  first,  the  Central  Commission  has  a 
very  important  task  to  perform,  and  must  cooperate  in  the 
organization  that  has  become  necessary  owing  to  the  dis- 
tribution of  the  work. 

The  fact  that  the  Commission  is  composed  of  representa- 


122  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

tives  of  all  departments  enables  it  to  keep  the  whole  thing 
in  view  in  spite  of  the  multiplicity  of  various  branches.  It 
behooves  the  Commission  especially  to  follow  the  improve- 
ments in  methods  and  technique  in  all  countries  and  thus 
to  keep  the  lead  in  statistics.  It  may  be  that  the  organi- 
zation is  somewhat  lax  in  comparison  with  the  importance 
and  difficulty  of  the  undertaking.  A  large  amoimt  of 
mutual  good-will  and  cooperation  are  needed  in  order  to 
attain  the  end  in  view,  but  these  have  not  been  lacking 
hitherto,  and  the  last  few  years  especially  have  brought 
most  satisfactory  results. 


BELGIUM 


THE   HISTORY  AND   DEVELOPMENT   OF 
STATISTICS  IN  BELGIUM 

By  Dr.  Armand  Julin 

Director-General  of  the  Belgian  Labor  Bureau,  Member  of  the  International 
Statistical  Institute 

Chapter  I.    Historical  Survey 

A  vigorous  interest  in  statistical  researches  has  been  both 
created  and  facilitated  in  Belgium  by  her  restricted  terri- 
tory, very  dense  population,  prosperous  agriculture,  and  the 
variety  and  vitality  of  her  manufacturing  interests.  Nor 
need  it  surprise  us  that  the  successive  governments  of  Bel- 
gium have  given  statistics  a  prominent  place  in  their  affairs. 
Baron  de  Reiffenberg,  who  published  a  bibliography  of  the 
ancient  statistics  of  Belgium,*  has  given  a  long  list  of  docu- 
ments relating  to  the  population,  agriculture,  industry, 
commerce,  transportation  facilities,  finance,  army,  etc.  It 
was,  however,  chiefly  the  Austrian  government  which  in- 
creased the  number  of  such  investigations  and  reports. 
The  royal  archives  are  filled  to  overflowing  with  documents 
from  that  period  of  our  history  and  their  very  over-abun- 
dance forms  even  for  the  historian  a  most  diflScult  task.f 

With  the  French  domination  (1794-1814),  the  interest  for 
statistics  did  not  diminish.  Lucien  Bonaparte,  Minister  of 
the  Interior  from  1799-1800,  organized  in  France  the  first 
Bureau  of  Statistics,  while  his  successor,  Chaptal,  undertook 
to  compile  the  statistics  of  the  departments.  As  far  as 
Belgium  is  concerned,  there  were  published  in  Paris  seven 
statistical  memoirs  prepared  under  the  direction  of  the 
prefects.    An  eighth  issue  was  not  finished  and  a  ninth  one 

*  Nouveaux  mimoires  de  I'Acadimie  royale  des  sciences  et  belles  lettres  de  Bruxelles, 
t.  VII. 

t  The  Archives  of  the  kingdom  and  the  catalogue  of  the  van  Hulthem  library, 
preserved  in  the  Biblioth^que  Royale  at  Brussells,  offer  valuable  information  on 
this  head. 


126  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

was  never  printed.  Each  of  these  memoirs  dealt  with  a 
single  province  of  Belgium.  Their  plan,  however,  was  not 
uniform;  but  they  generally  treated  of  the  principal  objects, 
such  as  territory,  population,  agriculture,  industry  and  com- 
merce. These  documents  contain  a  mass  of  information 
which  is  even  today  full  of  interest  and  valuable  for  purposes 
of  comparison  with  more  recent  data.  Because  of  the 
increased  cost  of  their  publication,  the  French  government 
discontinued  in  1805  to  print  these  statistical  memoirs  of  the 
prefects.  Nevertheless,  these  officials  continued  to  compile 
certain  data  and  to  pubUsh  them  in  the  form  of  almanacs.* 

After  the  fall  of  the  French  empire,  the  provinces  of 
Belgium  were  in  1814  united  with  Holland.  A  royal  decree 
of  July  3,  1826,  appointed  a  statistical  commission  attached 
to  the  central  office  in  the  Hague.  The  management  of 
this  office  was  entrusted  to  Ed.  Smits,  who,  at  the  same 
time,  served  as  General  Secretary  of  the  Statistical  Com- 
mission. 

It  is  about  this  time  that  the  name  of  Queteletf  first 
appears  in  the  history  of  Belgian  statistics.  To  be  more 
precise,  it  was  in  the  month  of  April,  1825,  that  Quetelet 
presented  to  the  Academy  his  first  statistical  work  entitled : 
"Memoir  sur  les  lois  des  naissances  et  de  la  mortality  k 
Bruxelles."  During  his  stay  in  Paris  in  1823,  Quetelet  made 
the  acquaintance  of  Foiuier,  Poisson,  Lacroix  and  other 
French  savants.  It  was  from  this  time  that  he  began  to 
interest  himself  in  statistics  from  a  scientific  viewpoint. 
It  was  not  very  long  after  his  initiation  that  the  first  results 
of  his  renowned  activity  became  known. 

In  1827  Smits  pubUshed  in  Bruxelles,  under  the  auspices 
of  the  statistical  commission  of  the  Netherlands,  the  first 
official  collection  of  documents  entitled  "Statistique  na- 
tionale.     Developpement  de  trente  et  un  tableaux  publics 

*  Heuschling.  Apergu  des  principales  publications  statistiques  faites  sur  la  Belgique. 
depuis  Vincorperation  de  ce  pays  d  la  France,  en  179i,  jusgu'i  ce  jour.  {Bulletin  de 
la  Commission  Centrale  de  statistique,  tome  I,  pp.  679  et  suiv.) 

t  Joseph  Lottin.  Quetelet,  StatisHden  et  sodologue,  Louvain,  Institut  suplrieur 
de  philosophie,  191S. 


BELGIUM  127 

par  la  Commission  de  statistique."  This  work,  although  of 
little  scientific  value,  contained  researches  into  the  number 
of  births,  deaths  and  marriages  in  the  Netherlands  during 
the  period  1815-1824.  The  second  collection  of  tables  pub- 
lished by  the  general  commission  of  statistics  appeared  in 
the  Hague  in  the  year  1829  and  dealt  with  the  movement  of 
foreign  commerce  during  1825-1828,  sanitation,  agriculture, 
meteorology,  fisheries  and  coal  mining. 

Quetelet,  with  his  definite  bent  towards  statistics,  engaged 
several  experts  to  undertake  the  calculation  of  mortality 
tables  for  some  of  the  more  important  cities  of  Belgium. 
He  himself  continued  his  researches  into  the  births  and 
deaths  in  Bruxelles  and  worked  up  from  the  original  official 
documents  the  number  of  foundlings,  inmates  of  work- 
houses and  prisons  in  the  kingdom.  It  is  with  the  aid  of 
these  documents  that  he  wrote  his  memoir:  "Recherches 
sur  la  population,  les  naissances,  les  deces,  les  prisons,  les 
dep6ts  de  mendicite,  etc.,  dans  le  royaume  des  Pays-Bas," 
laid  before  the  Academy  February  27,  1827.  This  work, 
Quetelet  stated,  had  been  undertaken  for  the  purpose  of 
inducing  the  government  to  take  a  new  census  of  the  popu- 
lation. And  indeed,  on  September  29,  1828,  a  royal  decree 
ordered  a  census  to  be  taken  on  January  1,  1830,  the  very 
year  in  which  the  revolution  broke  out  which  gave  Belgium 
her  independence.  The  Dutch  troops  were  withdrawn  after 
four  days'  fighting,  continuing  from  September  23  to  26, 
1830.  September  26  the  provisional  government  was  or- 
ganized and  proclaimed  the  independence  of  Belgium  to  take 
efifect  on  October  4,  and  announced  the  approaching  convo- 
cation of  a  Congress. 

The  taking  of  the  census  itself  was  in  no  way  impeded  by 
these  events,  but  the  tabulation  of  the  data  was  necessarily 
retarded.  The  new  government,  however,  showed  great 
interest  in  statistics  in  spite  of  its  preoccupation  with 
more  urgent  government  affairs.  On  February  24,  1831,  a 
few  days  after  the  Congress  had  enacted  the  constitution, 
the  provisional  government  organized  a  general  statistical 


128  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

bureau  in  the  department  of  the  interior.  Smits  was  made 
its  first  director.  A  decree  of  the  regent  of  Belgium  com- 
missioned Smits  and  Quetelet  to  publish  the  results  of  the 
Census  of  1830.* 

The  publication  appeared  in  the  beginning  of  the  year 
1832  under  the  title:  "Recherches  sur  la  reproduction  et 
sur  la  mortalite  de  I'homme  aux  differents  S,ges  et  sur  la 
population  de  la  Belgique  d'apres  le  recensement  de  1829 
(premier  recueil  officiel  des  documents  statistiques)."  This 
work  contains  the  first  table  of  the  population  of  Belgium 
classified  according  to  sex  and  civil  condition,  as  well  as  a 
table  of  the  mortality  in  urban  and  rural  districts.  Further- 
more, it  contains  observations  on  the  influence  of  age, 
occupation,  economic  status,  sex  and  season  upon  mortality. 
Although  this  work  was  published  under  the  name  of  Quete- 
let and  Smits,  the  former  was  responsible  for  the  greater 
part  of  it. 

A  little  over  a  year  later,  Smits  and  Quetdlet  published 
a  second  work,  "Statistique  des  tribuneaux  de  la  Belgique 
pendant  les  anndes  1826-1830  (2e  recueil  oflSciel)."  Quete- 
let, who  already  since  1828  had  made  known  his  views  on 
social  determinism,  was  intensely  interested  in  moral  sta- 
tistics. We  need  not  be  surprised,  therefore,  that  under  his 
influence  the  question  of  criminality  was,  from  the  very 
beginning,  given  prominent  place  by  the  Bureau  of  Statis- 
tics.    The  larger  part  of  this  work  was  due  to  Quetelet. 

The  means  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  bureau  were  not 
large  and  even  the  very  existence  of  the  bureau  uncertain. 
More  than  once  the  necessary  amount  proposed  in  the 
budget  was  questioned.  We  also  owe  a  great  debt  to  Smits, 
in  spite  of  the  imperfections  of  his  works,  for  having  safe- 
guarded the  existence  of  the  bureau  and  succeeded  in  pub- 
lishing in  succession  four  volumes  on  the  general  statistics 
of  the  kingdom.  They  appeared  in  1836,  1838,  1840  and 
1841,  respectively,  the  material  treated  therein  being  classi- 

*  Quetelet.    Notice  sur  M.  Edouard  Smits.     (Bulletin  de  la  Commission  centrale 
de  statistique,  tome  V.) 


BELGIUM  129 

fied  under  four  principal  divisions :  the  physical,  industrial, 
political  and  moral  state  of  Belgium. 

Quetelet,  in  his  necrological  notes  dedicated  to  Smits, 
after  having  called  attention  to  the  sectional  division  of 
the  above-mentioned  works,  adds  the  following  interesting 
remark:  "It  is  to  be  regretted  that,  since  then,  it  has 
practically  been  decided  to  adhere  no  longer  to  this  form 
and  to  decentralize  statistics  and  to  assign  its  branches  to 
the  different  Ministries;  it  is  evident  that  it  is  in  the  interest 
of  the  administration  and  of  science  to  centralize,  at  least 
as  regards  the  publications,  and  to  re-adopt  the  former 
methods,  if  only  from  the  viewpoint  of  uniformity  and 
economy."  * 

Smits  tendered  his  resignation  in  1841.  This  is  an  impor- 
tant year  in  the  history  of  Belgian  statistics,  for  it  marks 
the  entrance  of  Quetelet  on  the  scene  of  official  statistics 
upon  which  his  strong  personality  left  an  indelible  impres- 
sion. 

On  the  16th  of  March,  1841,  there  was  organized  in  the 
Ministry  of  the  Interior  a  statistical  central  commission. 

A  report  t  to  the  king  sets  forth  in  the  following  terms 
the  way  in  which  this  institution  came  into  being : 

In  creating  in  the  Ministry  of  the  Interior  a  central  bureau  of  statistics,  the  provi- 
sional government  intended  to  enable  the  administration  to  gather  and  classify  in 
systematic  order  the  available  data  which  are  to  be  made  the  subject  of  research 
by  this  important  branch  of  governmental  science. 

But  soon  this  object  was  lost  sight  of.  Some  departments  neglected  their  statis- 
tics entirely,  while  others  worked  thereon  so  independently,  that  they  often  drew 
their  information  from  the  same  source,  in  this  way  duplicating  and  crossing  each 
other  in  their  researches.  This  lack  of  coordination  was  bound  to  lead  to  disorgani- 
zation, double  work  and  incompleteness. 

What  oiu"  statistics  most  need  in  order  that  our  government  and  science  may 
derive  the  best  results  to  which  they  are  justly  entitled  after  all  these  efforts  is  a 
central  management,  a  clear  object  and  well  defined  bases  of  investigation. 

There  shall  be  created  a  statistical  central  commission  for  the  purpose  of  bringing 
together  in  a  central  office  all  the  information  which  has  heretofore  been  collected 
by  the  different  administrations. 

Each  department  shall  continue  to  publish  its  own  statistics  but  on  a  uniform 

*  Quetelet,  he  dt.,  p.  543. 

t  The  documents  analysed  hereafter  are  printed  in  extenso  in  the  front  of  the  first 
volume  of  the  Bulletin  de  la  Commission  Centrale  de  Statistique. 
10 


130  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

plan,  previously  decided  upon,  in  this  way  securing  a  working  coordination  and  a 
uniformity  of  the  publications. 

On  account  of  its  importance  we  quote  the  exact  text  of 
the  royal  decree  of  March  16,  1841: 

Pursuant  of  a  decree  of  the  provisional  government  of  Belgium,  dated  January 
24,  1831,  commissioning  the  ministry  of  the  interior  with  the  creation  of  a  general 
statistical  department  of  the  kingdom; 

In  order  to  regulate  and  extend  the  statistical  publications  of  the  different  minis- 
terial departments; 

On  the  strength  of  the  reports  of  our  Minister  of  the  Interior  and  the  advice  of 
the  chiefs  of  the  other  departments; 

We  have  decreed  and  are  decreeing: 

Article  1. — Be  it  known  that  there  is  created  in  the  ministry  of  the  interior  a 
statistical  central  commission  whose  members  shall  be  appointed  by  us  and  chosen 
as  far  as  possible  from  among  the  o£Scials  of  the  different  government  departments. 

Article  2. — One  third  of  the  commission  shall  be  renewed  every  two  years 
beginning  with  the  first  day  of  January,  1843.  The  retirements  shall  take  place 
in  order  of  seniority  in  service  and,  in  case  of  equality,  by  lot.  Retiring  members 
shall  be  provided  for. 

Article  3. — The  commission  shall  submit  a  complete  plan  for  the  statistical 
publications  of  the  different  branches  of  the  administration. 

Article  4. — It  shall  have  to  pass  upon  matters  submitted  to  it  by  our  Minister 
of  the  Interior.     It  shall  communicate  directly  with  the  Minister. 

Article  5. — ^The  manner  in  which  it  is  to  exercise  its  functions  and  the  order 
of  its  working  procedure  shall  be  set  forth  in  a  special  manual,  subject  to  our 
approval,  drawn  up  by  the  Minister  of  the  Interior  with  the  assistance  of  the  chiefs 
of  other  departments. 

Article  6. — A  certain  sum  shall  be  appropriated  for  attendance,  allowances  and 
office  expenses. 

Article  7. — Our  Minister  of  the  Interior  is  responsible  for  the  execution  of  this 
decree. 

Bbuxelles,  March  16,  1841.  Leopold. 

Quetelet,  who  was  appointed  president  of  the  Statistical 
Central  Commission,  held  this  position  until  his  death  on 
February  17,  1874,  and  Xavier  HeuschUng,  chief  of  the 
statistical  bureau  of  the  Ministry  of  the  Interior,  was  made 
secretary  of  the  commission,  in  which  capacity  he  served 
until  December  30,  1870. 

Immediately  after  the  institution  of  the  Statistical  Central 
Commission,  the  government  endeavored  to  ascertain  and 
report  regularly  upon  the  strength  and  wealth  of  the  country, 
the  physical  condition  and  the  moral  and  intellectual  state 


BELGIUM  131 

of  the  nation.  With  this  object  in  view,  official  publications 
were  undertaken  or  continued  on  the  subject  of  the  move- 
ment of  the  population,  foreign  commerce,  mining,  metallur- 
gical factories  and  steam  engines.  There  need  as  yet  to  be 
mentioned  the  rather  important  administrative  pubUcations 
of  the  railroads,  the  highways  and  canals,  city  toll,  tariff  on 
bread  and  meat,  conditions  of  the  laboring  classes  and  child 
labor,  work  performed  in  prisons  and  workhouses,  gifts  for 
religious  and  charitable  establishments  and  public  instruc- 
tion in  all  grades.* 

But  it  was  the  preparation  for  and  taking  of  a  complete 
census  to  which  the  efforts  of  the  Statistical  Central  Commis- 
sion were  chiefly  directed.  This  census,  which  was  taken 
on  the  15th  of  October,  1846,  dealt  with  the  population, 
with  agriculture  and  with  industry.  At  the  time  of  its 
issuance  it  was  considered  a  work  of  the  highest  order  from 
the  viewpoint  of  statistical  analysis  and  arrangement  of  the 
material  and  even  today  gives  valuable  information  on 
many  points. 

The  data  relating  to  that  part  of  the  census  deaUng  with 
the  population  are  subdivided  into  the  following  subjects : — 
the  number  of  inhabited  and  empty  houses;  the  number  of 
stories  and  occupied  rooms,  classified  according  to  urban 
and  rural  districts;  pleasure  grounds  adjoining  dweUings; 
houses  insured  against  fire,  and  the  amount  of  insurance, 
furniture  and  merchandise  included;  population  by  house 
and  family;  population  classified  by  sex;  indigent  families 
or  households  one  or  more  of  whose  members  are  dependent 
upon  public  charity;  children  classified  by  sex,  who  are 
receiving  instruction  in  primary,  middle  or  superior  public 
schools  or  at  home;  finally,  the  population  according  to 
residence  at  the  time  of  the  enumeration  and  classified  as  to 
civil  status,  origin,  language,  religion,  age,  occupation  or 
condition,  t 

*See,  Expoai  de  la  Situation  du  Royaume,  18il-B0,  Introduction.  In  the 
Bibliography  prepared  by  Heuschling,  and  cited  above,  will  be  found  the  exact 
titles  of  the  publications  here  mentioned  in  a  general  way. 

t  Expose  de  la  Situation  du  Royaume,  18^-60,  titre  II,  p.  i. 


132  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

The  agricultural  census  is  even  today  considered  by 
scientists  a  work  of  the  first  order.  It  comprised  an  enumer- 
ation in  each  community  of  the  agricultural  population  from 
the  age  of  12  and  upwards,  separating  the  members  of  the 
family  permanently  occupied  in  agricultural  pursuits,  the 
farm  hands  and  day  laborers,  with  the  number  of  days  spent 
in  work  during  the  year,  the  number  of  domestic  animals, 
the  area  under  cultivation,  the  subdivisions  of  this  area,  the 
nature  and  extent  of  the  products,  the  production  and 
quantity  per  hectare  and  the  total  quantity,  also  informa- 
tion on  the  rotation  of  crops,  the  mean  weight  of  grain  and 
seed  per  hectolitre,  the  wages  of  the  day  laborers,  the  average 
price  of  the  ground  and  the  leases  per  hectare  and  the  seeds 
used  per  hectare. 

The  industrial  census  contained  information  for  each 
industry  of  the  country  as  to  the  number  of  factories,  manu- 
facturers or  artisans,  the  number  of  workers  by  sex  and  age 
(including  the  foremen  and  members  of  the  family  employed 
as  workmen);  a  classification  of  the  workers  according  to 
daily  wages;  the  number  and  amount  of  horse  power  of  the 
engines;  the  number  of  furnaces,  forges  and  ovens;  the 
number  of  looms,  machines  and  principal  utensils  employed 
in  the  industry. 

It  had  not  been  considered  advisable  to  extend  the  census 
any  further  for  fear  that  the  accuracy  of  the  declaration 
might  suffer  and  that,  in  asking  for  too  many  details,  the 
whole  success  of  the  enterprise  might  be  jeopardized. 

The  statistical  tables  are  arranged  according  to  a  general 
technological  grouping  and  according  to  the  alphabetical 
order  of  the  industries.  The  data  of  those  localities  entitled 
to  the  name  of  towns  are  published  separately,  while  those 
of  other  communities  are  treated  together.  Furthermore, 
the  results  are  classified  by  provinces,  and  a  second  part 
of  the  census  entitled  "Recapitulation  generale"  groups  all 
the  former  data  and  summarizes  them.  The  industrial 
classification  comprises  275  rubrics  or  divisions. 


BELGIUM  133 

The  Census  of  1846  does  not  concern  itself  with  industries 
carried  on  in  the  home. 

According  to  the  authors  of  the  census,  "this  restriction 
was  necessary  in  order  to  prevent  double  entries  which 
would  otherwise  have  occurred  frequently  as  many  house- 
workers  work  for  more  than  one  concern." 

Nor  was  the  population  following  commercial  pursuits 
considered  in  this  census.  The  transportation  industry  was 
also  omitted  in  the  enumeration. 

From  the  view  point  of  accuracy  of  the  declarations  made, 
the  most  stringent  precautions  were  taken  to  insure  the 
return  of  the  bulletins,  which  were  subjected  to  a  most 
rigid  examination  on  the  part  of  the  central  administration, 
and  whenever  the  slightest  doubt  existed,  supplementary 
information  was  asked  for. 

As  regards  the  number  of  workers  occupied  in  various 
industries  (314,842),  it  must  be  considered  firstly,  that  the 
census  was  taken  in  October  of  1846,  that  is  to  say,  right 
after  a  very  severe  economic  crisis,  and  that  it  is  therefore 
safe  to  say  that  the  declarations  made  by  the  employers  have 
in  many  cases  been  incorrect;  and  secondly,  that  the  em- 
ployers rarely  return  the  exact  number  of  workmen  employed 
in  order  to  escape  part  of  the  hcense  fee.  The  figures  given 
in  the  statistics  have,  therefore,  more  than  once  been  taken 
from  the  number  of  licenses  issued  annually.  The  number 
of  314,842  workmen  must  thus  be  regarded  as  very  low. 

The  official  statistics  were  thus  based  upon  this  threefold 
Census  of  1846. 

With  these  vast  operations  the  organization  period  of 
Belgian  statistics  is  brought  to  a  close. 


134  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Chapter  II.    Organization  and  Reports  op  Statistical 

Services 

I.    Legislation 

In  Belgium  there  is  no  general  legislation  on  the  organi- 
zation and  functional  purposes  of  statistics. 

The  enumerations  of  the  population  were  soon  taken  at 
regular  intervals.  After  the  first  census  of  this  kind  had 
been  taken  in  conformity  with  an  Order  in  Council  of  June 

30,  1846,  a  law  of  June  2,  1856,  prescribed  that  a  general 
census  of  the  population  should  be  taken  every  ten  years  in 
all  of  the  communes  of  the  kingdom,  the  first  of  which  was 
to  take  place  December  31,  of  the  same  year.  Later,  in 
order  to  bring  the  Belgian  census  date  into  agreement  with 
that  generally  selected  in  other  countries,  the  law  of  May  25, 
1880,  modified  the  period  of  the  general  enumeration.  The 
first  clause  states  that  the  enumeration  of  the  population 
should  take  place  henceforth  on  dates  corresponding  to  a 
decimal  date.     The  next  census  was  fixed  for  December 

31,  1880.  It  was  to  include  a  census  of  agriculture  and 
industry. 

The  keeping  of  registers  of  population  is  closely  bound 
up  with  the  carrying  out  of  general  enumerations.  The 
Order  in  Council  of  June  30,  1846,  had  already  made  this 
obligatory  in  each  of  the  communes  of  the  kingdom;  the 
law  of  June  2,  1856,  renewed  this  requirement  and  ordained 
that  the  registers  of  population  should  be  corrected  and 
completed  after  each  census. 

A  census  of  industry  was  taken  in  1846,  in  1866  (not  pub- 
lished), in  1880,  in  1896  and  in  1910.  The  first  three  were 
taken  by  virtue  of  the  law  and  Orders  in  Council  prescrib- 
ing the  census  of  the  population.  That  of  1896  was  taken 
under  the  law  of  June  29,  1896;  articles  3  and  4  of  this  law 
provided  penalties  for  persons  who  refused  to  fulfil  the  re- 
quirements of  the  census  and  declared  that  the  facts  might 
be  gathered  oflacially  at  the  expense  of  the  delinquents. 


BELGIUM  135 

The  law  of  December  14,  1910,  made  provision  for  the 
taking  of  a  census  of  industry  at  regular  intervals:  "There 
shall  be  taken  every  ten  years,"  states  the  first  clause  of 
that  law,  "conjointly  with  the  general  census  of  the  popula- 
tion, a  census  of  industry  and  of  commerce." 

Compared  with  previous  laws  relating  to  the  censuses  of 
industry,  the  law  of  December  14,  1910,  presents  various 
distinctive  features:  First,  the  regular  periodicity  of  the 
census  is  established,  whereas  previously  the  census  had  been 
taken  at  irregular  intervals  of  from  twenty  to  fourteen  and 
sixteen  years  between  former  censuses;  second,  the  census 
is  combined  with  the  enumeration  of  the  population  and  is 
taken  conjointly  with  it.  This  was  the  case  in  1846,  in 
1866  and  in  1880,  but  the  Census  of  1896  was  based  upon 
the  population  registers  drawn  up  as  a  result  of  the 
general  census  of  December  31,  1890.  A  summary  of  the 
methods  of  the  Census  of  1896  gives  all  the  details  resulting 
from  the  choice  of  this  statistical  basis;  third,  the  census  is 
extended  to  include  industry  and  commerce.  Those  of 
1846,  1880  and  1896  include  only  industry;  that  of  1866  was 
extended  to  commercial  estabHshments  but  it  was  not  pub- 
lished. As  in  1896,  penalties  are  provided  for  those  who 
refuse  to  comply  with  the  official  requirements. 

There  were  censuses  of  agriculture  in  1846,  in  1856,  in 
1866  and  1880,  carried  out  simultaneously  with  the  censuses 
of  the  population.  The  law  of  September  11,  1895,  provided 
for  a  general  census  of  agriculture  to  be  taken  that  year. 
Clause  two  of  the  same  law  states:  that  beginning  with  the 
year  1896  a  partial  census  of  agriculture  should  be  taken 
annually,  relating  particularly  to  crops  and  the  number  of 
the  principal  animals  utilized  in  agriculture. 

These  partial  enumerations  were  carried  out  for  some 
years.  They  were  finally  discontinued,  their  utility  not 
being  proportionate  to  their  expense.  A  general  census  was 
taken  on  December  31,  1910. 

The  legislative  measures  which  have  just  been  enumer- 
ated had  in  view  certain  special  statistical  operations,  such 


136  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

as  the  enumerations  of  the  population,  of  industry  and  of 
agriculture,  or  keeping  the  registers  of  the  population. 
They  do  not  exactly  constitute  a  government  statute  whose 
character  is  determined  by  a  definite  statistical  purpose. 
We  must  turn  to  the  Bureau  of  Labor  in  order  to  see  an 
instance  of  general  statistics  regulated  by  a  public  act  of 
authority.  The  Bureau  of  Labor  was  created  by  an  Order 
in  Council  of  November  12,  1894,  and  was  organized  by 
virtue  of  a  second  Order  in  Council  bearing  the  date  of  April 
12,  1895.  According  to  the  terms  of  article  2  of  this  Order, 
"the  Bureau  of  Labor  has  for  its  function  to  make  inquiry, 
wherever  necessary,  and  at  the  instance  of  competent  author- 
ities, as  to  the  outlook  of  industrial  and  agricultural  labor, 
and  also  as  to  the  condition  of  the  wage  earners  in  industry, 
trades,  commerce,  agriculture  and  transportation;  to  in- 
vestigate the  effects  of  the  laws  and  regulations  regarding 
them,  and  in  general  to  collect  all  such  information  as  may 
contribute  to  their  material,  intellectual  and  moral  well- 
being." 

There  may  also  be  cited  among  the  measures  taken  in 
Belgium  by  the  central  authority,  the  Orders  in  Council 
by  virtue  of  which  the  Statistical  Central  Commission  has 
been  charged  with  pubhshing  an  account  of  the  condition 
of  the  kingdom.  The  purpose  of  these  publications  is  to 
state  authoritatively  and  set  forth  in  regular  order  the  phys- 
ical, moral  and  intellectual  condition  of  the  nation,  the 
power,  the  strength,  and  the  wealth  of  the  country.  Sta- 
tistical accounts  have  appeared  relating  to  the  periods 
1841-1850,  1851-1860,  1861-1875,  1876  to  1900.  The 
compilation  of  the  last  summary  statement  which  has  just 
been  published  was  the  outcome  of  an  Order  in  Council  of 
May  29,  1902.  A  new  summary  statement  for  the  period 
1901-1910  is  in  preparation  (Order  in  Council,  November 
20,  1913). 

Aside  from  the  cases  which  have  just  been  noted,  the 
statistical  publications  by  the  different  ministerial  depart- 
ments do  not  find  their  basis  in  an  act  of  legislative  power 


BELGIUM  137 

or  of  executive  power,  in  the  form  of  an  Order  in  Council; 
they  originate  by  virtue  of  an  administrative  decision  and 
are  based  on  a  tradition  more  or  less  ancient.  A  complete 
hst  of  them  is  given  at  the  end  of  this  article. 

II.     Subject  Matter  of  the  Principal  Statistical  Publications 

in  Belgium 

A.  Deniographic  Statistics. — ^The  principal  demographical 
investigation  is  the  census  of  the  population,  the  basic  leg- 
islation for  which  we  have  pointed  out  above. 

The  census*  aims  to  ascertain  the  number  of  inhabitants 
either  according  to  the  population  of  customary  residence 
or  according  to  the  population  de  facto;  also  according  to 
sex,  age,  place  of  birth,  nationality,  language,  degree  of 
education,  civil  condition,  occupations  or  positions  of  the 
inhabitants,  number  of  households  and  the  number  of 
houses.  The  census  is  preceded  by  a  verification  of  the 
numbering  of  all  the  houses  and  places  which  serve  as  habi- 
tations, and  of  a  list  of  these  houses  and  places. 

Agents  are  appointed  by  the  communal  administrations 
under  the  control  of  the  provincial  governor  in  the  propor- 
tion of  at  least  one  to  every  one  thousand  inhabitants,  to 
distribute  and  gather  up  from  the  houses  the  blank  forms 
provided  for  the  declarations  of  the  inhabitants.  The  dis- 
tribution of  the  blank  forms  is  made  from  the  20th  to  the 
25th  of  December.  These  forms  are  of  three  kinds:  the 
household  form,  the  special  personal  form  and  the  special 
collective  form. 

On  the  household  form,  the  only  form  used  previous  to 
1876,  is  written  the  names  of  every  person  composing  the 
household,  having  their  customary  residence  in  the  enumer- 
ated house,  whether  they  are  present  or  not  at  the  time  of 
the  taking  of  the  census. 

The  special  personal  form  is  used  for  the  names  of  persons 
who  do  not  have  their  customary  residence  in  the  house  but 

*  From  the  Report  an  the  Condition  of  the  Kingdom,  1876-1910.    Vol.  II,  p.  68. 


138  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

find  themselves  there  accidentally  at  the  time  of  the  taking 
of  the  census. 

The  special  collective  form,  established  in  1890,  includes 
the  list  of  persons  segregated  in  boarding  schools,  barracks, 
charitable  institutions,  etc.  The  facts  concerning  each  of 
the  persons  inscribed  in  the  collective  form  are  finally  copied 
on  individual  sUps  which  are  addressed,  like  the  special 
personal  forms,  to  the  commune  in  which  the  various  persons 
have  declared  that  they  have  their  customary  residence. 
These  forms,  then,  only  serve  to  avoid  duplications  and  to 
check  the  names  on  the  household  form.  The  household 
form  is- the  basis  of  the  census.  Every  Belgian  or  foreigner, 
whether  present  or  not  at  the  time  of  the  taking  of  the  cen- 
sus in  the  house  where  he  customarily  resides,  ought  to  be 
inscribed  on  the  household  form  sent  into  that  house.  The 
total  of  the  persons  whose  names  appear  on  the  household 
form  constitute  the  population  de  jure.  Household  must 
not  be  confused  with  family.  The  instructions  of  1900 
precisely  define  these  terms,  stating  that  "the  household 
(menage)  is  a  small  or  collective  unit  made  up  either  of  one 
person  hving  alone  or  by  a  combination  of  two  or  more 
persons  who,  whether  united  or  not  by  family  bonds,  cus- 
tomarily reside  in  the  same  habitation  and  there  have  a 
common  life." 

The  household  form  and  eventually  the  special  form  must 
be  completed  by  the  head  of  the  household,  who  must  give 
the  facts  corresponding  to  the  situation  as  of  midnight, 
December  31. 

The  taking  of  the  returns  at  the  houses  of  the  inhabitants 
is  begun  January  2,  by  census  agents.  It  is  the  duty  of 
these  agents  to  check  the  accuracy  of  the  declarations. 
The  following  are  the  steps  successively  taken:  first,  the 
filling  in  of  a  special  return  of  the  number  of  houses  and 
households;  second,  transcribing  on  individual  cards  the 
facts  mentioned  for  each  person  in  the  household  form;  third, 
calculation,  from  the  number  of  these  cards,  of  the  number 
of  inhabitants,  by  classes,  and  the  writing  of  this  number 


BELGIUM  139 

in  the  special  returns.  The  counting  of  the  individual  cards 
has  replaced  the  checking  system  used  prior  to  1876  in  mak- 
ing the  abstracts  from  the  household  forms. 

The  communal  administration  transcribes  the  numbers 
from  these  returns  into  recapitulation  tables,  and  sends 
them  to  the  Minister  of  the  Interior.  A  specially  created 
census  bureau  there  verifies  and  coordinates  the  tables 
drawn  up  by  the  communal  administrations,  and  proceeds 
to  the  work  of  recapitulation  by  administrative  arrondisse- 
ments,  by  provinces  and  for  the  kingdom.  The  infant 
population  was  classified  in  1890  according  to  the  language 
customarily  used  in  the  household  of  which  they  formed  a 
part;  in  1900,  as  in  1880,  they  have  been  considered  as  not 
speaking  any  language. 

The  statistics  of  changes  in  the  civil  condition  of  the  popu- 
lation are  published  by  the  Statistical  Central  Commission; 
these  may  perhaps  be  considered  as  a  supplement  to  the 
population  census,  and  for  that  reason  assume  a  real  impor- 
tance. These  statistics  were  first  published  in  1857.*  They 
were  at  first  included  in  a  collection  entitled  "Documents 
Statistiques."  These  documents  were  discontinued  in  1869, 
when  they  were  replaced  by  the  "Annuaire  Statistique" 
of  the  kingdom,  the  first  volume  of  which  contained  docu- 
ments relating  to  the  year  1870.  It  was  thought  that  the 
statistics  of  the  changes  in  the  civil  condition  and  of  the 
population  would  be  duplicated  by  the  data  published  in 
the  statistical  annual,  and  so  the  former  was  discontinued. 
Later,  however,  it  was  seen  that  the  synthetic  figures  pub- 
lished in  the  statistical  annual  did  not  permit  of  the  more 
or  less  thorough  study  of  those  statistics — one  of  the  most 
essential  requirements  for  general  statistics. 

The  statistics  of  the  changes  in  the  civil  condition  of  the 
population  were  then  resumed,  beginning  with  the  year 
1867;  the  first  of  the  new  publications  covered  the  period 
1867  to  1881;  it  was  published  in  1883;  since  that  time  the 
publication   has   appeared   regularly.     It   contains   twelve 

*  Compare  BvlMin  of  the  Central  Commission  of  Statistics.    Vol.  XV,  p.  423. 


140  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

parts:  movement  of  the  population;  immigration  and  emi- 
gration; changes  in  the  civil  condition  of  the  population; 
number  of  marriages,  births,  and  deaths,  as  well  as  still-born 
and  other  infants  born  dead;  age  of  decedents;  respective 
ages  of  brides  and  grooms  at  time  of  marriage;  special  statis- 
tics of  twins  and  other  multiple  births;  civil  condition  of 
brides  and  grooms;  civil  condition  of  married  decedents; 
causes  of  deaths;  special  statistics  of  deaths  by  violence; 
special  statistics  of  deaths  from  suicide. 

The  annual  observation  of  the  movement  of  the  popula- 
tion is,  like  the  general  census  of  the  population,  decentral- 
ized; it  is  established  by  communal  administrations  which 
utilize  for  the  purpose  the  civil  registers  and  the  registers  of 
the  population.  These  lists  are  transmitted  to  the  central 
administration  where  the  oflBce  of  general  statistics  verifies 
them,  transcribes  them  in  special  registers  and  makes  a 
recapitulation  according  to  the  administrative  territorial 
divisions.  The  central  bureau  of  the  Minister  of  the  Interior 
has  only  to  transcribe  and  add  the  tables.  This  method  is 
abandoned  in  nearly  all  European  countries.  The  advan- 
tages of  centralization  are  evident;  it  has  just  been  proposed 
that  the  communal  administrations  limit  themselves  to 
amplifying  the  tables,  the  elements  of  which  would  then 
be  abstracted  and  combined  by  the  Bureau  of  General  Sta- 
tistics of  the  Minister  of  the  Interior.  The  Statistical  Cen- 
tral Commission,  pleased  with  the  proposition,  has  just 
pronoimced  itself  in  favor  of  this  reform. 

We  have  spoken  above  of  the  population  registers,  the 
regular  keeping  of  which,  dating  from  1846,  was  sanctioned 
by  the  law  of  June  2, 1856.  The  population  register  is  a  list 
of  all  the  inhabitants  having  their  customary  residence  in  a 
coromune,  with  an  indication  of  their  names  and  Christian 
names,  place  and  date  of  their  birth,  civil  condition,  their 
legal  residence,  their  occupation,  business  or  position,  and 
their  nationality. 

The  utility  of  the  population  registers  manifests  itself 
under  a  triple  aspect:  political,  administrative  and  statis- 


BELGIUM  141 

tical.  The  revision  of  the  lists  of  electors  for  the  legisla- 
tive chambers,  and  the  provincial  and  communal  councils, 
is  made  by  the  communal  administration  from  the  facts 
noted  in  the  population  registers;  in  police  matters  these 
registers  also  render  valuable  services;  finally,  the  regular 
keeping  of  these  documents  makes  it  possible  to  draw  up 
certain  parts  of  the  annual  statistics  of  the  movement  of 
the  population,  to  publish  annually  the  approximate  figure 
of  the  population  of  the  kingdom,  and  even,  as  in  1896,  to 
find  therein,  in  case  of  necessity,  the  basis  for  an  industrial 
census  without  having  recourse  in  the  first  instance  to  a 
technical  enumeration. 

B.  Economic  Statistics. — ^From  the  beginning  the  govern- 
ment has  concerned  itself  with  the  economic  elements  of 
national  prosperity.  The  first  statistics  on  mines,  quarries 
and  metallurgical  establishments  date  from  18S8.  The 
outlines  of  these  statistics  were  after  some  years  revised  and 
completed  on  the  advice  of  the  Statistical  Central  Com- 
mission; a  new  publication  appeared  in  1852,  relating  to 
the  years  1845  to  1849. 

The  elements  of  these  statistics  are  collected  by  the 
corps  of  mine  engineers,  centralized  by  the  chief  engineers 
of  a  mining  district,  and  finally  transmitted  to  the  central 
administration  which  abstracts  them  by  groups  of  data  and 
publishes  the  results.  The  publication  is  annual.  At  the 
present  time*  it  appears  in  a  brochure  and  under  the  title: 
"Statistique  des  industries  extractives  et  metallurgiques  et 
des  appareils  k  vapeur  en  Belgique  pour  I'annee.  .  .  ." 
(Statistics  of  extractive  and  metalliu-gic  industries  and  of 
steam  apparatus  in  Belgium  for  the  year  .  .  .).  They 
include  detailed  tables  relating  to  coal  mines,  their  produc- 
tion, expenses,  profits  and  losses;  the  classification  of  the 
personnel,  the  wages  and  the  production  per  employe. 
Other  summary  tables  relate  to  the  manufacture  of  coke 

*  Since  1901;  previous  to  that  year  the  statistics  of  mines,  etc.,  appeared 
in  "Annales  des  Travaux  publics"  (up  to  1894),  and  in  the  "Annates  des  Mines" 
after  that.    Ever  since  1855  they  have  been  the  object  of  special  publications. 


142  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

and  of  charcoal,  to  licensed  and  free  metallurgical  mines 
and  to  quarries.  For  these  latter  businesses,  the  data  relat- 
ing to  open  quarries  are  assembled  by  the  communal  admin- 
istrations. The  metallurgical  industries  are  also  the  object 
of  statistics :  they  include  successively  blast-furnaces,  steel 
works,  the  manufacture  of  zinc,  of  lead  and  of  silver,  the 
manufacture  of  iron,  and  establishments  for  the  working  of 
iron  and  steel;  steam  apparatus  is  included  when  account- 
ing for  the  number  and  power  of  motors,  the  number  and 
the  heating  surface  in  square  meters  of  the  generators,  by 
provinces  and  principal  industries.  In  the  provinces  which 
do  not  possess  mines  these  data  are  gathered  by  the  civil 
engineers.  The  publication  ends  with  a  table  of  the  acci- 
dents occurring  in  coal  mines. 

The  statistics  of  extractive  and  metallurgical  industries, 
together  with  certain  returns  published  by  the  tax  authori- 
ties relating  to  industries  subject  to  the  excise  law,  are  the 
only  official  Belgian  statistics  containing  data  on  industrial 
production;  for  this  reason  they  are  of  special  interest. 

The  statistics  of  the  foreign  commerce  of  Belgium  also 
date  from  the  first  years  of  national  independence.  It  was 
the  Minister  of  the  Interior  who  took  the  initiative  in  this, 
the  first  publication  embracing  the  years  1831  to  1834. 
Seven  oflScial  publications  appeared  successively,  the  last 
relating  to  the  year  1840.  The  following  year  the  statis- 
tics of  foreign  commerce  were  placed  under  the  Minister 
of  Finance,  who  still  actually  makes  the  returns. 

The  volume  of  business  transactions  was  at  first  expressed 
by  means  of  "valem-s  oflficielles  permanentes"  (permanent 
official  values),  that  is  to  say,  the  price  at  which  each  article 
of  merchandise  was  valued,  was  fixed,  once  for  all,  by  the 
administration.  The  list  of  values  was  decreed  in  1833; 
it  remained  in  force  until  the  Order  in  Council  of  October 
10,  1847,  which  prescribed  an  annual  revision  of  values  for 
such  merchandise  as  formed  an  important  part  in  trade. 
Since  that  time  the  system  has  been  generalized.  It  is 
necessary  to  note,  however,  that  the  revised  official  values 


BELGIUM  143 

are  applied  only  to  such  products  as  are  admitted  free  or 
are  subject  to  specific  tax;  the  articles  of  merchandise  taxed 
ad  valorem  must  be  declared  by  the  importer  and  exporter. 
A  special  commission  of  experts  each  year  makes  a  revision 
of  the  official  values.  The  cost  of  transportation  up  to  the 
Belgian  frontier,  or  beginning  from  that  point,  are  included 
in  the  value. 

The  origin  and  the  destination  of  merchandise  is  one  of 
the  most  important  points  to  be  explained.  In  Belgium, 
from  1831  to  1840,  it  was  held  that  the  country  of  origin 
was  that  from  whence  the  merchandise  came  at  the  actual 
moment  of  its  passage  into  Belgium,  even  when  in  reality 
it  originated  in  another  country.  The  exports  by  land  were 
considered  as  being  destined  for  the  country  where  the 
merchandise  entered  when  leaving  Belgian  soil.  On  this 
principle,  however,  Belgium  appeared  to  have  no.  commer- 
cial relations  with  certain  states,  Switzerland  for  example. 
This  rule  was  abandoned  in  1841.  Since  that  date  the  real 
country  of  origin  is  sought  for,  that  is  to  say,  the  country 
from  which  the  merchandise  has  been  expedited  on  its 
destination  to  Belgium,  either  directly  or  in  transit  through 
other  countries,  even  when  there  has  been  a  transhipment. 
In  the  countries  of  transhipment  the  merchandise  must  not 
have  become  nationalized  by  being  the  object  of  a  com- 
mercial transaction.  The  country  of  destination  is  indicated 
by  the  exportation;  it  is  the  country  toward  which  the  mer- 
chandise is  really  sent,  no  matter  whether  the  article  is 
Belgian  in  origin  or  nationalized. 

Between  1831  and  1854  the  Belgian  statistics  presented 
foreign  commercial  products  under  three  general  headings: 
raw  material,  produce  and  manufactured  articles;  under 
the  heading  of  produce  was  designated  products  delivered 
for  consumption  in  their  natural  state.  This  classification 
was  abandoned  in  1854,  the  merchandise  being  from  that 
date  enumerated  in  the  rules  of  the  custom  house  official  in 


144  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

alphabetical  order.*  In  1907  the  principle  of  systematic 
grouping  was  revived,  and  in  1908  merchandise  was  grouped 
and  presented  under  four  classes:  I,  live  animals;  II,  bever- 
ages and  foods;  III,  raw  and  simply  prepared  materials; 
IV,  manufactured  products.  There  has  recently  been  added 
a  fifth  division  relating  to  gold  and  silver  metals,  and  gold 
and  silver  coin. 

Belgium  has  taken  the  initiative  in  bringing  about  an 
international  convention  to  consider  the  establishment  of 
commercial  statistics  common  to  the  principal  nations.  The 
first  convention  took  place  in  Brussels  in  1910.  An  inter- 
national conference  met  in  the  same  city  in  1913.  The 
contractual  states  decided  to  establish,  in  addition  to  the 
commercial  statistics  published  by  each  country,  special 
statistics  based  upon  a  common  nomenclature,  grouping 
the  merchandise  imported  and  exported  into  a  limited  num- 
ber of  classes,  with  an  indication  of  the  value  and,  as  far  as 
possible,  of  the  weight.  A  common  nomenclature  was 
decreed  to  this  effect;  the  publication  of  these  special  statis- 
tics will  be  assured  by  an  office  established  in  Brussels  under 
the  name  of  "Bureau  international  de  statistique  commer- 
ciale" 

This  bm-eau  will  publish  a  bulletin.  The  convention  will 
become  obligatory,  after  ratification,  beginning  with  the 
first  of  July,  1914;  it  is  concluded  for  seven  years  and  may 
be  tacitly  renewed.  The  signatory  states  are  Germany, 
Belgium,  Bolivia,  Chili,  Col6mbia,  Cuba,  Denmark,  San 
Domingo,  Spain,  France,  Great  Britain,  Guatemala,  Haiti, 
Honduras,  Italy,  Japan,  Mexico,  Nicaragua,  Norway,  Para- 
guay, Dutch  East  Indies,  Peru,  Persia,  Portugal,  Russia, 
Siam,  Sweden,  Switzerland  and  Uruguay. 

The  common  nomenclature  includes  the  five  categories 

*  In  1906,  we  drew  attention  to  the  importance  of  these  classifications  and  we 
have  shown  what  were  the  results  one  might  draw  from  this  grouping  applied  to 
Belgium  statistics.  Compare  our  article  "  De  quoi  se  compose  le  commerce  ext^rieur 
de  la  Belgique"  (What  constitutes  foreign  commerce  in  Belgium)  in  the  Revue 
economigue  intemationaie  {International  Economic  Review)  March,  1907. 


BELGIUM  145 

enumerated  above;  the  total  number  of  articles  of  mer- 
chandise enumerated  is  186. 

The  comparison  of  the  data  relating  to  international  com- 
merce cannot  fail  to  lead  to  some  general  information  of  the 
highest  interest.  It  is  to  be  desired  that  some  of  the  large 
states  which  have  not  yet  become  signatories  to  the  conven- 
tion will  soon  join  with  those  who  have  given  their  adhesion. 

To  the  commercial  statistics  are  joined  several  statistics 
relating  to  industries  subject  to  a  particular  fiscal  rule 
(excise  duties).  These  industries  are  placed  under  the 
control  of  government  agents,  and  in  that  way  their  pro- 
duction can  be  known.  With  the  mining  and  metallurgical 
industries  supervised  by  mine  engineers,  these  are  the  only 
Belgian  industries  of  which  some  data  relating  to  their  pro- 
duction are  known.  Statistics  are  applicable  to  breweries, 
vinegar  factories,  distilleries,  sugar  factories  and  refineries, 
and  to  tobacco  culture. 

The  most  important  contribution  to  economic  statistics 
is  that  furnished  by  the  censuses  of  industry.  We  have 
set  forth,  in  a  few  words,  the  Census  of  1846  organized  by 
Quetelet.  It  remains  for  us  to  describe,  briefly,  the  Censuses 
of  1880,  1896  and  1910.* 

The  industrial  census  of  December  31,  1880,  was  decreed 
by  the  law  of  May  25,  1880,  and  was  carried  out  at  the  same 
time  as  the  census  of  population  and  of  agricultiu-e.  From  the 
view  point  of  the  extent  of  statistical  operations,  it  presents 
a  special  character.  The  Statistical  Central  Commission 
had  expressed  the  opinion  that  it  was  impossible  to  extend 
the  census  indiscriminately  to  all  industries  and  trades; 
according  to  the  Central  Commission  it  was  because  too 
much  had  been  attempted  in  the  industrial  census  of  1866 
that  nothing  worth  while  had  been  secured.  Therefore  it 
was  decided  to  limit  the  return  to  57  branches  of  industry 
only,  out  of  the  111  in  the  methodical  classification.  The 
list  of  these  industries  is  available  in  the  official  publication. 

*  Reproduced  from  the  statement  (ExposS)  of  the  Methods  of  the  Census  of 
Industry  and  Commerce,  December  31, 1910. 

11 


146  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Even  with  these  restrictions,  the  census  could  not  be 
carried  out  in  an  absolutely  complete  fashion,  for  the  ques- 
tionnaires were  obviously  subject  to  errors  or  showed  omis- 
sions. Serious  difficulties  resulted,  and  these  were  consid- 
ered so  unsurmountable  for  certain  industries  that  they  were 
abandoned,  the  facts  obtained  being  absolutely  incomplete. 
Such  was  the  case  for  the  sea  fisheries,  the  manufacture  of 
carpets,  woolen  and  silk  tapestries,  the  manufacture  of  laces 
and  of  tulle  and  blond,  the  construction  of  sewing  and  quilt- 
ing machines,  the  construction  of  telegraph  and  telephone 
apparatus,  public  works  enterprises,  and  the  transportation 
of  mail,  of  passengers,  and  of  merchandise  by  ordinary 
roads,  by  railways,  and  by  navigation. 

It  was  seen  also  that,  after  the  abstracting  of  the  docu- 
ments, the  data  relating  to  industrial  apparatus,  the  return 
for  which  had  been  asked  for  on  the  instructions  and  ques- 
tionnaires, were  incomplete  or  defective.  As  they  appeared 
to  be  too  vague,  it  was  thought  best  not  to  publish  them. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  limits  of  some  industries  were  ex- 
tended. The  total  number  of  industries  taken  into  account 
was  49. 

The  information  relating  to  these  industries  was  collected 
by  the  aid  of  questionnaires.  These  documents  were  of  four 
kinds :  first,  the  personal  census;  second,  the  census  of  motors, 
steam  boilers  and  generators;  third,  a  census  of  industrial 
apparatus,  with  the  exception  of  hand  tools;  fourth,  the 
census  of  production. 

In  the  personal  returns  the  attempt  was  made  to  learn  the 
position  held,  the  number  and  sex  of  the  persons  employed 
in  the  industrial  undertakings,  the  average  duration  of 
employment  and  the  time  of  employment,  the  wages  of  the 
laborers  per  day  (in  money,  in  kind,  or  in  share  of  profits). 

The  census  of  motors,  steam  boilers  and  generators  aimed 
to  enumerate  the  number  and  power  of  the  motors  and  the 
customary  steam  pressure  and  the  number  of  simple  steam 
generators. 


BELGIUM  147 

It  has  been  stated  that  the  information  relating  to  appa- 
ratus was  too  incomplete  to  be  published. 

Finally,  as  regards  production,  the  census  aimed  to  deter- 
mine the  number  of  products  according  to  the  nature  of  the 
products,  and  also  the  value  of  the  annual  production. 

The  Census  of  1880  revealed  the  existence  in  Belgium  of 
26,522  industrial  establishments,  divided  among  the  49 
branches  of  industry  considered;  the  number  of  employers 
was  28,096,  the  number  of  clerical  employes,  15,508,  of 
laborers,  384,065;  the  number  of  motors,  13,113,  developing 
a  horse-power  of  242,435.  As  to  the  production,  its  value 
was  estimated  to  be,  according  to  the  census,  2,177  million 
francs. 

The  Census  of  October  31,  1896,  decreed  by  the  law  of 
June  29,  1896,  was  organized  by  the  Order  in  Council  of 
July  22,  following.  This  census,  the  methods  and  results 
of  which  have  been  described  in  volume  XVIII  of  the  publi- 
cation, presents,  in  comparison  with  former  enumerations, 
a  certain  number  of  characteristic  features  which  it  is  useful 
to  recall.  In  the  first  place,  its  generahty:  it  was  exteiided 
to  all  industries  and  trades,  including  home  work,  which  had. 
not  been  enumerated  since  the  Censuses  of  1846  and  1880, 
and  transportation  industries,  which  were  excluded  in  1846, 
and  the  collection  of  the  data  for  which  had  been  given  up 
in  1880.  The  only  Belgian  information  to  which  that  of 
1896  is  comparable,  subject  to  the  omissions  which  have 
just  been  noted,  is  the  industrial  enumeration  made  fifty 
years  earlier,  in  1846. 

The  Census  of  1896  presents  also  the  characteristic  of 
not  being  immediately  preceded  nor  accompanied  by  any 
general  enumeration.  To  obtain  knowledge  of  the  em- 
ployers and  heads  of  workingmen's  families  to  whom  the 
forms  should  be  sent,  use  was  made  of  the  population  regis- 
ters, established  as  a  result  of  the  decennial  census  of  the 
population,  December  31,  1890,  and  brought  down  to  date 
by  the  communal  administrations.  The  use  of  these  regis- 
ters as  a  basis  of  census  operations  made  a  careful    cor- 


148  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

rection  of  the  documents  indispensable;  the  mechanism 
of  these  supplementary  operations,  too  long  to  describe  in 
this  place,  are  stated  in  detail  in  volume  XVIII  (already 
cited)  of  the  publication. 

Not  only  were  the  employers  required  to  answer  a  ques- 
tionnaire, but  in  addition  the  heads  of  workingmen's  fam- 
ilies were  invited  to  complete  the  blank  forms  relating  to  the 
wage-earning  population.  A  special  form  (Form  B)  was 
sent  to  every  family  in  which  at  least  one  member  had  been 
designated  on  the  population  register  as  a  workingmanor 
workingwoman  in  industry  or  trade.  This  furnished  the 
following  information  concerning  every  member  of  the 
family:  name  and  Christian  name,  sex,  place  of  birth,  date 
of  birth,  civil  condition,  degree  of  relationship  to  the  head  of 
the  household  or  occupation.  A  special  agent  visiting  the 
home  of  the  family  noted  for  every  workingman  or  working- 
woman  in  industry  or  trade  the  following  facts:  work  at 
home  or  outside  of  house,  name  and  industry  of  the  em- 
ployer, commime  where  establishment  was  located,  street 
and  number. 

It  may  be  said  that  the  essential  characteristic  of  the 
Census  of  October  31,  1896,  was  the  minute  correction  to 
which  the  documents  were  subjected.  Independently  of 
internal  criticisms  to  which  they  were  subjected,  the  forms 
intended  to  contain  the  answers  of  the  persons  enumerated 
were  distributed  to  the  heads  of  workingmen's  families  and 
thus  served  as  a  reciprocal  check.  Form  B  assisted  materi- 
ally in  correcting  the  faulty  returns  relating  to  classification 
of  industries  and  to  the  number  of  occupied  workingmen; 
they  served  also  to  bring  out  the  omissions  in  the  census  of 
industrial  enterprises  of  small  importance.  Other  means  of 
check  also  supplemented  this  process  of  statistical  criticism. 

From  the  census  of  industries  there  were  excluded:  the 
Belgian  government  railroads;  the  various  public  services 
of  the  local  administrations,  of  an  industrial  character;  the 
enterprises  pertaining  to  establishments  or  institutions  of 
an  unproductive  character;  the  industrial  occupations  which 


BELGIUM  149 

are  intimately  associated  with  the  carrying  on  of  trade;  and 
industries  which  may  be  considered  as  a  prolonging  of  the 
agricultural  industry. 

The  Census  of  1896  showed  337,395  enterprises  and  divi- 
sions of  enterprises,  1,102,244  persons  actively  engaged  in 
enterprises,  of  whom  842,000  were  workingmen  and  working- 
women  in  private  enterprises,  among  whom  118,000  working- 
men  and  workingwomen  worked  at  home;  small  industries 
(1  to  4  workers)  engaged  13.92  per  cent,  of  the  working 
population;  industries  of  average  size  (5  to  49  workers)  26.96 
per  cent. ;  large  industries  (50  to  499  workers)  36.66  per  cent. ; 
and  the  largest  industries  (500  workers  and  over)  23.46  per 
cent. 

The  Census  of  1910  was  extended  to  industry  and 
commerce.  It  was  taken  December  31,  by  means  of  two 
individual  forms  distributed  by  census  agents  at  the  homes 
of  all  persons  whose  names  appeared  on  the  household  form 
used  for  the  population  census,  as  carrying  on  an  industrial 
or  commercial  occupation. 

The  employers  in  industry  and  those  engaged  in  commerce 
were  required  to  make  answer  to  the  questions  in  a  special 
form;  these  questions  concerned  the  nature  of  the  industry 
or  of  the  commerce,  the  juridical  form  of  the  enterprise  and 
the  fact  as  to  whether  or  not  the  enterprise  listed  on  the  form 
was,  in  its  entirety,  the  only  occupation  of  the  employer, 
or  whether  it  was  a  division  of  a  business,  the  number  of 
motors  and  their  horse  power,  whether  the  sales  were  whole- 
sale or  retail  (as  regards  commerce),  and  finally,  the  number 
of  persons  employed  (members  of  the  family  of  the  employer, 
clerical  force  and  wage  earners). 

The  second  individual  form  was  for  the  purpose  of  collect- 
ing the  answers  of  the  clerical  force,  of  the  workingmen  in 
factories  and  the  workingmen  in  homes,  and  the  collabo- 
rating workmen  of  the  latter. 

The  census  was  entirely  centralized.  All  the  forms  were 
transmitted  by  the  communal  administrations  to  the  Bureau 
of  Labor;  that  office  examined,  corrected  and  abstracted 


150  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

them.  There  were  383,094  returns  to  the  communal  admin- 
istrations to  be  corrected  or  completed;  95,537  forms  were 
discarded,  either  because  they  related  to  categories  not 
included  in  the  census  or  because  they  were  duplicates. 

The  census  comprises  two  parts:  the  occupational  enu- 
meration and  the  industrial  enumeration.  The  occupational 
enumeration  shows,  commune  by  commune,  the  number 
of  persons  carrying  on  an  industrial  or  commercial  occupa- 
tion, whether  they  are  independent  owners  of  the  business, 
members  of  the  family  of  the  employer,  clerical  employes, 
workmen,  unemployed,  the  industry  or  branch  of  commerce 
in  which  they  are  employed  (38  groups). 

In  addition,  two  blanks  are  reserved  for  the  study  of 
supplementary  occupations.  A  fourth  blank  was  reserved 
for  statistics  of  wage  earners  and  employes  working  in  a 
commune  other  than  that  of  their  domicile,  the  migrations 
of  workingmen  being  of  considerable  importance  in  Belgium 
on  account  of  the  easy  means  of  transportation.  These 
statistics  make  possible  for  the  first  time  a  study  of  this 
phenomenon  in  all  its  details. 

The  occupational  enumeration  is  published. 

The  second  part,  in  preparation,  is  the  industrial  enumera- 
tion. It  includes  four  blanks  relating  to  the  nature  of  the 
industries,  and  their  location,  the  juridical  form  of  the  enter- 
prises and  their  extent  expressed  by  the  number  of  working- 
men  employed  and,  finally,  the  sex,  age  and  civil  condition 
of  the  workingmen  and  clerical  employes. 

There  were  enumerated  on  December  31,  1910  (occupa- 
tional census) : 

For  industry:  260,521  employers,  91,693  members  of  the 
families  of  employers,  86,302  clerical  employes,  1,185,381 
manual  laborers,  1,161  clerks  not  working,  85,103  manual 
laborers  not  working — a  grand  total  of  1,710,161  persons,  to 
whom  are  to  be  added  8,983  persons  carrying  on  under  a 
supplementary  title  an  occupation  connected  withi  ndustry. 

For  commerce:  216,130  employers,  215,696  members  of 
families  of  employers,  48,822  clerical  employes,  37,711  man- 


BELGIUM  151 

ual  laborers,  1,621  clerical  employes  not  working,  2,783  man- 
ual workers  not  working,  making  a  total  of  522,763  persons; 
in  addition,  24,045  persons  carrying  on  under  a  supplemen- 
tary title  a  commercial  occupation. 

Taking  into  account  5,084  persons  enumerated  who  have 
not  been  classed  in  a  definite  group,  there  were  then  at  the 
time  of  the  census  2,238,008  persons  carrying  on  under  a 
principal  occupation  heading  an  industry  or  commercial 
business,  and  33,028  persons  belonging  to  these  categories 
by  reason  of  their  supplementary  occupation.  The  popu- 
lation of  Belgium  being  7,417,454  on  the  same  date,  the 
population  engaged  in  industry  or  commercial  industries 
represents  more  than  30  per  cent,  of  the  total. 

C.  Social  Statistics. — ^We  have  already  said  that  the  first 
judicial  statistics  compiled  in  Belgium  were  due  to  the  ini- 
tiative of  Quetelet;  aided  by  Ed.  Smits,  director  of  the 
statistical  bureau,  he  published  a  return,  including  the  years 
1826  to  1830,  and  embracing  the  courts  of  assize,  the  cor- 
rectional tribunals,  and  the  pohce  tribunals.  Later  the 
Department  of  Justice  continued  to  publish  these  statistics 
at  irregular  intervals,  following  the  plan  of  Quetelet.  In 
1832,  there  were  added  statistics  of  civil  and  commercial 
justice  which  formed  the  subject  matter  of  a  special  publica- 
tion. The  statistics  of  criminal  justice  were  established  for 
the  civil  year  (January  1  to  December  31);  the  statistics  of 
civil  and  commercial  justice  for  the  judicial  year  (October 
1  to  September  30).     This  arrangement  still  exists. 

After  it  was  decided  to  publish  every  ten  years  an  account 
of  the  condition  of  the  kingdom,  the  judicial  statistics  dis- 
appeared as  a  special  publication.  The  figures  relating  to 
the  activity  of  the  criminal  courts  during  the  years  1840  to 
1849,  and  of  the  civil  and  commercial  courts  during  the  years 
1841-1842  to  1849-1850,  were  included  in  an  account  of 
the  condition  of  the  kingdom  for  the  period  1840  to  1850; 
figures  for  the  years  1850  to  1859  for  criminal  statistics,  and 
from  1850-51  to  1858-59  for  civil  statistics,  in  the  account 
(I'Expose)  for  the  period  1850  to  1860.     Meanwhile,  the 


152  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

figures  for  the  first  half  of  the  decade  were  also  published  in 
the  statistical  collection  published  by  the  Minister  of  the 
Interior. 

Beginning  with  1860,  the  judicial  statistics  were  again 
made  the  object  of  special  publications,  relating  to  both 
criminal  actions  and  civil  and  commercial  actions.  Four 
volumes  appeared  in  succession,  embracing,  first,  the  years 
1861  to  1867*;  second,  the  years  1868  to  1875;  third,  the 
years  1876  to  1880;  fourth,  the  years  1881  to  1885. 

All  the  statistics  published  up  to  this  time  were  no  more 
than  a  resume  of  those  compiled  by  the  various  tribunals  or 
judicial  oflfices.  Between  1844  and  1849  it  was  thought 
best,  in  order  to  facilitate  the  task  of  the  compilers,  to  re- 
quire them  to  copy  daily  in  the  registers  sent  them  by  the 
Minister  of  Justice  such  matters  as  would  be  included  in  the 
principal  statistical  tables.  This  system  did  not  produce 
all  of  the  results  that  were  expected,  especially  in  the  matters 
relating  to  criminal  statistics.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
publications  conforming  to  those  of  French  criminal  statis- 
tics gave  the  individual  characteristics  of  the  delinquents 
and  the  causes  of  crime  in  insuflBcient  detail.  The  reform  of 
judicial  statistics  was  made  the  subject  of  an  investigation 
about  1890;  but  this  reform  was  not  actively  prosecuted 
until  1896,  under  the  direction  of  our  learned  colleague,  M. 
Ch.  De  Lannoy.  The  result  was  a  complete  revision  of  the 
framework,  of  the  methods  of  compilation,  and  of  the  plan 
of  publication.  Since  1898  the  judicial  statistics  had  ap- 
peared annually,  t  From  the  beginning  the  reform  concerned 
itself  only  with  trial  courts  and  courts  of  judgment.  Act- 
ually it  included  besides  judicial  statistics,  properly  so  called, 
the  statistics  of  prisons,  those  of  vagrancy,  of  pauperism,  of 
child  protection,  of  deaf-mutes,  of  the  blind,  and  of  the 
insane.     The  courts,  the  prosecutors  and  the  trial  judges 

*  The  new  penal  code  was  promulgated  in  1867. 

t  In  order  to  facilitate  the  transition  between  the  old  and  the  new  publica- 
tions, there  was  published  for  the  twelve  years  included  between  1885  and  1898 
a  statistical  resume  of  the  activity  of  the  civil  and  criminal  courts. 


BELGIUM  153 

are  no  longer  called  upon  to  furnish  criminal  statistics,  ex- 
cept facts  of  an  administrative  kind.  The  data  relating  to 
condemned  persons,  to  their  antecedents,  to  the  penalties 
they  have  incurred,  are  derived  directly  by  the  Bureau  of 
Statistics  of  the  Ministry  of  Justice  from  the  briefs  in  the 
pigeon-holes  of  the  courts. 

This  method  gives  all  the  necessary  guarantees  of  accuracy 
and  gives  to  the  judicial  statistics  designated  "criminal 
statistics"  a  special  value  from  the  scientific  point  of  view. 

The  Bureau  of  Labor  has  brought  an  important  contribu- 
tion to  social  statistics  through  its  general  inquiries  and 
monographs  on  wages,  and  on  the  hours  of  labor  of  wage 
earners  in  industry.  The  general  Census  of  October  31, 
1896,  attempted  to  collect  circumstantial  data  relating  to 
rates  of  wages  by  means  of  a  questionnaire  addressed  to  all 
employers.  The  heads  of  business  concerns  were  invited 
to  give,  separately,  for  male  and  female  wage  earners,  ages 
over  sixteen  years  and  under  sixteen  years,  and  by  kind  of 
employment  for  each  classification  of  wage  earners,  the 
total  wages  paid,  at  the  last  normal  payment,  the  number  of 
wage  earners  between  whom  this  sum  was  divided,  the  total 
number  of  days  work.  By  normal  pay  was  understood  that 
which  had  not  been  affected  by  any  external  events  such  as 
strikes,  stoppages  for  repairs,  etc.  If  the  last  payment  had 
not  been  normal,  it  was  necessary  to  choose  a  former  pay- 
ment conforming  to  that  requirement. 

The  questionnaire  required,  besides,  the  facts  relating  to 
extra  payments,  bonuses,  participation  in  profits,  and  other 
advantages,  and  particularly  the  method  of  fixing  wages 
(by  the  hour,  by  the  day,  by  the  task,  by  the  piece  or  by  the 
job). 

This  method,  which  represented  a  great  improvement  over 
the  methods  previously  employed,  still  did  not  make  it 
possible  to  study  the  effective  distribution  of  wages  in  the 
class  of  wage  earners,  for  in  the  same  special  line  of  work 
there  are  numerous  differences  between  individuals  in  the 


154  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

matter  of  wages.  The  statistics  of  wages  were  compiled 
by  the  aid  of  two  supplementary  operations:  the  forms  of 
the  small  industries  (up  to  twenty  wage  earners)  were  sent 
back  to  the  employers  and  they  were  invited  to  subdivide 
the  occupational  classifications  into  as  many  groups  as 
there  were  different  rates  of  wages. 

For  the  establishments  which  did  not  fall  under  the  head- 
ing of  small  industries,  the  statistics  of  wages  were  compiled 
by  agents  from  the  Bureau  of  Labor,  who  were  charged  with 
the  collection,  from  the  pay-roll  of  the  actual  wages  of  the 
individuals. 

The  purpose  of  these  supplementary  statistics  was  to  de- 
termine with  absolute  exactness  the  daily  wages  of  the 
wage  earners  affected,  to  the  end  of  the  month  of  October, 
1896,  and  to  work  out  the  number  of  hours  during  which 
they  were  normally  occupied  during  that  period.  The  notion 
of  an  average  wage  was  therefore  completely  disregarded. 

In  this  way  the  wages  of  671,511  wage  earners  were  col- 
lected and  it  has  been  possible  to  determine  exactly  the  actual 
daily  wage  of  612,892  of  these,  from  the  pay-roll  of  the  em- 
ployer. We  do  not  know  of  another  example  of  so  de- 
tailed statistics  of  wages,  nor  so  extensive,  considering  that 
the  total  number  of  wage  earners  included  in  the  census 
exceeded  671,000. 

In  the  coiu"se  of  the  inquiry  into  wages,  considerable 
modifications  took  place  in  the  rates  of  wages  of  workers  in 
coal  mines.  The  Bureau  of  Labor  decided  to  fix,  by  means 
of  a  supplementary  inquiry,  the  direction  and  extent  of  the 
variations  reported  in  this  particular  field.  The  results 
were  published  in  1901,  under  the  title  "Statistique  des 
salaires  dans  les  mines  dehouille"  (Statistics  of  wages  in 
coal  mines.     October,  1896,  May,  1900). 

Finally,  to  complete  the  facts  previously  gathered,  the 
Bureau  of  Labor  undertook  a  new  inquiry  concerning  wages 
in  textile  industries,  as  of  October  31,  1901,  and  a  second 
inquiry  relating  to  the  wages  in  metal  industries,  as  of 
October  31,  1903.     These  inquiries,  following  the  census 


BELGIUM  155 

method  of  1896,  endeavored  to  find  the  individual  wages 
and  abandoned  the  notion  of  an  average  wage.  A  special 
agent  of  the  Biu-eau  of  Labor  visited  all  the  establishments 
employing  more  than  ten  wage  earners,  a  Kst  of  which  had 
been  prepared  through  the  aid  of  the  archives  of  the  census 
of  1896;  709  firms  were  thus  visited  in  the  textile  industry, 
and  in  only  nine  among  these  was  an  answer  refused  to  the 
agent  of  the  Bureau  of  Labor.  Everywhere  else  the  data 
relating  to  the  rates  of  wages  were  taken  from  the  pay-rolls 
of  the  employers  and  in  most  cases  the  facts  were  copied 
personally  by  the  agent  of  the  Bureau  of  Labor.  The  wages 
of  71,512  wage  earners  in  the  textile  industry  were  thus  de- 
termined and  compared  with  those  of  1896.  The  same 
methods  were  adopted  for  the  inquiry  relating  to  the  wages 
in  the  metal  industries,  in  the  course  of  which  data  were 
collected  relating  to  the  wages  of  84,136  wage  earners, 
grouped  in  1,083  estabHshments. 

The  statistics  of  industrial  accidents  may  be  considered 
in  social  statistics,  although  in  certain  of  their  aspects  they 
equally  concern  economic  statistics.  The  Bureau  of  Labor 
published  in  1912  the  first  return  relating  to  this  important 
problem  which  has  appeared  in  Belgium.  The  method 
followed  has  recently  been  set  forth  in  that  publication  in 
great  detail,  making  it  unnecessary  for  us  to  here  describe 
it  otherwise  than  very  briefly. 

The  reparation  made  for  industrial  accidents  is  regulated 
by  a  law  of  December  24,  1903.  By  virtue  of  this  law  the 
institutions  which  have  assumed  the  UabiKty  of  the  em- 
ployers are  required  to  collect  all  the  facts  relating  to  these 
accidents  and  their  results,  and  to  communicate  them  to  the 
Biu-eau  of  Labor.  This  oflSce  thus  disposes  of  the  complete 
material  gathered  according  to  instructions  and  controlled 
by  itself. 

The  first  results  of  the  statistics  of  industrial  accidents 
appeared  in  1912.  The  Bureau  of  Labor  has  taken  care  to 
estabhsh  the  industrial  divisions  in  such  manner  as  to  make 
it  possible  to  calculate  the  risk  peculiar  to  each  industry; 


156  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

and  the  enterprises  which  employ  a  motor  have  been  sep- 
arately compiled.  Special  attention  has  been  given  to  the 
nomenclature  of  industries  so  as  to  group  homogeneous 
risks;  finally,  the  study  of  accidents  has  been  made  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  classification  of  the  wage  earners  by  age 
and  by  rates  of  wages. 

There  remain  to  be  mentioned  in  this  domain  the  statis- 
tics of  strikes  and  lockouts  published  by  the  Bureau  of  Labor, 
but  we  omit  to  analyse  them  as  it  would  unduly  extend  this 
statement. 

III.    Officyial  Statistical  Publications  of  Belgium.    18S0-19H, 

The  list  of  statistical  publications  appearing  in  Belgium 
has  been  prepared  by  the  Department  of  General  Statistics, 
established  in  the  Ministry  of  the  Interior,  and  appear  in 
the  Statistical  Annual  of  Belgium  for  1914.  The  list  stops 
with  the  year  1910;  we  have  completed  it  down  to  April  30, 
1914.     (See  page  166  et  seq.) 

Chapter  III.    The  Future  of  Statistics 

While  it  is  not  always  easy  to  describe  in  the  form  of  a 
r^sum^  a  system  as  old,  varied  and  complex  as  the  statistics 
of  Belgium,  one  can  nevertheless  try  to  present  a  statement 
as  accurate  and  impartial  as  possible.  But  those  who  have 
taken  it  upon  themselves  to  collect  this  series  of  articles 
expect  something  more  of  us;  they  desire  that  the  authors 
of  the  descriptive  memoirs  express  their  views  as  to  the 
future  development  of  statistics.  The  science  which  we 
cultivate  is  the  first  to  warn  us  against  the  dangers  of  prophe- 
cies. The  thankless  r61e  of  a  prophet  does  not  tempt  us. 
We  do  not  know  along  what  lines  the  statistics  of  Belgium 
will  develop  and  toward  what  ideal  they  will  tend.  We  shall 
simply  indicate  in  what  direction  they  could,  according  to 
our  judgment,  reach  their  fullest  development. 

If  one  studies  the  list  of  statistical  publications  which 
have  appeared  in  Belgium,  one  can  hardly  forbear  homage 


BELGIUM  157 

to  the  industry,  ingenuity  and  perseverance  which  was 
needed  to  accumulate  such  a  wealth  of  information.  The 
works  published  by  our  administrative  services  are  many 
and  various;  they  embrace  the  most  diverse  aspects  of  social, 
economic  and  moral  activity.  The  origin  of  a  great  many  of 
them  dates  back  to  the  very  first  years  of  our  political  inde- 
pendence, and  one  must  admire  the  pluck  of  the  provisional 
government,  not  yet  any  too  firmly  estabhshed  after  the 
revolution  of  1830,  which  at  that  critical  moment  decreed 
the  establishment  of  a  statistical  office,  thereby  expressing 
its  faith  in  the  continuity  and  success  of  the  task  of  national 
emancipation. 

Many  of  our  statistics  have  had  in  their  time  the  merit  of 
novelty.  The  industrial  and  agricultural  censuses  of  1846 
served  for  a  long  time  as  models  which  in  their  day  and  man- 
ner enriched  the  statistical  methods  with  a  multitude  of 
ideas  and  interesting  and  novel  methods.  Special  merit 
may  be  claimed  for  the  boldness  and  novelty  of  the  statistics 
of  wages  of  the  industrial  census  of  1896,  so  perfectly  planned 
by  our  colleague,  and  at  that  time  co-worker,  M.  Em.  Wax- 
weiler,  statistics  which  furnished  the  most  reliable  data  on 
the  wages  of  612,892  laborers  out  of  671,596  enumerated. 
The  statistics  of  industrial  accidents  have  certainly  bene- 
fited, as  was  to  be  expected  from  the  acquired  experience; 
the  revision  and  presentation  of  the  material  have  been 
considerably  improved  upon  and  the  financial  aspect  of  the 
problem  has  been  elucidated  by  the  great  attention  to  detail 
and  accuracy.  Finally,  it  is  worthy  of  notice  that,  in  that 
part  of  the  industrial  and  commercial  census  which  has  just 
appeared  and  which  deals  with  occupations,  there  is  to  be 
found  the  most  detailed  information  relating  to  incidental 
occupations  and  to  the  migration  of  laborers,  a  phenomenon 
so  interesting  to  trace  in  a  small  country  like  Belgium  where 
the  means  of  transportation  are  numerous  and  inexpensive. 

These  opinions  of  things  with  which  we  are  most  familiar 
by  no  means  exclude  a  similar  opinion  on  any  other  division 
of  Belgian  statistics. 


158  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

We  have  had  in  Belgium  an  illustrious  statistician,  a  man 
of  many  excellent  parts.  The  name  of  Quetelet  is  too  well 
known  to  need  recalling,  but  through  the  rays  of  his  glory 
one  may  discover  some  stars  whose  brilUancy  is  dimmed  by 
that  of  this  eminent  savant. 

Statistical  science  has  brought  out  in  Belgium  a  group  of 
remarkable  men  who  have  given  us  a  large  number  of  val- 
uable works,  some  of  which  are  beyond  compare. 

A  general  view,  however,  of  the  development  of  Belgian 
statistics  does  not  leave  one  with  an  unreservedly  favorable 
impression. 

While  certain  divisions  of  the  statistics  are  treated  in  a 
comprehensive  and  methodical  manner,  others  are  of  a  more 
fragmentary  character  and  without  a  definite  plan.  Omis- 
sions and  duplication  caused  by  lack  of  coordination  between 
the  different  ministerial  departments  are  frequently  met 
with.  Certain  branches  of  statistics  are  entirely  neglected, 
as,  for  instance,  financial  statistics.  Others,  started  many 
years  ago,  have  made  no  progress  and  have  not  been  devel- 
oped, such  as  the  statistics  of  industrial  production.  In 
one  and  the  same  ministerial  department  several  oflBces  are 
occupied  with  statistics,  and  jealously  defend  their  admin- 
istrative functions  to  the  neglect  of  harmony  between  their 
methods  and  definitions.  Such  lack  of  "team-play"  mili- 
tates directly  against  the  perfecting  of  the  personnel  and  the 
material,  and  the  employment  of  costly  machinery,  the  use 
of  which  is  recognized  as  necessary. 

The  Belgian  statistics  are  decentralized.  We  do  not 
speak  merely  of  that  form  of  archaic  decentralization  which 
is  now  found  only  in  a  few  isolated  cases.  In  those  in- 
stances the  communal  administrations  publish  their  own 
statistical  reports,  which  the  central  office,  after  a  purely 
arithmetical  verification,  file  away  without  being  able  to 
verify  their  accuracy. 

If  this  method  may  be  defended  in  very  large  countries, 
such  is  not  the  case  in  Belgium  where  the  statistical  mate- 


BELGIUM  159 

rial  is  not  so  extensive  that  its  compilation  and  tabulation  in 
a  central  office  is  impracticable. 

The  decentralization  which  we  have  in  mind  concerns  the 
division  of  the  work  between  nine  or  ten  ministerial  depart- 
ments. We  have  seen  that  this  was  regretted  by  Quetelet. 
At  present  the  demographic  statistics  are  assigned  to  the 
Ministry  of  the  Interior.  The  Ministry  of  Finance  has 
charge  of  the  commercial  statistics  and  shipping;  and  this 
same  department  also  concerns  itself  with  certain  industries 
and  publishes  yeports  on  the  sea  fisheries  which  are  really 
collected  by  the  Department  of  Marine.  The  judicial  sta- 
tistics are  compiled  by  the  Ministry  of  Justice  together  with 
certain  other  more  or  less  unexpected  schedules,  such  as  the 
statistics  of  the  insane,  deaf-mutes,  blind  persons,  and  bank- 
ruptcies. 

The  Department  of  Highways  deals  with  land  and  water 
transportation,  and  the  Department  of  Railways  has  charge 
of  transportation  by  rail.  The  labor  statistics  are  taken  care 
of  by  the  Department  of  Labor,  but  several  other  offices  of 
the  Ministry  of  Industries  and  Labor  concern  themselves 
with  related  questions,  etc. 

Briefly,  it  is  always  difficult  to  know  exactly  which  minis- 
terial department  has  charge  of  collecting  and  publishing 
data  in  any  one  division  of  statistics. 

The  advantages  which  would  accrue  from  a  centralization 
of  statistical  operations  are  scientific,  administrative  and 
practical. 

(a)  Unity  of  methods,  comparative  statistical  criticism, 
elimination  of  duplication,  a  common  working  plan,  perfect 
regularity  of  the  publications  in  the  different  departments, 
are  not  possible  except  under  a  centralized  system. 

The  Statistical  Central  Commission  had  for  its  very  pur- 
pose the  realization  of  a  general  management  and,  to  a  cer- 
tain extent,  of  a  uniform  plan  of  execution.  But  too  often 
this  program  is  still  no  more  than  a  theory.  There  are 
numerous  reasons  in  law  and  fact  which  explain  why  this  is  so. 
It  is  left  to  the  discretion  of  the  heads  of  the  ministerial  de- 


160  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

partments  as  to  when  to  consult  the  Statistical  Central  Com- 
mission with  regard  to  work  which  they  intend  to  undertake, 
or  to  propose  modifications  which  they  consider  desirable 
of  a  plan  previously  adopted.  On  its  part,  the  commission 
can  only  deplore  the  absence  of  statistics  which  they  regard 
as  interesting  but  which  they  have  neither  the  means  to 
realize  themselves  nor  to  obtain  through  others.  These  un- 
fortunate circumstances  are  responsible  for  the  lack  of  a 
imiform  plan  apparent  in  the  mass  of  our  publications.  The 
Statistical  Central  Commission  has  always  shown  great  activ- 
ity, but  it  can  not  exceed  its  authority,  nor  increase  its  powers. 

(b)  Instead  of  having  a  number  of  unimportant  and  in- 
conspicuous statistical  offices,  mere  pawns  on  the  adminis- 
trative chess  board,  centralization  would  give  us  an  influen- 
tial administration  which  could  defend  its  views  and  obtain 
their  acceptance. 

The  funds  appropriated  could  be  better  distributed  and 
be  used  to  better  advantage  than  under  the  present  system; 
it  is  even  probable  that  substantial  economies  could  be 
effected. 

The  greatest  advantage,  however,  would  be  that  a  cen- 
tralized service  would  have  at  its  disposal  a  methodically 
trained  office  force  familiar  with  its  special  needs  and  work- 
able to  its  maximum  of  efficiency.  No  office  in  Belgium 
commands  a  force  large  enough  to  undertake  an  important 
task,  recurring  periodically,  such  as  a  census. 

We  should  also  obviate  the  difficulty  arising  from  the 
employment  of  a  temporary  force  for  work  of  this  kind, 
selected  from  motives  quite  foreign  to  statistics.  At  best, 
the  least  objectionable  course  would  suggest  a  few  months' 
education  for  newcomers,  and  there  would  still  be  found 
unassimilable  elements  among  them.  In  Belgium  there  are 
no  special  proofs  of  aptitude  required  before  admission  to  the 
departments  which  deal  with  one  or  the  other  branch  of 
statistics.  The  titles,  salaries,  promotions,  are  the  same  as 
those  adopted  for  other  administrative  services.  While  indi- 
viduals have  made  statistical  science  their  vocation  by  spe- 


BELGIUM  161 

cializing  in  scientific  researches,  others  may  have  come  into 
the  service  through  accidental  administrative  combinations, 
or  in  the  hope  of  improving  their  position.  It  is  possible 
to  conceive  of  a  more  methodical  organization. 

The  education  of  the  professional  statistician  ought  to  be 
general  and  special.  A  statistician  can  acquire  a  general 
education  in  a  university  course  comprising  philosophy, 
pohtical  economy  or  mathematics;  a  fit  discipline  in  the 
development  of  the  reasoning  faculties.  None  of  these 
studies  should  exclude  the  others;  of  matheniaticians  we 
would  require  as  thorough  a  study  of  logic  as  of  pohtical 
economy;  of  economists  should  be  demanded  a  knowledge 
of  certain  branches  of  mathematics;  and  of  doctors  of  philos- 
ophy a  knowledge  of  the  conceptions  of  political  economy 
and  mathematics. 

The  training  of  the  statistician  should  be  special,  like  that 
in  the  professions. 

The  central  statistical  service  should  have  as  many  sections 
as  there  are  divisions  or  applications:  demography,  moral 
statistics,  social  statistics,  economic  statistics,  financial  and 
administrative  statistics.  The  whole  service  should  be 
under  an  official  bearing  the  title  Director  General  or  Presi- 
dent: and  at  the  head  of  each  section  should  be  a  statistician 
with  the  rank  of  Director.  No  one  should  be  appointed  to 
take  charge  of  a  section  without  having  worked  in  each  other 
section  long  enough  to  acquii-e  a  practical  knowledge  of  the 
different  methods.  One  or  two  assistant  statisticians  would 
have  to  assist  the  head  of  a  section  in  directing  the  work  of 
the  clerks;  these  assistants  should  be  chosen  from  clerks  who 
have  shown  special  aptitude  and  efficiency  in  actual  statis- 
tical work. 

This  organization  would  not  be  complete,  however,  if  it 
did  not  succeed  in  establishing  a  firm  and  durable  link  be- 
tween itself  and  the  intellectual  classes  of  the  country.  The 
thing  most  lacking  in  our  statistical  offices,  which  are,  so  to 
speak,  dovetailed  into  a  congeries  of  administrative  insti- 
tutions, is  sufficient  contact  with  the  public,  a  defect  which 

12 


162  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

is  largely  responsible  for  the  manifest  indifiFerence  to  statistics 
on  the  part  of  the  masses.  An  eminent  statistician,  M.  de 
Foville,  once  said  "there  are  even  today  many  people  who 
seem  to  think  that  statistics  are  for  the  exclusive  use  of  statis- 
ticians— an  error  like  that  of  believing  that  bread  is  made  for 
the  bakers  only."  If  this  error  has  spread,  it  is  because 
everything  has  been  done  to  bring  it  into  being  and  nothing 
neglected  to  foster  it.  Those  who  ultimately  use  statistics 
are  legion,  but  they  are  carefully  kept  away  from  statistical 
oflBces  and  do  not  succeed  in  making  their  demands  heard, 
and  receive  but  tardy  and  incomplete  satisfaction.  The 
central  statistical  oflSce  should  keep  in  intimate  and  contin- 
uous contact  with  industrial,  commercial  and  financial 
interests;  it  should  be  carefully  informed  on  subjects  and 
questions  of  special  interest  to  these  groups.  It  should  place 
at  the  disposal  of  the  cities  and  communities  of  the  nation 
all  the  information  which  concerns  them;  and  it  should  pub- 
lish a  periodical  for  quick  information  kept  well  up  to  date 
on  all  economic,  financial,  demographic  and  moral  phenom- 
ena. This  task  would  fall  chiefly  upon  the  president  of  the 
oflBce,  who  should  be  a  young,  active,  clear-headed  man.  The 
central  statistical  service  ought  also  to  be  accessible  to  stu- 
dents of  political  economy  and  statistical  science  in  the 
Universities  and  commercial  high  schools.  We  have  in 
Belgium  five  or  six  courses  in  statistics  with  many  students. 
But  how  many  of  these  have  a  clear  idea  of  an  analysis,  of 
the  advantage  of  this  method,  or  that  machine?  What  we 
are  striving  for  is  not  merely,  as  M.  Waxweiler  would  have  it, 
to  found  a  seminary  from  which  the  future  functionaries 
can  be  recruited.  Our  aim  is  more  far-reaching;  our  ob- 
jective broader.  We  would  initiate  our  future  men  of 
affairs,  bankers,  merchants,  manufacturers,  into  the  methods 
and  resources  of  statistics  so  that  all  would  seriously  make 
use  of  them. 

In  other  words,  the  central  statistical  service  ought  to  be 
a  veritable  scientific  laboratory  where  anyone  who  so  desires 
can  come  and  work.     It  is  remarkable  that  the  utilization 


BELGIUM  163 

of  published  statistics  is  generally  narrowly  restricted.  Too 
often  the  analyses  and  deductions  are  dry  and  lacking  life 
and  detail.  It  is  almost  impossible  that  it  should  be  other- 
wise, for  a  single  author  has  neither  the  time  nor  the  inclina- 
tion to  illuminate  and  enlarge  upon  the  aspects  of  the  prob- 
lems for  which  the  statistics  oflfer  or  ought  to  offer  a  solution. 
All  this  would  be  different  if  a  movement  were  stirred  up 
among  the  intellectual  classes  of  the  country  and  the  young 
students  were  encouraged  to  come  and  work  in  the  offices  of 
the  central  service,  and  to  extract  from  the  official  publica- 
tions all  the  conclusions  they  contain.  Carefully  compiled 
statistics  contain  a  wealth  of  information;  but  too  often  they 
remain  unused  or  are  used  in  an  incomplete  or  biassed  fashion. 
We  are,  therefore,  of  the  opinion  that  official  statistics  should 
be  so  presented  as  to  allow  of  their  largest  possible  use,  that 
the  summaries  be  numerous  and  detailed,  that  the  original 
documents  be  always  at  the  disposal  of  investigators  and, 
finally,  that  the  administration  limit  itself  to  drawing  general 
conclusions  from  its  works,  but  take  good  care  to  popularize 
and  distribute  them,  stimulating  a  scientific  rivalry  among 
the  learned  public  with  the  view  to  develop  them  and  go  to 
the  bottom  of  things. 

In  a  centralized  system  of  statistics  the  institution  of  the 
Central  Commission,  as  it  is  organized  in  Belgium,  loses  its 
raison  d'itre.  And  yet,  the  existence  of  a  consulting  body 
is  absolutely  indispensable  to  the  control  of  the  central  serv- 
ice, and  to  the  maintenance  of  a  permanent  Hnk  between 
the  departmental  administrations  and  the  statisticians. 

The  Central  Commission  should  be  transformed  into  a 
Superior  Council  of  Statistics.  It  should  be  composed  of 
scientific  and  administrative  experts,  appointed  by  the  king 
upon  the  recommendation  (with  a  certain  number  of  votes) 
of  the  learned  bodies,  all  the  section  chiefs  and  the  president 
of  the  central  service  taking  equal  part  in  it. 

We  have  questioned  our  colleagues,  professors  of  Belgian 
statistics,  as  to  the  advantage  of  centrahzation  and  as  to  the 
qualifications   needed  in   statistical   officials.     Among  the 


164  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

replies  received  we  note  the  following  which  comes  from  M. 
Waxweiler  and  which  we  quote  in  part,  verbatim : 

The  Director  and  his  co-workers  must  hold  a  university  diploma  vouching  not 
only  for  statistical  science  but  also  for  general  attainments  in  social  sciences  in 
general.  Moreover,  they  must  have  passed  through  the  administrative  routine  or 
have  had  a  sufficient  experience  in  the  conduct  of  a  complete  statistical  inquiry,  that 
is  to  say,  from  its  inception  to  its  readiness  for  publication. 

The  University  training,  so  far  as  it  deals  with  statistical  science,  must  not  only 
extend  to  the  study  of  statistical  processes,  such  as  the  theory  of  probabilities  and 
the  mathematical  analysis  of  fluctuations,  but  it  must  also  concern  itself  with  the 
study  of  statistics  already  published  and  must  include  the  personal  preparation  ot 
two  or  three  works  on  applied  statistics. 

Moreover,  there  ought  to  be  some  means  of  assuring  to  the  management  of  the 
Statistical  Bureau  as  much  freedom  as  possible  from  the  administrative  atmosphere. 

M.  Waxweiler  suggests,  for  instance,  such  means  as  the 
formation  of  a  hbrary  attached  to  the  general  management, 
the  organization  of  periodical  meetings  of  the  chiefs  of  the 
service,  the  institution  of  a  "seminaire,"  the  assignment  of 
the  execution  of  certain  investigations  to  all  the  co-workers, 
the  assurance,  to  each  collaborator  in  an  investigation,  that 
his  name  and  personahty  will  be  made  known. 

One  thus  sees  that  our  eminent  colleague  suggests  a  large 
number  of  measures  of  which  we  have  already  approved  or, 
at  least,  he  indicates  plans  similar  to  many  of  those  which 
we  have  advocated.  At  the  same  time  we  would  suggest 
the  one  exception  that  the  Central  Bureau,  and  that  alone, 
ought  to  assume  the  responsibility  for  the  investigations 
undertaken  and  the  work  published.  In  statistical  matters 
the  aids  which  are  rendered  to  the  author  of  the  program  or 
to  him  who  directs  the  investigations  are  so  numerous  and 
important  that  it  would  be  a  real  injustice  to  give  credit  to 
any  one  person,  no  matter  how  interesting  he  may  be. 

(c)  From  the  practical  standpoint: 

At  present,  being  divided  among  the  different  ministerial 
departments,  the  statistical  offices  possess  but  mediocre 
resources  and  a  fortuitous  equipment.  The  way  they  are 
organized  presents  a  direct  and  insurmountable  obstacle  to 
the  improvement  of  the  statistical  mechanical  appliances. 
A  complete  installation  of  all  the  machinery  used  in  other 


BELGIUM  165 

countries  would  be  ruinous;  moreover,  this  mechanism  would 
not  really  pay  unless  it  were  used  continuously,  upon  a  large 
scale  and  with  a  view  to  intensive  production,  conditions 
which  can,  of  course,  exist  only  under  a  centralized  system. 
We  will  not  speak  of  the  oflSces  which  are  rarely  suited  to 
their  purpose. 

The  simpHfication  which  would  result  from  centralization, 
the  econpmy  in  personnel,  in  time  and  in  money  would  more 
than  pay  for  the  initial  expenditure. 

We  would  like  to  see  the  Statistical  Central  Service  housed 
in  a  large  building  away  from  the  beaten  track  in  attractive 
surroundings,  on  simple  and  harmonious  lines.  We  have 
in  mind  a  building  with  a  central  front  part  set  off  by  a  few 
steps  leading  to  an  entrance  hall,  the  directors'  office  and 
waiting  room  on  either  hand.  In  the  background  there 
would  be  a  spacious  semi-circular  library  with  galleries;  from 
this  semi-circle  five  or  six  spacious  wings  should  radiate  on 
a  fanlike  plan.  Each  of  these  wings  would  be  occupied  by  a 
special  branch  of  statistics,  such  as  demography,  social  and 
economic  statistics,  etc.  At  the  ends  nearest  the  semi-circle, 
containing  the  library,  are  the  offices  of  the  chiefs  of  the 
respective  branches.  From  these  offices  the  wings  increase 
in  width  towards  their  farther  end,  dovetail  fashion,  and 
should  all  be  connected  by  a  glazed  corridor  affording  easy 
communication.  The  side  walls  should  contain  no  windows 
but  be  left  free  for  papers  and  books.  The  lighting  should 
come  from  above.  Instead  of  a  second  floor  there  would  be 
a  large  basement  court  surrounded  by  petty  offices  and 
approached  by  ramps.  In  this  basement  there  would  be 
iron  shelves  for  statistical  material,  the  archives  and  book- 
storage.  Here  also  would  be  the  sanitary  arrangements,  a 
sterilization  room  for  documents,  vacuum  cleaning  and 
central  heating  systems,  and  electric  elevators  to  carry  bulle- 
tins about  the  work  rooms. 

This  is  our  conception  of  the  future  of  statistics.  The 
reality  is  still  far  distant;  but  let  us  bear  in  mind  that  to- 
day's dream  has  often  become  tomorrow's  reality. 

May  1,  1914. 


PUBLICATIONS    STATISTIQUES  OFFICIELLES  DE 
LA  BELGIQUE  DE  1830  X  1914 

OUVBAGES   GeNEBAUX. 

Documents  atatistiques  sur  le  Royaume  de  Belgigue,  recueillis  et  publics  par  le 
Ministre  de  I'lnt^rieur. 

3»  publication  officielle.  1836,  1  volume;  4»  publication  officielle.  1838,  1  vol- 
ume; 5°  publication  officielle.  1840,  1  volume;  6°  publication  officielle.  1841,  1 
volume. 

Documents  statistiques  publics  parle  D^partement  de  I'IntSrieur  avec  le  concours 
de  la  commission  centrale  de  statistique. 

Tome  1, 1857;  tome  II,  1858;  tome  III,  1859;  tome  IV,  1860;  tome  V,  1861;  tome 
VI,  1862;  tome  VII,  1863;  tome  VIII,  1864;  tome  IX,  1865;  tome  X,  1866;  tome 
XI,  1867;  tome  XII,  1868;  tome  XIII,  1869. 

Annuaire  statistique  de  la  Belgigue  (Minist&re  de  I'lnt&ieiU',  Administration  de  la 
Statistique  gtofirale).  Publication  annuelle.     1"  annee,  1870. 

Bulletin  trimestriel  public  par  le  Bureau  de  la  Statistique  generale  du  Minist^re  de 
rinterieur.     1™  ann^e,  n°  1  —  Septembre  1909. 

IUsum,S  des  rapports  sur  la  situation  administrative  des  provinces  et  des  communes 
de  Belgigue  pour  1840,  presente  au  Roi  par  le  Ministre  de  I'lutfirieur.  1841,  1 
volume  (envisage  partiellement  la  p^riode  d^cennale  1831-1840). 

Expose  de  la  situation  du  Royaume  (pSriode  dScenncde  de  18^1-1850),  public  par 
le  Ministre  de  I'lntfirieur,  1852,  1  volimie. 

Id.     (piriode  dScennale  1851-1860).     1865,  3  volumes. 

Id.  de  1861  &  1875,  publie  par  les  soins  de  la  Commission  centrale  de  statistique, 
1885,  2  volumes. 

Id.  de  1876  &  1900,  redige  sous  la  direction  de  la  Commission  centrale  de  statis- 
tique. 

Tome  I,  1907;  tome  II,  1912;  tome  III,  1914. 

Bulletin  de  la  Commission  centrale  de  statistique  (Ministere  de  I'lntdrieur.  Admin- 
istration de  la  Statistique  Generale). 

Tome  I,  1843;  tome  II,  1845;  tome  III,  1847;  tome  IV,  1851;  tome  V,  1853;  tome 
VI,  1855;  tome  VII,  1857;  tome  VIII,  1860;  tome  IX,  1866;  tome  X,  1866;  tome 
XI,  1869;  tome  XII,  1872;  tome  XIII,  1878;  tome  XIV,  1881;  tome  XV,  1883; 
tome  XVI,  1890;  tome  XVII,  1897  (avec  en  annexe  Y Album  de  statistique  graphique. 
— Demographic  et  hygiine  de  la  ville  de  Bruxelles  —  par  M.  le  docteur  E.  Janssens) ; 
tome  XVIII,  1904;  tome  XIX,  1906;  tome  XX,  1909. 

TeBBITOIHE  et  PoPtriATION. 

Statistique  territoriale  du  Royaume  de  Belgigue,  bas^e  sur  les  r&ultats  des  opera- 
tions cadastrales  executles  jusqu'^  la  fin  de  1834,  publiee  par  le  Ministre  des  Fi- 
nances.    1839-1853,  2  volumes. 

Recherehes  sur  la  reproduction  et  le  mortalitS  de  I'hom/me  aux  diffSrents  Ages  et  sur  la 
popvlaiion  de  la  Belgigue  d'apris  le  recensement  de  1829,  par  MM.  A.  Quetelet  et 
Ed.  Smits.  1"  recueil  officiel,  1832,  1  volume. 


BELGIUM  167 

Population.  Recensement  ghiSral  (15  octobre  1846),  public  par  le  Ministre  de 
rintfirieur.    1849,  1  volume. 

Id.    (31  dfcembre  1856).    1861.  1  volume. 

Id.    (31  d^cembre  1866).    1870,  1  volume. 

Tableau  de  le  population  du  Royaume  (population  de  residence  habituelle,  dite  de 
droit)  d^termin^e  par  le  recensement  g£n€ral  du  31  dScembre  1876  (Miniature  de 
rint^rieur).    1877,  1  volume. 

Population.  Recensement  gSniral  (31  d6cembre  1880),  public  par  le  Ministre  de 
rinterieur.    1884, 1  volume. 

Id.     du  31  d6cembre  1890.     1893,  i  volumes. 

Id.     du  31  d^cembre  1900.     1903,  i  volumes. 

Id.    du  31  decembre  1910.     1913,  2  volumes  (un  volume  reste  k  paraltre). 

Population.  Relev6  dScennal  1831  &  ISlfi. — Mouvement  de  VUat  civil  de  1840 — 
public  par  le  Ministre  de  I'lnt^rieur.     1842, 1  volume. 

Population.  Mouvement  de  I'^at  civil  pendant  I'annee  1841,  public  par  le  Min- 
istre I'lutfirieur.    1843,  1  volimie. 

Id.  pendant  I'ann^e  1842,  1844,  1  volume;  ann€e  1843,  1844,  1  volume;  ann^e 
1844,  1845,  1  volume;  annte  1845,  1846,  1  volume;  annfie  1846,  1848,  1  volume; 
ann^  1847,  1843,  1  volume;  ann€e  1848,  1849,  1  volume;  ann^e  1849,  1850,  1  vol- 
ume; ann£e  1850,  1851,  1  volume. 

Staiistique  du  mouvement  de  I'Mat  civil  et  de  la  population  du  Royaume  pen- 
dant les  ann^s  1867  k  1881  (Extrait  du  tome  XV  du  Bulletin  de  la  Commission 
eentrale  de  staiistique).     1883,  1  volume. 

Id.  pendant  I'annte  1882  (Ministfire  de  I'lnterieur.  Extrait  du  Moniteur  beige). 
1883,  1  volume;  annee  1883,  1884,  1  volume;  ann£e  1884,  1885,  1  volume; 
annee  1885, 1886,  1  volume. 

RelevS  officiel  du  chiffre  de  la  population  du  Royaume  par  pi-ovisce,  par  arrondisse- 
ment  administratif  et  par  commune  &  la  date  du  31  decembre  1886  (Minist&re  de 
rinterieur.  Extrait  du  Moniteur  beige  du  14  juillet  1887).  1887,  1  brochure. 
Publication  annuelle. 

StatisHque  du  mouvement  de  la  population  et  de  Vital  civil  en  1890  (Minist^re  de 
rinterieur.    Administration  de  la  Statistique  Gdn^rale).    1895,  1  volume. 

Id.    en  1900,  1904,  1  volume. 

Htoienb.    Statistique  Medicale. 

Statistique  mMicale  de  I'armSe  beige.  F^riode  de  1868-1869,  pr^c^d^e  d'une 
statistique  sur  la  mortalite  dans  les  hdpitaux  et  infirmeries  militaires  pendant  les 
annfies  1862  k  1867.  1871,  1  volume;  p^riode  de  1870-1874.  1877,  1  volume; 
periode  de  1876-1879.  1883,  1  volume;  p&iode  de  1880-1884.  1886,  1  volume. 
Publication  annuelle  k  partir  de  1885  (Miuist^re  de  la  Guerre). 

Conseil  supirieur  d'hygihie  pubtique.  Rapports  adressSs  au  Gouvemement 
(MinistSre  de  I'lnterieur.    Administration  du  service  de  sante  et  de  I'hygi&ne). 

Tome  I,  annees  1849-1855  k  tome  XVII,  1908-1909;  tomes  XVIII  et  suivants: 
im  volume  annuel. 

Rapports  des  commissions  medicates  provindales  sur  leurs  travaux  pendant  les 
anuses  1859  k  1868,  1881  et  suivantes  (les  anndes  1869  k  1880  n'ont  pas  paru). 
Publication  annuelle  (Miniature  de  I'lnterieur.  Administration  du  service  de 
sante  et  de  I'hygiene). 


168  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Bulletin  sp6eial  du  service  de  sanU  et  de  Vhygihne  publigue.  Annies  18!)3  et  1894 
(Bulletin  mensuel). 

Bulletin  du  service  de  santS  et  de  I'hygiene  publigue.  Annees  1895  4  1905  (Bulletin 
mensuel). 

Bulletin  du  service  de  santi  et  de  Vhygiine.    Annies  1906  et  1907  (Bulletin  mensuel) . 

Bulletin  de  V Administration  du  service  de  santi  et  de  I'hygiene.  Annees  1908  et 
suivantes  (Bulletin  mensuel). 

Bulletin  du  service  de  surveillance  de  la  fabrication  et  du  commerce  des  denrSes 
alimentaires.  Compte-rendu  mensuel  des  mesures  prises  par  le  Gouvernement  en 
execution  de  la  loi  du  i  aodt  1890  ainsi  que  des  efifets  produits  par  ces  mesures. 

Annte  1893  a  1907.  Depuis  le  1"-  Janvier  1908,  ces  renseignements  sont  publics 
dans  le  Bulletin  de  V  administration  du  service  de  santi  et  de  I'hygiene. 

Bulletin  sanitaire.  Public  tous  les  jeudis  ou  tons  les  15  jours  depuis  1901;  la 
1"  ann6e,  1901,  a  paru  en  annexe  au  Bulletin  du  service  de  santi  et  de  I'hygiene  pub- 


Introduction  k  VAnnuaire  sanitaire  de  la  Belgique  (Situation  au  1<"  Janvier  1912) 
Bruxelles,  1913. 

Enseignement. 

Etat  de  I'instruction  supirieure  en  Belgique.  Rapport  pr6sent6  aux  Chambres 
legislatives,  le  6  avril  1843,  par  M.  Nothomb,  Ministre  de  I'lnterieur.  P^riodes 
1794-1814,  1814-1830,  1830-1835,  1835-1843,  1844,  2  volumes. 

Rapport  sur  la  situation  des  universitSs  de  I'Etat.  Rapport  annuel  aux  Chambres 
en  execution  de  I'article  30  de  la  loi  du  27  septembre  1835  sur  I'enseignement  supfiri- 
eur.     Annees  1836  k  1848. 

Etat  de  I'instruction  supirieure  donnie  aux  frais  de  I'Etat.  Premier  rapport 
triennal  presents  aux  Chambres  legislatives.    Annfies  1849-1852.     1854, 1  volume. 

Situation  de  I'enseignement  supirieur  donni  aux  frais  de  I'Etat.  Rapport  triennal 
pr&ent^  aux  Chambres  legislatives  (Minist^re  des  Sciences  et  des  Arts) .  Piriode 
1853-1855  et  suivantes. 

Etat  de  I'instruction  moyenne  en  Belgique.  1830-1842.  Rapport  pr6sent6  aux 
Chambres  legislatives,  le  1™  mars  1843,  par  M.  Nothomb,  Ministre  de  I'lnterieur. 
Precede  d'un  expose  de  la  legislation  anterieure  k  1830  et  suivi  du  texte  des  lois, 
arrfitfe  et  circulaires  de  1815  k  1842.     1843,  1  volume. 

Id.     1842-1848.    Rapport  pr&ente  le  20  juin  1849.     1849,  1  volume. 

Rapport  triennal  sur  I'itat  de  I'enseignement  moyen  en  Belgique.  Pr6sent6  aux 
Chambres  legislatives  (Ministere  des  Sciences  et  des  Arts).  Periodes  1852-1854 
(1=)  et  suivantes. 

Etat  de  I'instruction  primaire  en  Belgique,  1830-1840.  Rapport  d^cennal  prd- 
sente  aux  Chambre  legislatives,  le  28  Janvier  1842,  par  M.  le  Ministre  de  I'lnterieiu". 
Precede  d'un  expose  de  la  legislation  anterieure  k  1830  et  suivi  du  texte  des  lois, 
arrStes  et  circulaires  de  1814  a  1840.     1842,  1  volume. 

Rapport  triennal  sur  la  situation  de  I'instruction  primaire  en  Belgique.  Presents 
aux  Chambres  legislatives  (Ministere  des  Sciences  et  des  Arts).  Periodes  1843- 
1845  (1°)  et  suivantes. 

Recensement  des  iUves  des  itablissements  d'instruction  moyenne  et  primaire,  soumis 
h  I'inspection  ligale  au  31  dicembre  1873,  1  volume. 

Rapport  sur  I'enseignement  induMriel  et  professionnel  presente  aux  Chambres 


BELGIUM  169 

legislatives  par  le  Ministre  de  rint^rieur.  Annfe  1861-62  k  1865-66.  1867,  1 
volume. 

Rapport  suT  I'&tat  de  V enseignement  industriel  el  prcfessionnel,  pr&ent^  le  23  Jan- 
vier 1879.     1879,  1  volume. 

Rapport  sur  la  situation  de  V enseignement  industriel  et  professionnel,  pr^sent^  aux 
Chambres  legislatives  par  le  Ministre  de  rAgriculture,  de  I'lndustrie  et  des  Travaux 
publics.     Annies  1880-84.     1886,  1  volume.. 

Id.  par  le  Ministre  de  I'lndustrie  et  du  Travail.  Annfes  1884-96.  1897,  1 
volume. 

Rapport  sur  la  situation  de  V enseignement  technique  en  Belgique.  Annies  1897- 
1901.     1903,  2  volumes. 

Rapport  gin^al  sur  la  situation  de  I' enseignement  technique  en  Belgique.  Annies 
1902-1910.     1912,  2  volumes. 

Rapport  sur  I'Mat  de  I' enseignement  agricole,  pr^sente  aux  Chambres  legislatives 
par  le  Ministre  de  I'lnterieur.    Annuel  pour  les  annees  1861  k  1863. 

Situation  de  V enseignement  agricole.  Rapport  triennal.  P^riodes  1864-66  & 
1888-90. 

Situation  de  V enseignement  vMSrinaire  et  agricole.  Rapport  triennal  (Ministfere  de 
rAgricidture  et  des  Travaux  publics).     Periodes  1891-93  et  suivantes. 

fipAKGNE.    Cooperation.    Prevotance. 

Compte  rendu  prSsentS  au  Conseil  d' administration  de  la  Caisse  g&nirale  d'ipargne 
et  de  retraite.  15  septembre  1865,  31  decembre  1865  et  1866,  puis  volume  annuel 
jusqu'en  1884. 

Compte  rendu  des  operations  et  de  la  situation  de  la  Caisse  gSnirale  de  d'Spargne  et 
de  retraite.    Annuel  depuis  1885. 

Situation  de  la  Caisse  gSndrale  d'Spargne  et  de  retraite  sous  la  garantie  de  I'Etai. 
Mensuelle,  publiee  au  Moniteur  beige. 

Les  soeiMSs  cooperatives  en  Belgique,  1873-1910  (Ministere  de  I'lndustrie  et  du 
Travail).     1911,  un  volume. 

Caisses  de  prhoyance  enfaveur  des  ouvriers  mineurs.  Examen  annual  des  comptea 
(Ministire  de  I'lndustrie  et  du  Travail).  1"  annee,  1846  pour  les  annees  1840  k 
1846;  annuel  depuis  1877. 

Rapport  sur  la  Caisse  de  prSvoyance  et  de  secours  enfaveur  des  victimes  des  accidents 
du  travail  (Ministere  des  Finances) .    Annuel,  public  au  Moniteur  beige. 

Coup  d'ceil  sur  le  nombre  et  la  situation  des  socUMs  de  secours  mutuels  en  Belgique 
au  31  d6cemhre  1860;  suivi  du  texte  de  la  loi  du  3  avril  1851  et  de  I'arrfite  royal 
du  6  octobre  1852,  et  de  I'etat  nominatif  de  ces  societ^s  par  province  (Commission 
permanente  des  societ^s  de  secours  mutuels).     1864,  1  volume. 

Rapport  sur  les  comptes.  (Commission  permanente  des  societes  de  secours  mu- 
tuels).   Annees  1852  k  1860. 

Rapport  sur  la  situation  des  sociStSs  de  secours  mutuels,  presente  par  la  Commission 
permanente  des  societes  de  secours  mutuels.  Un  volume  annuel  de  1861  k  1871, 
puis  les  annees,  1872-1873,  1874-76,  1877-78,  1879,  1880-82,  1883-85,  1886-87, 
1888 — 90.  Les  rapports  pour  1870,  1871,  1872-73,  sont  suivis  d'un  coup  d'ceil  sur 
la  situation  des  banques  populaires  et  des  sodStis  des  consommation  en  Belgique  et  d 
I' Stranger  et  de  quelques  considSrations  ginirales  sur  la  situation  de  la  classe  ouvriire  en 
Belgique. 


170  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Rapport  sur  la  situation  dea  sociStSs  mutualistes  pendant  les  annSes  1891-95,  pr4- 
sent£  au  Ministre  de  I'lndustrie  et  du  Travail  par  la  Commission  permanente  dea 
soci^t^s  mutualistes.  1897,  1  volmne. 

Rapport  Ae  la  Commission  permanente  des  soeiMis  mutualistes  pour  la  pSriode  1896- 
1905.     1906,  1  volume. 

Justice.    Bientaisance. 

Staiistique  des  tribunaux  de  la  Belgique  pendant  les  annto  1826,  1827,  lS28i 
1829  et  1830,  par  MM.  A.  Quetelet  et  Ed.  Smits.  2»  publication  officielle.  1833. 
1  volume. 

Compte  de  l' administration  de  la  justice  civile  en  Belgique,  pr6sent£  au  Roi  par  le 
Ministre  de  la  Justice. 

Annies  judiciaires  1832-1833  k  1835-1836  (1  vol.  en  1837);  1836-1837  k  1838- 
1839  (1  vol.  en  1840);  1839-1840  k  1842-1843  1  vol.  en  1845). 

Compte  de  l' administration  de  la  justice  criminelle  en  Belgique,  pr^sent^  au  Roi 
par  le  Ministre  de  la  Justice. 

Annfes  1831  k  1834  (1  vol.  en  1835);  1835  (1  vol.  en  1839);  1836  k  1839  (1  vol. 
en  1843);  1840  k  1843  (1  vol.  en  1849). 

Administration  de  la  justice  criminelle  et  civile  de  la  Belgique.  R4sum4  staiistique. 
Annies  1841-1850  (1  vol.  en  1852.  Extrait  de  I'ExposS  dScennal  de  la  situation  du 
royaume);  1851-1860  (1  vol.  en  1865.  Extrait  de  YExposi  dScennal  de  la  situation 
du  royaume);  1861-1867  (1  vol.  en  1873);  1868-1875  (1  vol.  en  1878);  1876-1880 
(1  vol.  en  1883);  1881-1885  (1  vol.  en  1888);  1886-1897  (1  vol.  en  1898). 

Staiistique  judiciaire  de  la  Belgique.  (Minist^re  de  la  Justice.)  Annuelle  depuis 
1898,  1"  annte. 

Staiistique  des  prisons  de  la  Belgique.  Periode  1841-1850,  par  M.  Ed.  Ducp^tiaux 
(1  vol.  en  1852.  Extrait  de  VExposS  dScennal  de  la  situation  du  royaume);  1851- 
1860  (1  vol.  en  1864). 

Staiistique  des  prisons  de  la  Belgique.  P&iode  1851-1855  (1  vol.  en  1857. 
Extrait  des  Documents  statistiques  publics  par  les  soins  du  D^partement  de 
rint^rieur) . 

Rapport  prSsentS  au  Ministre  de  la  Justice  par  I'Administrateur  de  la  S-O/reti  pub- 
lique  et  des  prisons,  le  SI  dScembre  1869. 

Staiistique  des  prisons  et  dea  Hahlissementa  phiitentiairea  et  de  r^orme  pour  I'ann£e 
1875.    Rapport  pr^sentfi  au  Ministre  de  la  Justice  par  M.  Berden.     1877,  2  vol. 

Id.    pour  les  annees  1876  et  1877,  1879,  1  volume. 

Staiistique  des  prisons  et  des  maisons  spSdales  de  rlforme,  pour  les  ann^  1878, 
1879  et  1880.  Rapport  pr&entfi  au  Ministre  de  la  Justice  par  M.  A.  Gautier.  1884, 
1  volume. 

Rapport  de  la  Commission  sup$rieure  d'inspection  dea  Stablissements  d'aliinis, 
iostituee  par  arrSte  royal  du  18  novembre  1851.     V  ann^e  1862. 

Rapport  de  la  Commission  permanente  d'inspection  des  Hahlissements  d'alUnis, 
institute  par  arrgt6  royal  du  17  mars  1853.  2",  1853-1864;  3«,  1864-1855;  4",  1856; 
5»,  1867-1858;  6=,  1869;  7«.  1860;  8",  1862;  9»,  1863-1865. 

Rapport  sur  la  situation  des  Hahlissements  d^aliinSa.     10",  1866-1871;  11',  1874- 
1876;  12«,  1877-1881;  pr&ent&  par  V.-A.  Oudart,  inspecteur  general.     13«,  1883- 
1892,  presente  par  le  Ministre  de  la  Justice. 
Ecolea  de  rSforme  de  Ruysselede.    Rapport  fait  per  le  Minbtre  de  la  Justice,  con- 


BELGIUM  171 

form^ment  aux  prescriptions  de  I'art.  9  de  la  loi  du  3  avril  1848,  et  pr^entl  aux 
Chambres  legislatives  le  23  Janvier  1850. 

Ecole  de  riforme  de  Ruysaelede.  i°  rapport  sur  la  situation  de  I'Scole  agricole  de 
r4forme  de  Ruysselede  pendant  Tannic  18S0. 

Id.    S'  annfie,  1861. 

Scales  agricoles  de  r^orme  de  Ruysselede  et  de  Beemem.  i'  rapport  sur  la  situa- 
tion des  Icoles  de  reforme  pendant  I'annle  1832. 

Id.  5'.  1853;  6«,  1854;  7»,  1855;  8«.  1856;  9«,  1867;  10«,  1868;  11",  1839;  12», 
1860. 

Statistique  des  lib$raliMs  au  profit  des  Stablissements  religieux  et  charitables  pour 
les  ann£es  1831  a  1849.    Rapport  au  Roi  du  Mimstre  de  la  Justice  du  25  mai  1830. 

Id.    poiu"  les  ann£es  1850  k  1853.    Rapport  du  6  mars  1854. 

Staiistique  des  hospices  et  des  bureaux  de  bienfaisance  d'apr^  les  budgets  de  I'ex- 
ercice  1853, 1  volume.     (Ministere  de  la  Justice.) 

Commerce. 

Tableau  ghiSral  du  commerce  de  la  Belgique  avec  les  pays  Strangers  pendant  les 
ann£es  1831,  1832,  1833  et  1834,  dressi  et  public  par  le  Ministre  de  I'lntlrieur. 
1"  publication  officielle,  1836,  1  volume.  Successivement  7  publications  o£ScielIes 
dont  la  demi^re,  publi£e  en  1842,  comprend  la  statistique  de  I'annle  1840. 

Relmi  du  commerce  de  la  Belgique  avec  les  pays  it/rangers  pendant  I'annte  1840, 
public  par  le  Ministre  des  Finances  (Publication  pr£liminaire).    1841, 1  volume. 

Tableau  ghUral  du  commerce  de  la  Belgique  avec  les  pays  Hrangers.  (Ministere 
des  Finances)  Annuel  depuis  1841. 

Tableau  du  mouvement  commercial  de  la  Belgique  avec  les  pays  Hrangers,  en  ce  qui 
conceme  les  principales  marchandises.  V  annee  1840,  jusqu'en  1895  inclusive- 
ment  (Ministere  des  Finances.    Annexe  au  Moniteur  beige).    Mensuel. 

Tableau  mensuel  du  commerce  special  de  la  Belgique  avec  les  pays  Hrangers,  en  ce 
qui  conceme  les  principales  marchandises.  V  ann€e,  1896  (Ministere  des  Finances. 
Annexe  au  Moniteur  beige).    Fait  suite  au  tableau  precedent. 

Statistique  du  commerce  special  de  la  Belgique  avec  la  France,  la  Grande-Bretagne 
et  rirlande,  les  Pays-Bas  et  I'Union  douanihe  aUemande  en  1908  et  1909,  examine 
au  point  de  vue  de  I'origine  et  du  degri  d'ach^vement  des  produits  €chang£s.  1911, 
1  volume.    (Ministere  de  I'lndustrie  et  du  Travail.) 

Finances. 

Budgets  annuels  des  recettes  et  des  dipenses  (Ministere  des  Finances). 

Compte  ghdral  de  V Administration  des  Finances  rendu  pour  I'annle  1830  par  le 
Ministre  des  Finances. 

Cmnpte  rendu  des  recettes  et  des  d^penses  du  Boyaume.  Annuel  pour  les  ann€es 
1831  k  1849. 

Compte  ghUral  de  V Administration  des  Finances.    Annuel  depuis  I'annle  1860. 

Compte  rendu  par  les  ministres,  en  exScution  des  articles  U  et  iS  de  la  loi  du  16  mai 
18iS,  sur  la  comptabilitS  de  I'Etat.     Annuel  depuis  I'exercice  1848. 

Situation  gHSrale  du  Triaor  Public  au  1"  Janvier.    (Ministfere  des  Finances.) 

Statistique  des  recettes  et  des  dSpenses  du  Royaume  de  Belgique.  (Ministere  des 
Finances.)  1840-1865,  1  volume;  1840-1870,  1  volume;  1840-1876,  1  volume; 
1840-1880,  1  volume;  1840-1885,  1  volume;  1840-1890,  1  volume;  1840-1896, 1 
volume. 


172  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Lot  de  comptes  (MinistAre  des  Finances). 

Projet  de  hi  apportani  des  modifications  d,  la  Ugislation  sur  la  contribution  person- 
nelle  et  aux  Icris  Slectorales  coordonnSes  Tableaux  statistiques.  (Miniature  des  Fi- 
nances.)    1879,  1  volume. 

RelevS,  par  commune,  des  maisons  imposies  h  la  contribution  fonciere  au  1"  Janvier 
1891.  Present^  par  le  Ministre  des  Finances  k  la  Chambre  des  Reprfsentants  en 
annexe  au  document  n°  261  de  la  session  1890-1891.     1891,  1  volume. 

Etat  comparatif  du  produit  des  impots  directs  et  indirects  (trimestriel)  public  au 
Moniteur  beige  (Minist^re  des  Finances). 

Statistigue  comparative  des  octrois  eommunaux  de  Belgique  pendant  les  annSes  1828, 
1829,1885  et  1836,  publiee  par  le  Ministre  de  I'lnterieur  et  des  Affaires  6trang6res. 
1839,  1  volume. 

Rapport  sur  les  octrois  eommunaux  de  Belgigue,  pr^sente  4.  la  Chambre  des  Reprfi- 
sentants,  le  28  Janvier  1845,  par  M.  Nothomb,  Ministre  de  I'lnterieur.  1845,  2 
tomes  en  5  volumes. 

Rapport  du  Commissaire  des  Monnaies  au  Ministre  des  Finances.  Annuel  depuis 
1900. 

Rapport  sur  les  operations  de  la  Caisse  d'amortissement,  des  dSpdts  et  consignations. 
Annuel.     (Ministere  des  Finances.) 

Situation  de  la  Caisse  d'amortissement  et  de  la  Caisse  des  dSpots  et  consignations 
(semestrielle)  publiee  au  Moniteur  beige  (Ministere  des  Finances). 

Bilan  et  compte  des  profits  et  pertes  de  la  Banque  Nationale  de  Belgique  (semestriels) 
publie  au  Moniteur  beige. 

Situation  de  la  Banque  Nationale  de  Belgique  (hebdomadaire)  publiee  au  Moniteur 
beige. 

Tableau  statistigue  des  magistrals,  forictionnaires  et  employes  oivils  de  I'Etat  avec 
indication  de  la  somme  totale  de  leurs  traitements  (Ministere  des  Finances). 
Novembre  1855,  1"  Janvier  1859,  1"  Janvier  1865,  1870,  1876,  1880,  1885,  1890, 
1897,  1901,  1906,  1911. 

Les  magistrats  n'y  sent  compris  que  depuis  1885. 

Agbicultube. 

Agriculture.  Reeensement  g&niral  (15  octobre  1846),  public  par  le  Ministre  de 
I'lnterieur,  1850,  4  volumes. 

Id.    Resumes  par  arrondissements  et  par  provinces.     1850,  1  volume. 

Id.     (31  decembre  1856),  1862,  1  volume. 

Id.     (31  decembre  1866),  1871,  1  volume. 

Id.  de  1880,  publie  par  le  Ministre  de  I'Agriculture,  de  I'lndustrie  et  des  Travaux 
publics,  1885,  1  volume. 

Id.  de  1895,  public  par  le  Ministre  de  I'Agriculture  et  des  Travatix  publics, 
1898-1900,  4  volumes,  partie  analytique  et  un  atlas. 

Id.  de  1910,  publie  par  le  Ministre  de  I'Agriculture  et  des  Travaux  publics,  1914, 
1  volume  paru. 

Reeensement  agricole  (Ministere  de  I'Agriculture  et  des  Travaux  publics)  (annuel), 
annees  1900  a  1910. 

Bulletin  de  I'agricuUure,  publie  en  execution  de  I'arrgte  royal  du  16  juillet  1885. 
Tome  1,  1885,  h  tome  XXIII,  1907. 

Bulletin  de  V administration  de  I'agricuUure,  publie  en  execution  de  I'arrete  royal 
du  31  decembre  1907.    Tome  1, 1908,  a  tome  IV,  1911  (juin). 


3" 

Id. 

i" 

Id. 

5" 

Id. 

6° 

Id. 

7° 

Id. 

8° 

Id. 

9° 

Id. 

BELGIUM  173 

Bulletin  de  I'agriculture  et  de  I' horticulture.  Tome  I,  1911  (juillet).  Publication 
mensuelle. 

Renseignements  statistigues  concemant  la  situation  des  associations  d'intSret  agricole 
pendant  les  anuses  1895  et  1896.     1898,  1  volume. 

ExposS  staHstique  de  la  situation  des  assoeiations  d'intSrSt  agricole  pendant  les 
annees  1897  et  suivantes.    Brochure  annuelle. 

Monographies  agrieoles  (publi^es  a  Toccasion  du  recensement  de  1895) : 
1°  Region  des  dunes,  1901. 
2°      Id.    des  polders,  1902. 

de  la  Campine,  1899. 

sablouneuse  des  Flandres,  1900. 

limoneuse  et  sablo-limoneuse,  1901. 

du  pays  de  Herve,  1900. 

du  Condroz,  1900. 

de  I'Ardenne,  1899. 

jurassique,  1901. 

Industrie. 

Industrie.  Recensement  gSnSral  (15  octobre  1846),  public  par  le  Ministre  de 
rint^rieur.     1851,  1  volume. 

Industrie.    Recensement  de  1880.     1887,  3  volumes. 

Recensement  gSnSral  des  industries  et  des  metiers  (31  octobre  1896),  public  par  le 
Ministfere  de  I'lndustrie  et  du  Travail.     1900-1903,  18  volumes  plus  I'atlas. 

Recensement  de  I'industrie  et  du  Commerce  (31  d^cembre  1910)  public  par  le  Minis- 
tAre  de  I'lndustrie  et  du  Travail.     1914  (4  volumes  parus). 

Mines,  U sines  miniralurgiques.  Machines  &  vapeur.  Rapport  au  Roi  en  1842 
(Minist^re  des  Travaux  publics).     1  volume. 

Id.  annees  1839  k  1844.  Compte  rendu  public  par  le  Ministere  des  Travaux 
publics.     1846,  1  volume. 

Mines,  miniires,  usines  min^ralurgiques  et  machines  h  vapeur.  Annees  1845- 
1849.  1852,  1  volume;  ann^e  1850.  1855,  1  volume;  annees  1851-1855.  1858, 
1  volume. 

Statistigue  des  mines,  minieres  carrihes  usines  mMallurgiques  et  appareils  a  vapeur. 
Pout  les  annees  1865  k  1874,  1874,  1875,  1876  jusqu'en  1894,  extraite  des  Annates 
des  Travaux  publics;  et  depuis  1895  jusqu'en  1900  des  Annates  des  mines  de  Belgique. 

Statistigue  des  industries  extractives  et  mHaUurgigues  et  des  appareils  d,  vapeur  en 
Belgique.    Volume  annuel  depuis  1901. 

Annales  des  mines  de  Belgique,  paraissant  en  4  livraisons  annuelles  respective- 
ment  dans  les  mois  de  Janvier,  avril,  juillet  et  octobre  (Ministere  de  I'lndustrie  et 
du  Travail.    Administration  des  Mines). 

La  1"  annee  a  paru  en  1896.    , 

Enguete  sur  la  condition  des  classes  ouvrieres  et  sur  le  travail  des  enfants  (Minis- 
tere de  I'lnt^rieur).     1846-1848,  3  volumes. 

RSstiltai  de  I' enguete  ouverte  par  les  officiers  du  corps  des  mines  sur  la  situation  des 
ouvriers  dans  les  mines  et  les  usines  nUtaUurgigties  de  la  Belgigue,  en  execution  de  la 
circulaire  adressde  le  3  novembre  1868  par  le  Ministre  des  Travaux  publics  aux 
Ing^nieurs  en  chef  des  Mines.     1869,  1  volume. 

Salaires  et  budgets  ouvriers,  en  Belgigue,  au  mois  d' avril  1891.     Renseignements 


174  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

fournis  par  les  Conseils  de  I'lndustrie  et  du  Travail  (MinistSre  de  I'Agriculture,  de 
rindustrie  et  des  Travaux  publics).    1892,  1  volume. 

Bulletin  de  I'mspection  du  travail.  Publication  mensuelle  dont  les  2  premieres 
annees  (1894  et  1895)  fonuent  un  recueil  special  et  qui,  depuis  le  1"  Janvier  1896, 
a  6t&  incorpore  dans  la  Revue  du  travail. 

Rapports  annuels  de  I'inspection  du  travail,  publics  par  TOffice  du  Travail.  1" 
ann£e,  1895. 

Revue  du  travail,  publiee  par  I'OflSce  du  Travail.  Mensuelle  de  1896  k  1906  et 
bimensuelle  depuis  1906.    Edition  flamande:  Arbeidsblad  depuis  1896. 

Travail  du  dimanche,  public  par  I'OflSce  du  Travail  1896-1898.    5  volumes. 

Les  Industries  d.  domicile  en  Belgique  1899-1909.  Vol.  X:  £tude  statistique  des 
families  ouvriferes  comprenant  des  ouvriers  k  domicile.  1909,  1  volume.  (9  vol- 
umes de  monographies  et  1  volume  contenant  la  bibliographie  de  la  matifere.) 

Bulletin  de  I'Office  des  classes  moyennes,  plus  tard  Bulletin  de  I'Office  des  mMiers  et 
n&goces.    Publication  trimestrieUe.     1"  ann6e,  1907. 

Enquite  sur  la  piche  maritime  en  Belgique. 

I.  Litroduction.    Recensement  de  la  pSche  maritime. 
II.  Etude  teonomique  de  la  p6che  maritime. 
III.  Etude  sociale  de  la  pfiche  maritime. 

Statistique  des  salairea  dans  les  mines  de  houiUe  (octobre  1896-mai  1900).  1901, 
1  volume. 

Salaires  dans  I'industrie  gantoise.     1902-1904,  2  volumes: 
I.  Industrie  cotonni^re; 
II.  Industrie  de  la  filature  du  lin. 

Salairea  et  durSe  du  travail  dans  les  industries  textiles  au  mois  d'octobre  1901. 
1905,  1  volume. 

Salaires  et  durh  du  travail  dans  les  industries  des  milaux  au  mois  d'octobre  1903. 
1907,  2  volumes. 

Statistique  des  grkes  en  Belgique.  1896-1900.  1903,  1  volume;  1901-1905. 
1907,  1  volume;  1896-1910.     1911,  1  volume. 

Mines.  Statistique  des  accidents  survenus  dans  les  puits  durant  la  ptriode  de  1860  d 
1879,  1  volume. 

Rapport  relatif  &  I' execution  de  la  loi  du  31  mars  1898  sur  les  unions  professionnelUs 
pendant  les  ann£es  1898-1901.  Pr&ent^  aux  Chambres  Legislatives  par  le  Ministre 
de  rindustrie  et  du  Travail.    1904, 1  volume. 

Id.    anuses  1902-1904.     1907,  1  volume. 

Id.    annfes  1905-1907.     1911, 1  volume. 

Statistique  des  distributions  d'inergie  ilectrique  en  1908.    1909,  1  volume. 

Statistique  des  accidents  du  travail  (annte  1906).     2  volumes,  1912. 

Transports.  Chemeus  de  per.  Etc.  Travatjx  Publics. 

Annales  des  travaux  publics  en  Belgique. — ^Mtooires,  chroniques  et  comptes 
rendus  d'ordre  technique,  administratif  et  statistique  concemant  les  travaux  pub- 
lics, du  pays  et  de  l'6tranger. 

Paraissent  tons  les  deux  mois  depuis  1843  en  fascicules  de  200  pages  illustrfes, 
avec  planches  hors  texte. 

Renseignements  statistiques  recueillis  par  le  D6partement  des  Travaux  publics, 
1851-1855.     1857, 1  volume. 

Id.,  1856  a  1867. 


BELGIUM  175 

Routes  etb&timentsmmla.  TravauxhydravMquei.  Chemins  de  fer  en  construction. 
— Compte  rendu  des  operations  pendant  les  ann^es  1880  et  1881. 

Chemins  vicinaux. — Rapport  adress^  au  Ministre  de  I'lnt^rieur  sur  I'inspection 
de  chemins  vicinaux  des  provinces  de  Limbouig,  de  Hainaut  et  de  Brabant, 
op&r^e  pendant  I'ann^  1851  par  Bug.  Bidaut,  ing^nieur  en  chef.  Un  volume  pr£- 
sent6  aux  Chambres  legislatives  en  stance  du  3  f^vrier  1852. 

Carte  figurative  de  V importance  du  roulage  sur  les  routes  de  I'Etai  en  Belgique  en 
1879  (Minist^ie  des  Travaux  publics). 

Album  du  dhdoppement  progressif  du  r&seau  des  routes  de  1830  &  1880. — 7  planches. 
— Publi6  en  1880  (Ministere  des  Travaux  publics). 

StatisHque  du  nwuvement  des  transports  sur  les  voies  navigables  de  la  Belgique 
pendant  le  second  semestre  de  1879  (Ministere  des  Travaux  publics).  1  volume  et 
1  carte. 

Recueil  descriptif  et  statistique  des  voies  natdgables  de  la  Belgique. — 1880,  2  volumes 
(Ministere  des  Travaux  publics). 

Album  du  dSveloppement  progressif  du  riseau  des  voies  navigables  de  1830  &  1880. 
7  planches.    Public  en  1880  (Ministere  des  Travaux  publics). 

Album  statistique  des  recettes  et  des  dipensesfaites  par  I'Etat  pour  les  voies  navigables 
de  la  Belgique  de  1830  &  1880  (Ministere  des  Travaux  publics). 

Notice  descriptive  et  statistique  des  installations  maritimes  de  la  Belgique.  1880 
(Ministere  des  Travaux  publics). 

DiagrammiB  figuralif  du  mouvement  des  transports  sur  les  voies  navigables  de  la 
Belgique  en  1885  (Ministere  des  Travaux  publics). 

Carte  figurative  du  mouvement  des  transports  sur  les  voies  navigables  de  la  Belgique 
en  1893  (Miniature  des  Travaux  publics). 

Carte  statistique  de  la  navigation  inUrieure  sur  les  voies  navigables  de  la  Belgique 
et  des  pays  limitrophes  en  1910.  (Dresste  par  I'Ecole  Saint-Jacques  des  Bateliers 
if.  Namur.) 

Chemins  de  fer  de  VEtat. — Compte  rendu  des  opiralions. — ^Rapports  des  4  aoftt 
1835,  1"  mars  1837,  26  octobre  1837,  26  novembre  1838,  et  12  novembre  1839. 

Annuel  depuis  1840. 

On  y  a  compris  successivement  le  compte  rendu  des  operations  des  t^lfigraphes 
depuis  1850,  des  postes  depuis  1867  (le  rapport  pour  1867  donne  un  apergu  des 
operations  depuis  1830),  la  marine  depuis  1873  (I'annee  1873  comprend  quelques 
developpements  retrospectifs),  les  telephones  depuis  1883. 

Carte  figurative  de  la  circulalion  des  grosses  marchandises  sur  les  lignes  de  I'Etat, 
pendant  I'annSe  1879  (Ministere  des  Travaux  publics).     1  feuille. 

Dheloppement  du  mmivement  postal  en  Belgique. — Nombre  des  lettres  privees, 
des  cartes  postales,  des  joumaux  et  imprimes  expedies  atmuellement  par  la  poste 
aux  lettres.     1884,  1  feuille. 

CoiiOim:  DU  Congo  Belge. 
Bulletin  offidel  de  I'Etat  Indipendant  du  Congo.    1*  annee,  1885;  devenu: 
Bulletin  offidel  du  Congo  beige  k  partir  du  15  novembre  1908. 
Renseignements  de  I'Offi^e  colonial.    Annexe  au  Bulletin  offidel  de  I'Etat  InMpend- 

ant  du  Congo.     1"  annee  1907. 
Annexe  au  Bulletin  offidel  du  Congo  Beige  k  partir  du  15  novembre  1908 — devenu: 
Renseignements  de  I'Office  colonial  {publication  spSdale)  k  partir  du  I"  Janvier  1911. 


CANADA 


13 


HISTORY  AND  DEVELOPMENT  OF  STATISTICS  IN 

CANADA 

By  Ernest  H.  Godfrey,  F.S.S. 

Member  of  the  International  Statistical  Institute;  Editor,  Census  and  Statistics 
Office,  Ottawa,  Canada 

7.     Historical 

Necessarily  the  earliest  statistics  of  a  country  relate  to 
the  enumeration  of  its  people.  When  a  nation  begins  to 
count,  it  exercises  that  faculty  upon  its  population;  and  in 
Canada  statistical  records,  limited  in  scope,  it  is  true,  exist 
from  the  very  foundation  of  the  white  settlements  in  North 
America. 

The  first  record  of  population  ia  Canada  relates  to  the 
foundation  of  Port  Royal  (now  Annapolis  Royal),  Nova 
Scotia,  in  1605,  when  there  were  44  surviving  settlers  out 
of  79  who  had  wintered  on  the  He  Ste.  Croix.  Three  years 
later  (1608)  Quebec  was  founded  by  Champlaiu,  and  28 
settlers  wintered  there.  Similar  records  exist  for  dates  at 
varying  intervals  up  to  1663  when  the  population  of  New 
France  was  recorded  as  2,500,  of  whom  800  were  in  Quebec. 

To  Canada  belongs  the  credit  of  taking  the  first  nominal 
census  of  modern  times,  that  is  to  say,  a  record  for  each 
individual  by  name.  This  census  was  taken  on  the  de  jure 
principle  during  the  months  of  February  and  March,  1666, 
for  the  year  1665,  a  date  prior  to  any  modern  census,  whether 
European  or  American.  The  returns  occupy  154  pages  of 
manuscript  and  are  deposited  in  the  Archives  of  Paris;  but 
a  transcript  is  preserved  in  the  Archives  at  Ottawa.  The 
population,  according  to  this  census,  numbered  3,215,  ex- 
clusive of  the  Royal  troops,  consisting  of  from  1,000  to  1,200 
men.  The  data  collected  embraced  families,  population, 
sexes,  conjugal  condition,  ages  of  the  people  and  professions 
and  trades;  so  that  the  claim  may  fairly  be  made  that  this 


180  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

census  was  the  precursor  of  the  present  elaborate  enumera- 
tions of  the  people  and  of  their  resources,  which  take  place 
at  regular  intervals  in  every  civilized  country. 

A  similar  census  was  taken  two  years  later  (1667),  when 
the  data  collected  were  extended  to  include  areas  under 
cultivation  and  the  numbers  of  cattle  and  sheep.  A  census 
was  taken  of  Acadia  (Nova  Scotia)  in  1671;  but  the  total 
population  then  enumerated  was  only  441,  while  the  land 
under  cultivation  was  not  more  than  429  acres.  Further 
censuses,  both  of  New  France  and  of  other  North  American 
colonies,  were  taken  at  frequent  but  irregular  intervals,  and 
under  conditions  dependent  upon  political  vicissitudes,  until 
1851,  when  was  taken  the  first  of  a  series  of  decennial  cen- 
suses maintained  regularly  ever  since. 

For  early  records  of  the  statistics  of  Canada  reference  may 
be  made  to  the  Report  on  the  Census  of  1871,  the  first  to 
be  taken  after  the  Confederation  of  Canada  in  1867.  The 
census  was  taken  under  the  direction  of  the  late  Dr.  J.  C. 
Tache,  Deputy  Minister  of  Agriculture;  and  Vol.  IV  of  the 
report  contains,  besides  a  valuable  historical  introduction, 
the  summaries  of  censuses  taken  at  different  periods  in  and 
for  the  territories  then  constituting  the  British  North 
American  Provinces. 

The  first  legislative  attempt  to  bring  under  oflficial  control 
the  statistics  of  the  country  was  made  in  1847  by  the  creation 
of  a  Board  of  Registration  and  Statistics  for  the  province  of 
Ca,nada,  which  then  embraced  what  are  now  known  as  the 
provinces  of  Quebec  and  Ontario.  This  board  was  originally 
composed  of  the  Receiver  General,  the  Provincial  Secretary 
and  the  Inspector  General;  but  in  1857  the  Minister  of 
Agriculture  was  substituted  for  the  Inspector  General,  was 
made  chairman  of  the  board  and  was  entrusted  with  execu- 
tive duties  under  the  statutes  by  the  board's  direction. 
This  explains  the  origin  of  the  system  under  which  until 
quite  recently  the  census  and  the  statistics  of  Canada  were 
attached  to  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture. 

In  1865  the  portfolio  of  agriculture  for  the  province  of 


CANADA  181 

Quebec  was  held  by  the  late  Hon.  T.  D'Arcy  McGee,  who, 
with  the  able  assistance  of  Dr.  Tach6,  made  earnest  and 
successful  eflForts  to  introduce  efficiency  into  the  working  of 
a  department  which  had  become  sadly  disorganized.  The 
reorganization  of  the  statistical  work  of  the  department 
was  energetically  undertaken,  and  the  subject  is  referred  to 
by  the  minister  in  his  Annual  Report  for  1861.  He  there 
states  that,  by  law,  all  ministers  of  religion  in  Upper  Canada 
were  required  to  deposit  with  the  Clerks  of  the  Peace  dupli- 
cates of  their  registers  of  baptisms,  marriages  and  burials 
and  that  the  Clerks  of  the  Peace  were  required  to  transmit 
them  to  the  Provincial  Secretary.  He  complains,  however, 
that  this  law  has  practically  remained  a  dead  letter,  the 
returns  sent  being  of  such  a  character  as  to  be  utterly  useless 
for  the  purpose  intended. 

To  the  minister's  report  is  appended  a  strongly-worded 
Memorial  to  the  Board  of  Registration  and  Statistics, 
written  by  the  secretary,  Dr.  Tache,  and  dated  January  17, 
1865.*  In  this  memorial.  Dr.  Tache  states  that,  according 
to  the  law  originally  enacted  in  1847  (10  and  11  Vict.,  c.  14), 
the  duties  imposed  upon  the  Board  were  "to  collect  sta- 
tistics and  adopt  measures  for  disseminating  or  publishing 
the  same  " ;  an  annual  report  of  the  statistics  of  the  province 
was  to  be  laid  before  the  Legislature  and  a  general  census 
was  to  be  executed  every  ten  years.  He  complains  that 
owing  to  various  causes  the  purpose  of  the  law  had  been 
entirely  frustrated,  and  that  there  had  been  no  statistics 
worthy  of  the  name  ever  collected,  and  none  at  all  published 
except  such  as  were  contained  in  the  reports  of  the  two 
Censuses  of  1851  and  1860.  His  strictures  with  regard  to 
the  reports  of  those  two  censuses  are  very  severe.  He 
writes : 

After  seventeen  years  of  the  existence  of  the  Board  of  Statistics;  after  having 
kept  up  for  that  length  of  time  a  certain  staff  of  officers;  after  having  expended 
(besides  the  regular  permanent  departmental  cost  of  maintenance)  a  round  aggre- 

*Ileport  for  the  year  1865  of  the  Minister  of  Agricultiure  of  the  Province  of  Canada, 
pp.  16-18,  24-29,  Ottawa,  1866. 


182  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

gate  sum  of  a  little  more  than  $260,000  for  the  taking  of  two  censuses,  it  is  hard  to 
come  and  say  that  our  statistics  have  to  be  created;  but  it  is  the  truth,  however 
unpalatable.  What  is  today  called  our  statistics — I  mean  the  Census  Reports  of 
1851  and  1860 — are  fallacious  statements,  and  not  to  be  relied  upon  in  any  essential 
point.  And  really  it  would  be  more  than  wonderful  if  they  were  not  so,  knowing 
the  circumstances  under  which  they  were  taken  and  the  system  which  presided 
over  the  whole  proceeding. 

Of  these  two  censuses  he  gives  instances  of  what  he  des- 
cribes as  "absurdities  of  the  most  ridiculous  character." 
Thus  figures  are  given  which  express  absolute  impossibilities, 
such  as  the  reports  of  deaths  as  compared  with  the  number 
of  births  on  one  side  and  the  number  of  the  whole  population 
on  the  other.  In  1851  the  number  of  living  children  under 
one  year  of  age  is  stated  to  be  by  many  thousands  greater 
than  the  total  number  of  births  of  the  whole  of  the  then 
last  twelve  months.  In  1860  all  the  births  are  made  a  part 
of  the  living  population,  as  if  there  had  been  no  still-born 
or  no  deaths  accruing  from  that  very  number  of  births. 
Inconsistencies  equally  absurd  are  referred  to  in  connection 
with  the  agricultural  and  industrial  censuses;  and  finally  it 
is  stated  that  by  addition  the  columns  do  not  always  agree : 
they  sometimes  agree  in  totals  whilst  they  quite  disagree 
in  the  details  forming  the  elements  of  the  calculation.  Dr. 
Tach6  said  he  had  learned,  by  consulting  the  traditions  of 
the  oflBce,  that  such  a  wonderful  result  was  obtained  by 
a  high-handling  of  figures,  called  at  the  time  "to  make 
them  correspond." 

The  report  concludes  with  the  summary  of  a  project  for 
"creating  real  Canadian  statistics,"  divided  into  nine  parts, 
comprising  (1)  a  preliminary  numerical  study  of  the  country 
and  its  aboriginal  population  to  the  time  of  Champlain;  (2) 
the  statistics  of  the  seventeenth  century;  (3)  statistics  of  the 
eighteenth  century  to  the  capitulation  in  1760;  (4)  statistics 
of  the  eighteenth  century  from  1760  to  the  division  of  Upper 
and  Lower  Canada  in  1791 ;  (5)  statistics  of  the  period  of  the 
separation  of  the  Canadas,  included  between  the  years  1791 
and  1841;  (6)  statistics  of  the  period  comprised  between 
the  time  of  the  Union  (1841)  and  the  taking  of  the  first 


CANADA  183 

general  census  in  1851;  (7)  the  Census  of  1851  revised, 
corrected  and  annotated  with  miscellaneous  statistics  to 
the  year  1860;  (8)  the  Census  of  1860  revised,  corrected  and 
annotated  with  miscellaneous  statistics  to  the  year  1870; 
and  (9)  report  of  the  Census  of  1870  ending  the  first  series 
of  Canadian  statistics. 

"Such  a  mass,"  writes  Dr.  Tach6,  "of  well-prepared  in- 
formation on  the  territorial,  vital,  religious,  educational, 
administrative,  military,  judicial,  agricultural,  commercial, 
industrial  and  financial  statistics  of  our  country  would 
constitute  a  monument  at  which  the  enlightened  part  of 
the  population  would  certainly  look  with  complaisance  and 
other  countries  with  a  great  deal  of  interest." 

Two  years  after  the  date  of  this  report  the  Confederation 
of  Canada  was  accomplished  under  the  British  North  Amer- 
ica Act,  1867,  passed  by  the  Imperial  Parliament;  and  the 
seat  of  the  new  federal  government  was  established  at 
Ottawa.  Under  the  terms  of  the  Act  the  exclusive  legislative 
authority  of  the  Parliament  of  Canada  extends  to  certain 
subjects  enumerated,  including  the  "Census  and  Statistics." 
The  Act  therefore,  whilst  not  prohibiting  statistical  activity 
on  the  part  of  the  provinces  in  respect  to  provincial  matters, 
distinctly  includes  the  general  subject  of  statistics  as  a  mat- 
ter of  federal  and  national  importance. 

One  of  the  first  measures  passed  by  the  new  federal  Parlia- 
ment was  an  Act  for  the  organization  of  the  Department  of 
Agriculture  (31  Vict.,  c.  33),  assented  to  May  22,  1868, 
which  Act,  while  it  repealed  the  similar  Act  of  the  province 
of  Canada  previously  in  force,  virtually  re-enacted  its  main 
provisions;  and  "the  census,  statistics  and  the  registration 
of  statistics  "  was  the  sixth  of  nine  subjects  placed  under  the 
control  and  direction  of  the  new  federal  Department  of 
Agriculture.  There  was  not,  however,  in  this  Act  any  fur- 
ther statement  showing  the  nature  of  the  statistics  con- 
templated. 

On  May  12,  1870,  the  Dominion  Parliament  passed  a 
special  Act  (33  Vict.,  c.  21)  for  the  taking  of  the  first  census 


184  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

of  the  new  Dominion  in  1871.  This  census  was  duly  taken 
under  the  direction  of  Dr.  Tache,  and  the  results  were 
published  in  a  report  of  five  volumes  already  referred  to. 
For  the  Census  of  1881  an  important  new  departure  was 
made  in  that  the  Act  of  1879  (42  Vict.,  c.  21),  under  which 
it  was  taken,  provided  for  a  permanent  decennial  census 
and  for  the  regular  collection  and  publication  of  statistics. 
The  Act  laid  it  down  that  a  census  should  be  taken  at  the 
beginning  of  the  year  1881  and  "at  the  beginning  of  every 
tenth  year  thereafter."  Section  28  of  the  Act,  under  the 
heading  of  "Statistics,"  provided  that  the  Minister  of  Agri- 
culture should  from  time  to  time  make  rules  and  regulations 
"for  the  purpose  of  collecting,  abstracting,  tabulating  and 
publishing  vital,  agricultural,  commercial,  criminal  and  other 
statistics." 

The  second  census  (1881),  the  third  census  (1891),  and 
the  fourth  census  (1901)  were  taken  under  the  authority 
of  this  Act.  The  Census  of  1881,  like  that  of  1871,  was 
taken  by  Dr.  Tach6,  who  died  in  1894.  The  Census  of  1891 
was  taken  under  the  direction  of  the  late  Dr.  George  Johnson, 
Dominion  Statistician,  who  had  been  Census  Commissioner 
for  Nova  Scotia  in  1881.  The  fourth  census  (1901)  and  the 
fifth  census  (1911)  were  taken  under  the  direction  of  the  late 
Dr.  Archibald  Blue,  in  1901  as  Special  Census  Commissioner 
and  in  1911  as  Chief  Officer  of  the  Census  and  Statistics 
Office. 

From  1863  to  1873  miscellaneous  statistics  were  pub- 
lished by  the  Department  of  Finance  of  the  Province  of 
Canada  (1863-1867),  and  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada 
(1867-1873).  They  included  chiefly  municipal,  banking, 
insurance  and  building  society  statistics.  From  1883  to 
1890  annual  mortuary  statistics  of  selected  cities  and  towns 
in  Canada  were  collected  and  published  by  Order  in  Coun- 
cil of  December  26,  1882,  under  the  authority  of  the  Census 
and  Statistics  Act,  1879. 


CANADA  185 

77.    Present  Statistical  Organization 

In  1905  a  further  step  of  progress  was  taken  by  the  or- 
ganization of  a  permanent  Census  and  Statistics  Office  as 
a  branch  of  the  Department  of  Agricultiu'e.  Under  the 
Census  and  Statistics  Act  1905  (4-5  Edw.  VII,  c.  5)  the 
oflBce  was  charged  with  the  following  duties:  (1)  the  taking 
of  a  decennial  census  commencing  with  1911,  such  census, 
as  before,  to  include  the  enumeration  of  the  people  for  the 
primary  purpose  of  the  legal  parliamentary  representation 
and  a  complete  account  of  the  natural  products  and  economic 
resources  of  the  Dominion;  (2)  the  taking  in  the  mid-year  of 
each  decade,  commencing  with  1906,  of  a  census  of  pop- 
ulation and  agriculture  only,  for  the  three  Northwest  prov- 
inces of  Manitoba,  Saskatchewan  and  Alberta,  the  two  last 
named  provinces  having  been  created  by  Acts  of  the  same 
year  (1905);  (3)  the  prosecuting  of  such  special  intercensal 
statistical  inquiries  as  might  be  ordered  from  time  to  time 
by  the  minister  responsible  to  Parliament  for  the  Census  and 
Statistics  Office.  The  exact  wording  of  the  Act  in  this 
connection  is  that  "  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Governor 
in  Council  and  under  the  direction  of  the  minister,  the 
office  shall  collect,  abstract  and  tabulate  agricultural,  com- 
mercial, criminal,  educational,  manufacturing,  vital  and 
other  statistics  and  information  from  time  to  time  in  the 
intercensal  years  of  each  decade  in  such  ways  and  manners 
as  are  found  most  practicable." 

With  a  chief  officer,  a  secretary,  three  other  principal 
officers,  a  permanent  clerical  staff  of  about  25  and  temporary 
clerks  of  both  sexes  to  the  number  at  maximum  pressure 
of  170,  the  office  has  taken  the  Northwest  census  of  pop- 
ulation and  agriculture  (1906),  a  census  of  manufactures 
(1906),  a  census  of  dairying  (1907),  an  agricultural  census 
of  eastern  Canada  (1907),  and  the  decennial  Census  of  1911, 
and  has  published,  or,  in  the  case  of  the  Census  of  1911,  is 
still  publishing  the  results  in  the  form  of  bulletins,  interim 
and  final  reports. 


186  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

In  1908  a  crop-reporting  service  was  instituted  by  the 
appointment  of  about  3,000  voluntary  agricultural  corre- 
spondents throughout  the  Dominion.  With  the  aid  of  these 
correspondents,  who  fill  up  and  return  schedules  of  inquiries 
issued  to  them,  the  office  issues  a  monthly  report  on  the 
condition  of  agricultural  crops  and  furnishes  the  information 
required  by  the  International  Agricultural  Institute  to  which 
Canada  is  an  adhering  country.  It  also  issues  annual 
estimates  of  the  areas  sown  to  the  principal  field  crops,  of 
the  yields  and  values  of  these  crops  and  of  the  numbers  of 
farm  live  stock.  The  office  is  well  equipped  with  the  latest 
types  of  calculating  machines,  most  of  the  adding  machines 
being  operated  by  electricity.  The  records  collected  by  the 
census  schedules  are  transferred  to  cards  by  the  perforated 
card  system  and  are  classified  and  compiled  by  specially 
designed  electrically-driven  sorting  and  tabulating  machines. 
On  April  1,  1912,  the  Census  and  Statistics  Office  was 
transferred  from  the  Department  of  Agriculture  to  the 
Department  of  Trade  and  Commerce;  but  no  other  change 
was  then  or  has  since  been  made  in  its  constitution  and 
organization. 

It  will  thus  be  observed  that  under  the  legislation  at 
present  in  force  provision  is  made  for  a  decennial  census 
of  the  population  and  natural  resoiu*ces  of  the  whole  Domin- 
ion and  for  a  quinquennial  census  of  population  and  agricul- 
ture for  the  three  Northwest  provinces  of  Manitoba, 
Saskatchewan  and  Alberta.  In  the  first  year  of  each  decade 
the  Northwest  quinquennial  census  is,  however,  merged  in 
the  decennial  census  of  the  Dominion.  The  first  Northwest 
quinquennial  census  having  been  taken  in  1906,  and  the 
general  Census  of  1911  being  counted  as  the  second,  the 
third  will  fall  due  to  be  taken  in  1916.  In  connection  with 
the  census  it  should  be  noted  that  the  principle  of  a  quinquen- 
nial enumeration  of  the  people  was  not  applied  in  Canada 
for  the  first  time  in  1906.  Under  an  Act  of  1885  (48-49 
Vict.,  c.  3)  a  complete  census  of  the  province  of  Manitoba 
was  taken  in  1886,  midway  between  the  years  of  the  general 


CANADA  187 

Censuses  of  1881  and  1891,  and  was  the  subject  of  an  elabo- 
rate report,  whilst  in  1896  a  census  of  population  only  was 
taken  of  the  same  province,  the  results  being  embodied  in 
the  form  of  a  return  to  the  House  of  Commons  (No.  25, 1896). 

As  the  intercensal  inquiries  contemplated  by  the  Act  of 
1905  were  the  same,  with  but  slight  alterations,  as  those 
provided  for  by  the  Act  of  1879,  we  may  stop  to  inquire 
how  far  the  authority  conferred  by  the  two  Acts  of  1879 
and  1905  have  been  utilized  for  the  "collection,  abstraction 
and  tabulation  of  agricultural,  commercial,  criminal,  educa- 
tional, manufacturing,  vital  and  other  statistics."  Of  these 
subjects,  taking  them  in  reverse  order,  the  registration  of 
births,  marriages  and  deaths  and  education  are,  under  the 
British  North  America  Act,  matters  entirely  within  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  provinces;  so  that  the  Dominion  govern- 
ment, in  respect  of  these  subjects,  can  only  utilize  such 
statistics  as  may  be  published  by  the  provincial  govern- 
ments, except  in  regard  to  inquiries  made  in  connection 
with  the  census,  or  by  means  of  special  intercensal  inquiries. 
As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  Dominion  government  has  not 
attempted  the  collection  of  independent  statistics  on  these 
two  subjects,  except  by  means  of  the  decennial  censuses,  and 
the  results  thus  obtained  have  not  been  particularly  success- 
ful. Indeed,  statistics  of  births  and  deaths  collected  at  the 
recent  Census  of  1911  have  so  far  not  been  published,  be- 
cause of  their  evidently  untrustworthy  character.  But  for 
many  years  ending  with  1904  both  vital  and  education 
statistics,  compiled  from  the  records  of  the  provincial  gov- 
ernments, were  annually  published  in  the  Statistical  Year 
Book  of  Canada,  an  oflBcial  publication  which  we  shall  have 
occasion  presently  to  describe.  The  education  statistics, 
thus  published,  were  continuous  and  fairly  complete;  but 
the  vital  statistics  were  only  partial  and  fragmentary  for 
reasons  hereinafter  given. 

One  of  the  first  special  inquiries  set  on  foot  by  the  new 
Census  and  Statistics  OflSce  was  a  postal  census  of  manu- 
factures which  was  taken  in  1906.     This,  through  the  cordial 


188  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

and  intelligent  cooperation  of  the  manufacturers,  was  com- 
pletely successful,  and  the  results,  published  in  1907  in  the 
form  of  a  bulletin  with  an  introduction,  consist  of  material 
valuable. for  comparison  with  the  decennial  Censuses  of  1901 
and  1911,  and  for  the  institution  of  a  quinquennial  compari- 
son from  the  beginning  of  the  century. 

Criminal  statistics  have  been  collected  annually  in  Canada 
since  1880  under  statutory  authority  originally  conferred  by 
Act  of  the  Dominion  Parliament  in  1876  (39  Vict.,  c.  13). 
The  results  have  been  published  upon  a  comparable  basis  in 
an  annual  report  from  1880  to  the  present  date.  They  pre- 
sent material  of  which  considerable  use  might  be  but  of  which 
little  use  has  been  made  from  a  sociological  point  of  view. 

Of  commercial  statistics,  the  import  and  export  returns 
are  complete  and  exhaustive,  following  the  exigencies  of 
tariff  legislation;  they  have  been  published  annually  since 
Confederation  by  the  Customs  Department,  and  since  1893 
have  been  worked  up  into  special  tables  from  a  more  purely 
commercial  standpoint  by  the  Department  of  Trade  and 
Commerce;  they  are  now  published  in  the  form  of  monthly 
and  annual  reports. 

Reference  has  already  been  made  to  the  issue  since  1908 
of  annual  estimates  of  the  areas  and  yields  of  the  principal 
field  crops,  and  of  the  numbers  of  farm  live  stock.  These 
can  scarcely  be  regarded  as  truly  statistical  data,  except  in 
so  far  as  they  rest  upon  the  results  of  the  decennial  or  quin- 
quennial censuses;  but  they  are  the  nearest  approach  to 
national  annual  agricultural  statistics  for  the  whole  of  the 
Dominion  which  it  has  as  yet  been  possible  to  secure. 

In  addition  to  such  statistics  as  are  specially  collected  by 
the  Census  and  Statistics  Office  there  is  a  great  variety  of 
statistics,  mostly  annual  and  continuous,  which  are  com- 
piled and  published  by  the  departments  of  the  Dominion 
government.  It  is  not  possible  here  to  enumerate  them 
exhaustively,  but  the  following  schedule  gives  the  names  of 
some  of  the  principal  departments  and  the  subjects  upon 
which  each  of  them  issues  statistics  that  are  of  public 
interest : 


CANADA 


189 


Department. 


Nature  of  Statistics. 


Customs . 


Trade  and  Commerce. 


Department  of  the  Interior. 


Indian  Affairs 

Naval  Service 

Marine 

Department  of  Mines 
Railways  and  Canals . 

Labor 

Finance 


Canada's  external  trade,  published  under  the  title 
of  "Trade  and  Navigation  Returns"  in  the  form 
of  monthly  statements  and  of  an  annual  report. 

Canadian  trade  in  the  form  of  an  annual  report 
issued  in  seven  parts.  Three  parts  relate  to 
Canadian  trade  with  other  countries.  The 
statistics  are  based  upon  the  trade  and  navigation 
returns  furnished  in  advance  by  the  Department 
of  Customs;  but  they  are  analysed  and  classified 
differently  to  suit  commercial  requirements. 
The  other  four  parts  include  miscellaneous  infor- 
mation, grain  statistics,  the  subsidized  steamship 
services  and  the  trade  of  foreign  countries. 
A  Monthly  Report  and  a  Weekly  Bulletin  are 
also  published  containing  much  statistical  infor- 
mation relating  to  trade. 

Monthly  and  annual  statistics  of  immigration  by 
the  Immigration  Branch  of  the  Department. 
Annual  statistics  of  forestry  production,  includ- 
ing lumber,  pulpwood,  cross-ties,  cooperage  and 
telegraph  poles,  etc.,  issued  by  the  Forestry 
Branch  of  the  Department. 

Agricultural,  industrial  and  vital  statistics  relating 
to  the  Indians  of  Canada. 

Fisheries;  radiotelegraphy,  etc. 

Shipping;  meteorology. 

Mineral  production. 

Statistics  of  railways,  express  companies,  canals, 
telegraphs  and  telephones. 

Strikes  and  lockouts,  industrial  accidents,  wages 
and  cost  of  living.  Publication:  "The  Labor 
Gazette"  (Monthly). 

Public  accoimts,  including  revenue,  expenditure, 
debt,  etc.;  insurance;  friendly  societies;  loan  and 
trust  companies,  etc. 


The  statistics  published  by  each  of  these  departments 
appear  mbstly  in  the  form  of  annual  reports.  Reference 
may  be  made  to  the  Canada  Year  Book  of  1914  for  fairly 
complete  lists  of  the  publications  of  the  various  departments 
of  both  the  Dominion  and  provincial  governments. 

In  addition  to  the  official  statistics  published  by  the 


190 


MEMORIAL  VOLUME 


Domiiuon  government,  whether  by  the  special  agency  of  the 
Census  and  Statistics  Office  or  by  the  respective  government 
departments,  statistics  of  different  kinds  are  also  published 
by  the  governments  of  the  nine  provinces.  These  differ 
according  to  the  character  of  the  public  work  which  each 
provincial  government  undertakes;  but  speaking  generally 
Canadian  official  statistics  fall  into  three  different  categories, 
viz.:  (1)  those  entirely  collected  by  the  Dominion  govern- 
ment; (2)  those  on  subjects  with  which  both  the  Dominion 
and  provincial  governments  are  concerned;  and  (3)  those 
entirely  collected  and  published  by  the  provincial  govern- 
ments. The  following  statement  shows  the  statistics  of 
Canada  which  fall  into  one  or  other  of  these  three  categories : 


Dominion. 

Dominion  and 
Provincial. 

Provincial  Only. 

Enumeration  of  the  people 

Agriculture 

Vital  statistics  • 

(Census) 

Immigration 

Fisheries 

Education 

Meteorology 

Minerals 

Municipal  statistics 

Forestry 

Manufactures 

Hospitals  and  charities 

Trade  (exports  and  imports) 

Insurance 

Transportation 

Friendly  societies 

Communications 

Labor 

Banking 

Loan  and  trust  com- 
panies 

Currency 

Joint  stock  companies 

Inland  revenue 

Justice 

Defence 

In  the  first  class,  viz.,  statistics  relating  to  subjects  under 
the  exclusive  control  of  the  Dominion  government,  there  are 
no  very  great  obstacles  in  the  way  of  effecting  such  improve- 
ments as  may  be  desirable;  but  in  the  other  two  the  improve- 
ments desirable  are  both  more  numerous  and  more  impor- 
tant, whilst  also  the  difficulties  of  effecting  them  are  greater. 

A  few  words  will  suffice  to  describe  the  general  statistical 
situation  as  it  at  present  exists  in  each  of  the  nine  provinces. 
Tn  none  of  the  provinces  has  there  hitherto  been  any  special 


CANADA  191 

statistical  oflfice  or  bureau  for  the  sole  purpose  of  compiling, 
coordinating  and  publishing  all  classes  of  the  statistics  of  the 
province.  As  in  the  case  of  the  Dominion  government  the 
plan  followed  has  been  for  each  department  to  publish  such 
statistics  as  it  considers  desirable — usually  in  the  form  of 
annual  reports  to  the  provincial  legislature.  The  statistics 
of  education,  which  is  purely  a  provincial  matter,  are  those 
for  which  the  most  consistent  and  generally  comparable  data 
exist  for  all  the  provinces.  For  other  classes  of  statistics 
there  are  practically  no  data  which  can  properly  be  com- 
pared as  between  the  respective  provinces  or  of  which  the 
assembling  by  provinces  can  aflford  satisfactory  data  of  a 
national  character. 

Whilst  there  has  hitherto  been  no  general  statistical  oflSce 
for  Ontario  any  more  than  there  has  been  one  in  any  other 
of  the  provinces,  it  is  in  Ontario  that  statistics  in  diflferent 
branches  have  been  longest  published  and  most  completely 
developed.  The  vital  statistics  of  the  province,  elaborate 
and  detailed  in  character,  have  been  published  in  the  annual 
reports  of  the  Registrar  General  since  1871,  and  since  1882 
the  Bureau  of  Industries,  which  was  then  organized  by  the 
late  Dr.  Archibald  Blue,  has  published  an  annual  report 
containing  (1)  agricultural  statistics;  (2)  statistics  of  chattel 
mortgages  and  (3)  municipal  statistics.  In  other  directions, 
such  as  education,  public  charities  and  mines,  the  provincial 
statistics  of  Ontario  are  fairly  complete  and  continuous. 
Statistical  organization  in  the  other  provinces  has  not  yet 
arrived  at  any  complete  stage  of  development.  In  fact,  the 
collection  of  most  classes  of  statistics  is  not  undertaken  in 
any  systematic  manner  for  the  guidance  of  the  government, 
but  is  rather  incidental  to  or  a  corollary  of  other  descriptions 
of  departmental  work. 

Nevertheless,  besides  Ontario,  already  mentioned,  vital 
statistics  are  annually  published  by  the  majority  of  the 
remaining  eight  provinces.  In  Prince  Edward  Island  the 
system  was  begun  in  1906;  yet  in  1912  no  statistics  of  births, 
marriages  and  deaths  were  collected  and  published.     In 


192  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Nova  Scotia  the  collection  of  annual  vital  statistics  began 
only  five  years  ago  (1909).  In  New  Brunswick  no  statistics 
of  the  kind  are  published.  In  Quebec,  according  to  the 
report  for  1893  of  the  Recorder  of  Vital  Statistics,  such 
statistics  were  inaugurated  in  the  province  on  July  1,  1893, 
by  Act  of  the  Legislature  (56  Vict.,  c.  29).  In  Manitoba 
annual  vital  statistics  exist  from  1882  and  in  Saskatchewan 
and  Alberta  from  the  date  of  the  creation  of  these  two  prov- 
inces in  1905.  In  British  Columbia  annual  vital  statistics 
date  from  the  year  1872.  With  regard  to  vital  statistics  in 
all  the  provinces  the  lack  of  anything  like  coordination  in 
respect  of  methods,  scope  or  period  covered  prevents  them 
from  being  provincially  intercomparable,  and  the  entire 
defect  of  New  Brunswick  is  of  itself  sufficient  to  prevent  the 
issue  of  any  annual  national  figures  for  the  whole  of  the 
Dominion. 

Again,  most  if  not  all  of  the  provinces  collect  and  publish 
annual  statistics  of  agricultural  production;  but  the  methods 
of  collection  are  dissimilar,  and  the  results  diflfer  materially 
in  many  cases  from  the  estimates  of  the  Dominion  govern- 
ment for  the  same  province.  Of  the  three  Maritime  prov- 
inces New  Brunswick  has  published  annual  statistics  of  the 
area  and  yield  of  wheat  since  1897,  and  of  hay,  oats,  buck- 
wheat and  potatoes  since  1898;  but  in  Prince  Edward  Island 
and  Nova  Scotia  little  has  been  done  in  this  direction. 
Fairly  complete  agricultural  statistics  have  been  published 
annually  by  the  governments  of  the  three  Northwest  prov- 
inces :  Manitoba  since  1883  (excepting  1888) ;  Saskatchewan 
since  1898  and  Alberta  since  1899.  In  1911  the  government 
of  British  Columbia  published  what  was  intended  to  be  the 
first  of  an  annual  series  of  agricultural  statistics;  but  the 
figures  collected  proved  untrustworthy.  Since  then  strong 
efforts  have  been  put  forth  to  obtain  more  accurate  data  by 
personal  visits  to  farmers;  and  the  results  applicable  to  the 
year  1913  have  been  published. 

Up  to  quite  recently  the  large  French-speaking  province 
of  Quebec  has  had  no  organized  statistics  worthy  of  the 


CANADA  193 

name,  and  the  collection  of  statistics  of  agricultural  pro- 
duction has  not  even  been  attempted.  But  a  beginning  has 
now  been  made  on  very  hopeful  lines  by  the  organization  of 
a  provincial  Bureau  of  Statistics  at  Quebec.  An  Act  of  the 
Provincial  Legislature  of  Quebec  authorizing  the  establish- 
ment of  such  a  Bureau  was  assented  to  on  December  21, 
1912,  and  put  into  force  on  November  11,  1913.  The  Act 
provides  that  the  Chief  of  the  Bureau,  under  the  direction 
of  the  Provincial  Secretary,  shall  collect,  condense  and  tabu- 
late useful  statistics  and  information  respecting  the  province 
and  especially  respecting  education,  industry,  trade,  agri- 
culture, population,  colonization,  natural  products  of  the 
soil  and  generally  everything  relating  to  the  province  of 
public  interest.  Officers  and  public  employees  under  the 
control  of  the  provincial  government  or  under  the  control 
of  municipalities,  school  commissions,  societies,  associations, 
etc.,  organized  under  the  provincial  laws  or  receiving  pro- 
vincial subventions,  are  required  to  reply  promptly  to  official 
communications  from  the  Bureau  of  Statistics  and  to  collect 
and  classify  in  an  exact  manner  the  facts  and  statistics 
demanded,  refusal  to  do  so  being  punishable  by  a  fine  not 
exceeding  $50.  A  clause  in  the  Act  provides  that  the  Pro- 
vincial Secretary,  with  the  consent  of  the  Lieutenant  Gov- 
ernor in  Council,  may  make  the  necessary  arrangements  for 
the  establishment  of  a  system  for  the  exchange  of  informa- 
tion and  statistics  between  the  Dominion  government  or 
any  of  its  departments  and  the  Bureau. 

The  preliminary  organization  of  the  work  of  the  new 
Bureau  was  entrusted  to  M.  Henri  Bunle,  statistician  in  the 
General  Statistical  Service  of  France,  who  entered  upon  this 
task  in  September,  1913.  Having  completed  his  mission 
M.  Bunle  returned  to  Paris,  and  on  July  3, 1914,  a  new  Chief 
of  the  Bureau  was  appointed  in  the  person  of  M.  G.  E, 
Marquis,  late  Inspector  of  Schools  at  Bonaventure-Matane. 
The  new  office  published  in  1914  a  Statistical  Year  Book 
for  the  province  in  both  the  French  and  English  languages. 

Reference  has  already  been  made  to  the  Canada  Year 

14 


194  MEMORIAL  VOLTJME 

Book.  This  is  an  oflBcial  statistical  publication,  the  object 
of  which  is  to  present  in  a  conveniently  accessible  and  sum- 
mary form  the  chief  comparative  statistics  of  the  Dominion, 
which  otherwise  could  only  be  obtained  by  consulting  in- 
numerable blue  books  of  different  departments.  The  want 
of  such  a  publication  was  felt  immediately  upon  the  federa- 
tion of  the  Dominion  in  1867,  and  from  that  year  until  1879 
was  published  annually,  to  quote  its  title,  a  "Year  Book 
and  Almanac  of  British  North  America,  being  an  Annual 
Register  of  pohtical,  vital  and  trade  statistics,  customs 
tariffs,  excise  and  stamp  duties,  and  public  events  of  interest 
in  Upper  and  Lower  Canada,  New  Brunswick,  Nova  Scotia, 
Prince  Edward  Island,  Newfoimdland  and  the  West  Indies." 
Subsequently  this  title  was  altered  to  "The  Year  Book  and 
Almanac  of  Canada,  being  an  Annual  Statistical  Abstract 
of  the  Dominion  and  a  Register  of  Legislation  and  of  public 
men  in  British  North  America."  The  editor  was  Mr, 
Arthur  Harvey,  F.S.S.,  of  the  Finance  Department,  Ottawa; 
but  the  work  was  in  no  sense  a  government  publication. 

Seven  years  after  the  lapse  of  this  work,  viz.,  in  1886,  the 
Department  of  Agriculture  of  the  Dominion  government 
began  the  publication  of  the  Statistical  Year  Book  of  Canada, 
which  consisted  of  two  parts,  a  "Record"  and  a  "Statistical 
Abstract,"  embracing  all  the  principal  official  statistics  of 
Canada,  whether  published  by  the  Dominion  or  the  provin- 
cial governments.  The  work  was  continued  annually  upon 
the  same  lines  until  1904  when  Dr.  George  Johnson,  who 
edited  it  as  Dominion  Statistician,  was  superannuated.  In 
1905  the  Year  Book  was  remodelled  by  the  late  Dr.  Archi- 
bald Blue,  Chief  Officer  of  the  Census  and  Statistics  Office, 
with  the  title  "The  Canada  Year  Book,  Second  Series"; 
and  its  contents  were  restricted  to  abstracts  of  the  statistics 
of  the  Dominion  government,  preceded  by  notes  on  the 
"Events  of  the  Year."  •  In  1912  the  present  writer  succeeded 
to  the  editorship,  and  with  the  approval  of  the  Minister  of 
Trade  and  Commerce  further  changes  have  been  effected  to 
meet  present-day  requirements.     These  are  described  in  the 


CANADA  195 

preface  for  each  edition  of  1912,  1913  and  1914;  here  it  will 
suflBce  to  mention  that  the  general  scope  of  the  work  has 
been  materially  enlarged. 

III.    Future  Development  of  Statistical  Organization 

That  there  are  at  present  grave  defects  in  the  national 
statistical  organization  of  the  Dominion  is  admitted  by  all 
who  have  had  occasion  to  consult  the  statistics  that  exist  or 
to  call  for  statistics  that  are  furnished  by  other  countries 
but  which  are  conspicuously  lacking  in  Canada.  Some  of 
them  have  already  been  indicated.  The  necessity  for  im- 
provement has  not  indeed  escaped  the  attention  of  the  Do- 
minion government.  One  of  the  earliest  acts  of  the  present 
Minister  of  Trade  and  Commerce  (Sir  George  Foster), 
after  taking  over  the  control  of  a  department  under  whose 
administration  the  Census  and  Statistics  Office  comes,  was 
to  appoint  on  May  12,  1912,  a  Departmental  Commission 
to  inquire  into  and  report  upon  the  whole  statistical  situa- 
tion of  the  Dominion.  In  the  reference  to  this  commission 
the  minister  pointed  out  certain  of  the  defects  apparent, 
including  the  lack  of  a  comprehensive  system  for  the  collec- 
tion and  publication  of  statistics  of  production  and  distribu- 
tion, the  duplication  of  effort  and  diversity  of  results  that 
were  apparent  in  certain  classes  of  statistics  and  the  dupli- 
cation and  the  want  of  cooperation  between  the  Dominion 
and  provincial  statistical  authorities. 

On  November  30,  1912,  the  commission  presented  their 
report  wherein  the  present  statistical  situation  was  described 
in  considerable  detail,  and  a  variety  of  recommendations 
were  made  with  the  object  of  remedying  defects  and  of 
placing  the  whole  statistical  organization  of  the  Dominion 
upon  a  sound  and  enduring  basis.  Amongst  the  principal 
recommendations  of  the  commission  were  that  a  central 
statistical  office  should  be  organized  for  the  coordination, 
unification,  extension  and  general  improvement  of  statistics; 
that  in  connection  with  this  office  there  should  be  a  Domin- 
ion Interdepartmental  Statistical  Committee  whose  duties 


196  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

should  be  deliberative  and  advisory  rather  than  executive, 
and  who  should  make  recommendations  to  secure  (a)  the 
prevention  of  duplication  and  conflicting  results;  (b)  the 
better  adaptation  of  statistical  material  obtained  in  one 
branch  to  the.  needs  of  another;  (c)  the  establishment  of 
uniformity  of  definitions  and  methods;  (d)  expansion  and 
development  along  proper  lines;  and  (e)  the  supervision  of 
statistical  publications  and  especially  of  the  scope  and 
arrangement  of  the  Canada  Year  Book.  Other  recommen- 
dations included  the  creation  of  a  Statistical  Conference 
between  representatives  of  the  Dominion  and  of  the  nine 
provincial  governments,  and  with  a  view  especially  to  the 
coordination  of  statistics  of  births,  marriages  and  deaths, 
public  health,  education,  agriculture,  local  and  municipal 
government,  industrial  accidents,  finance,  hospitals,  chari- 
ties, etc.  The  report  further  recommended  the  institution 
of  a  quinquennial  census  limited  to  the  enumeration  of  popu- 
lation and  property  and  of  an  annual  census  of  production, 
including  agriculture,  forestry,  fisheries,  mining  and  manu- 
factures. 

So  far  little  has  been  done  to  give  effect  to  the  recommen- 
dations of  the  commission;  but  there  is  evidence  of  willing- 
ness on  the  part  of  the  provincial  governments  to  cooperate 
with  the  Dominion  government  in  efforts  to  secure  trust- 
worthy statistics  of  a  national  character,  a  willingness  which 
has  not  always  hitherto  been  manifested.  In  one  direction 
some  progress  has  been  made,  and  further  progress  is  depend- 
ent upon  action  of  the  Dominion  government.  On  March 
26,  1914,  a  conference  on  agricultural  statistics  was  held 
between  representatives  of  the  Dominion  and  provincial 
governments,  when  a  resolution  was  unanimously  passed 
that  a  census  of  the  areas  and  yields  of  the  principal  field 
crops  and  of  the  numbers  of  live  stock  should  be  taken 
annually  and  that  a  more  complete  and  accurate  census 
should  be  carried  out  every  fifth  year.  It  was  also  generally 
agreed  that  the  reform  desired  would  be  best  secured  by  a 
well-considered  scheme  of  cooperation  between  the  Dominion 


CANADA  197 

and  provincial  governments  and  that  the  Dominion  govern- 
ment, after  consultation  with  each  of  the  provincial  govern- 
ments, should  draft  a  scheme  as  a  basis  for  discussion  at  a 
further  conference  to  be  subsequently  convened. 

Whilst  statistical  development  in  many  directions  is  desir- 
able, reform  in  two  classes  of  statistics  is  urgently  called  for, 
viz.,  vital  statistics  and  statistics  of  agricultural  production. 
The  initiative  in  bringing  about  reform  lies  naturally  with 
the  Dominion  government.  A  progressive  country  like 
Canada  cannot  afford  to  lag  behind  other  countries  in 
statistical  organization.  The  demand  for  statistical  informa- 
tion, prepared  upon  scientific  and  up-to-date  lines,  is  con- 
stantly growing,  not  only  for  the  purpose  of  satisfying  the 
needs  of  the  home  public  but  also  for  the  purpose  of  providing 
data  for  comparison  with  other  countries.  The  establish- 
ment in  1909  of  the  International  Agricultural  Institute  to 
which  50  countries  of  the  world,  including  Canada,  adhere, 
has  already  done  much  to  stimulate  the  collection  of  national 
agricultural  statistics  upon  comparable  bases.  Similar 
action  has  been  contemplated  in  connection  with  commer- 
cial statistics  by  the  establishment  at  Brussels  of  an  Inter- 
national Institute  of  Commercial  Statistics;  and  for  general 
demographic  statistics  much  is  hoped  for  from  the  establish- 
ment at  The  Hague  of  a  Permanent  Bureau  of  the  Inter- 
national Statistical  Institute,  to  which,  in  1913  at  the 
fourteenth  session,  held  at  Vienna,  Canada  for  the  first  time 
sent  an  oflScial  delegate.  Furthermore,  if  a  proposal  should 
materialize  for  the  establishment  of  a  British  Imperial 
Statistical  Bureau,  as  suggested  in  evidence  before  the 
Royal  Commission  appointed  to  inquire  into  the  natural 
resources  of  the  British  Empire,  such  a  bureau  could  not 
fail  to  exercise  a  salutary  influence  in  inducing  all  the  Over- 
seas Dominions,  including  Canada,  to  endeavor  to  level  up 
to  the  requirements  of  the  central  authority.  Unhappily,  a 
severe  set-back  to  institutions  of  this  kind  is  being  experi- 
enced by  the  present  disastrous  European  war,  and  it  can. 


198  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

only  be  after  the  restoration  of  peace  that  eflPorts  at  inter- 
national statistical  cooperation  can  be  renewed. 

Looking  to  the  future,  it  is  desirable  that  better  facilities 
should  be  afforded  for  the  trainiog  of  statisticians.  There 
are  at  present  very  few  statisticians  in  Canada  who  devote 
themselves  to  the  study  of  statistics  from  the  purely  scien- 
tific or  professional  standpoint,  and  none  of  the  Universities 
teach  statistics  as  a  special  or  separate  branch  of  science. 
There  is,  however,  at  Montreal  in  the  newly-established 
"Ecole  des  Hautes  Etudes  Commerciales"  a  Chair  of  Sta- 
tistics, and  the  teaching  of  statistics  is  there  undertaken 
with  a  practical,  scientific  and  comprehensive  curriculum. 
In  effect,  however,  the  school  is  a  purely  French  institution. 
In  Ontario  a  High  School  of  Commerce  and  Finance  was 
organized  in  1911  at  Toronto,  where  the  "  Elements  of 
Theoretical  and  Practical  Statistics  "  are  taught  during  the 
second  year  in  the  Department  of  Economics.  At  Toronto 
University  "Statistics"  is  one  of  the  subjects  in  the  second 
year  of  the  course  in  Commerce  and  Finance. 

Universal  statistical  solidarity  is  a  great  ideal.  It  implies 
that,  starting  from  judiciously  defined  imits  of  area,  prov- 
inces or  states  forming  parts  of  nations  or  confederacies  shall 
adopt  similar  methods  to  arrive  at  comparable  results  as 
between  themselves;  that  where  such  nations  or  confed- 
eracies form  parts  of  an  empire  there  shall  likewise  be  a  fair 
possibility  of  interimperial  statistical  comparability;  and 
finally  that  divergence  of  statistical  methods  between 
countries  mutually  foreign  shall  gradually  be  so  far  dimin- 
ished that  the  comparability  of  international  statistics  may 
be  rendered  increasingly  practicable.  Dbubtless  we  are  a 
long  way  from  complete  reahzation  of  the  ideal;  but  it  is 
much  to  be  moving  steadily  if  slowly  towards  the  goal 
desired. 


DENMARK 


THE  HISTORY  AND  DEVELOPMENT  OF 
STATISTICS    IN  DENMARK* 

By  Adolf  Jensen 

Chief  of  the  Statistical  Department  of  Denmark 

In  the  nineteenth  century,  the  official  statistics  of  Den- 
mark were  at  first  in  charge  of  an  office,  later  under  the  care 
of  a  commission,  thereupon  again  transferred  to  an  office, 
known  as  "The  Statistical  Bureau,"  the  "State  Statistical 
Bureau,"  and  from  1913  as  "The  Statistical  Department." 

But  prior  to  the  establishment  in  1797  of  the  Danish- 
Norwegian  Tabulating  Office,  enumerations  of  the  popula- 
tion had  taken  place  in  1769  and  in  1787.  The  results  of 
these  first  two  population  enumerations  must,  however,  be 
regarded  as  somewhat  unreliable.  The  enumeration  of 
1769  did  not  include  enlisted  military  persons,  and  one  of 
its  chief  objects  was  to  discover  the  presence  and  number 
of  tax-payers,  a  task  which  necessarily  must  impair  the 
trustworthiness  of  an  enumeration  and  create  a  desire  to 
escape  being  counted  which  perhaps  in  our  day  has  not 
completely  been  eradicated.  The  government  had  en- 
trusted the  working  out  of  these  two  enumerations  to  private 
persons;  but  a  steadily  increasing  demand  for  statistical 
information,  in  which  the  question  of  taxes  and  tax-payers 
continuously  came  strongly  to  the  fore,  and  the  desire  that 
such  data  should  appear  regularly  and  at  brief  intervals 
led  to  the  establishment  of  the  Tabulating  Office  in  1797. 
Overweighting  of  the  office  and  personal  conditions  caused 
this  institution,  of  which  much  had  been  expected,  to 
play  but  an  insignificant  r61e.  The  revision  and  analyses 
of  the  public  accounts  seem  in  part  to  have  put  dispro- 
portionately large    demands   upon  the  office  force  which 

*The  sources  of  the  following  survey  are,  so  far  as  the  historical  account  is  con- 
cerned, A.  Holch:  History  of  the  Danish  Statistics,  1800-18S0,  and  History  of  the 
Statistical  Bureau,  later  published  by  the  State  Statistical  Bureau. 


202  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

consisted  of  a  few  persons;  in  part,  the  fact  that  the  office 
could  accomplish  nothing  caused  a  lack  of  respect  which 
again  created  friction  in  the  work  of  obtaining  data.  The 
office  was  abolished  in  1819.  Its  principal  task  had  been 
to  work  out  the  enumeration  of  1801;  but  this  work  the 
office  had  not  succeeded  in  bringiug  to  a  conclusion. 

In  consequence  of  these  discouraging  results,  and  as 
the  need  of  organizing  the  official  statistics  naturally  con- 
tinued to  manifest  itself  strongly,  the  government  in  1834 
undertook  the  creation  of  a  commission,  "The  Tabulating 
Commission."  Its  members  held  high  places  in  the  cen- 
tral administration,  a  circumstance  which  aflforded  them 
no  small  degree  of  independence.  The  statistical  bulletins 
pubKshed  by  the  commission  were  worked  out  under  its 
auspices,  and  its  members  cooperated  in  the  composition 
of  the  textual  parts.  Some  of  these,  however,  were  wholly 
or  partly  the  labor  of  experts  outside  of  the  commission; 
and  this  form  of  assistance,  in  part  of  a  scientific  nature, 
was  also  an  indication  of  the  extraordinary  and  independent 
position  of  the  commission,  and,  together  with  special  ar- 
rangement in  other  respects,  came  to  exert  an  influence  on 
the  establishment  and  plan  of  the  Statistical  Bureau. 

In  addition  to  the  preparation  of  the  population  enu- 
merations of  1834,  1840  and  1845,  the  Tabulating  Com- 
mission began,  among  other  things,  statistics  of  the 
movement  of  population  through  marriages,  births  and 
deaths,  of  live  stock,  of  the  utilization  of  the  agricultural 
area,  of  shipping,  of  imports  and  exports,  of  criminal  con- 
ditions, of  the  produfction  of  whisky,  etc.* 

The  work  of  the  Tabulating  Commission  was  received 
with  great  satisfaction;  but  as  it  was  a  secondary  occupa- 
tion of  the  members  of  the  commission,  and  as  the  field  of 
labor  gradually  expanded,  it  was  unavoidable  that  a  grow- 
ing desire  for  an  independent  statistical  bureau  should  make 
itself  felt.  The  commission  was  abolished  in  1848  and, 
after  a  temporary  arrangement  and  searching  considera- 

*  History  of  the  Statistical  Bureau,  pp.  147-148. 


DENMARK  203 

tions,  "The  Statistical  Bureau"  was  created  on  January  1, 
1850. 

In  the  report  of  the  estabhshment  of  the  bureau  it  is 
stated  that  the  Council  of  State  preferred  to  entrust  the 
direction  of  the  bureau  to  an  individual  rather  than  to  a 
commission  which  had  been  proposed  in  several  quarters, 
that  the  chief  of  the  bureau  should  be  directly  under  the 
minister  without  a  departmental  director  as  intermediary; 
that  the  chief  should  sign  documents  pertaining  to  the 
bureau,  and  that  matters  concerning  the  bureau  should 
preferably  be  directed  to  it  in  so  far  as  the  respective  authori- 
ties did  not  feel  especially  impelled  to  address  their  commu- 
nications to  the  minister  in  charge,  as  in  case  of  complaints 
against  the  bureau  and  the  like. 

Thus  there  was  created  an  independent  central  bureau; 
and  it  remains  unchanged  in  principle  to  this  day. 

Following  the  lines  indicated  by  the  Tabulating  Commis- 
sion, the  Statistical  Bureau  constantly  enlarged  its  field. of 
work.  It  is  thus  to  be  mentioned  that  population  enumer- 
ations were  regularly  taken  at  intervals  of  five  or  ten  years, 
since  1901  quinquennially,  while  every  other  enumeration  has 
been  made  more  extensive.  Data  in  regard  to  marriages, 
births,  and  deaths  have  also  since  that  time  been  published 
at  intervals  of  five  years;  data  relating  to  the  "utilization 
of  the  area"  (agriculture)  were  collected  for  the  first  time 
by  the  Tabulating  Coinmission  in  18S8,  again  in  1861,  and 
thereupon  first  at  quinquennial,  later  at  decennial,  and,  in 
most  recent  times,  once  more  at  quinquennial  periods.  At 
the  same  periods  of  time  and  partly  with  the  same  intervals 
enumerations  of  live  stock  were  regularly  made.  Begin- 
ning with  1875,  annual  accounts  were  rendered  of  the  amount 
and  value  of  the  crops.  For  1845-49  and  since  1860  data 
have,  furthermore,  been  gathered  in  regard  to  the  sale  and 
prices  of  farm  lands.  As  already  mentioned,  the  Tabulat- 
ing Commission  had  published  tables  of  imports  and  ex- 
ports. Since  1854  an  annual  publication  on  this  subject 
had  appeared;  the  same  applies  to  shipping  (although  after 


204  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

1910  tabulations  of  the  shipping  will  only  appear  quinquen- 
nially).  The  bureau  likewise  continued  the  criminal  sta- 
tistics of  the  Tabulating  Commission;  but  statistics  of  civil 
court  work  were  not  begun  until  1863.  Moreover,  the 
public  accounting  and  finance  system,  which  had  played 
such  a  large  r61e  at  the  beginning  of  the  century,  was  of 
course  made  a  constant  object  of  work  and  publication. 

A  reorganization  and  expansion  of  the  bureau  in  1895, 
together  with  far-reaching  changes  in  personnel,  served  to 
speed  up  and  make  more  timely  several  of  the  current  under- 
takings, and  again  to  bring  new  fields  under  cultivation. 
First  of  all  mention  must  be  made  of  the  Year  Book  and  of 
the  social  statistics. 

During  the  years  1869-74  there  appeared  annually  a 
"Summary  of  Statistical  Information,"  a  very  practical 
and  very  useful  document,  the  publication  of  which  unfor- 
tunately has  occurred  only  at  intervals  of  several  years. 
After  1895  these  summaries  were  continued  in  the  Statisti- 
cal Year  Book,  the  first  volume  of  which  appeared  in  1896 
and  with  its  additions  and  improvements  is  now  perhaps  the 
most  widely  used  of  the  publications  of  the  department. 

In  the  domain  of  social  statistics,  an  enumeration  of  trades 
and  indiistries  was  imdertaken  (1897).  In  connection  here- 
with statistics  were  collected  of  wages  and  hours  of  labor. 
Among  other  things,  furthermore,  an  extensive  inquiry  was 
made  into  the  cost  of  living  of  Danish  laborers'  families, 
covering  the  entire  year  1897;  and  statistics  relative  to 
labor  conflicts  were  begun. 

In  the  years  following,  the  work  in  all  these  fields  has 
been  carried  forward  and  accompanied  by  a  steady  improve- 
ment of  statistical  technique  (such  as  the  substitution  of  a 
card  system  for  the  previous  lists);  and  continuous  efiForts 
were  made  to  bring  the  results  to  the  knowledge  of  the  pub- 
lic as  quickly  as  possible.  To  this  end,  among  other  things, 
the  monthly  statistical  communications  were  begun  in 
1909. 

In  1913  the  name  "State  Statistical  Bureau"  was  changed 


DENMARK  205 

to  "The  Statistical  Department."  At  the  same  time  the 
oflSce  was  expanded  by  adding  a  third  division  to  be  con- 
cerned chiefly  with  social  statistics. 

Aside  from  the  Statistical  Department,  which,  as  shown 
above,  has  the  character  of  a  central  statistical  bureau,  there 
is  no  other  statistical  bureau  in  the  proper  sense  except  the 
Statistical  Oflfice  of  the  municipality  of  Copenhagen.  The 
statistics  office  of  the  Traffic  Departments  are  chiefly  con- 
cerned with  bookkeeping  and  accounting.  The  Board  of 
Health  maintains  a  medical-historical  office  which  collates 
and  publishes  the  morbidity  and  mortality  statistics  for  the 
kingdom,  while  the  other  population  statistics  are  in  charge 
of  the  Statistical  Department.  It  may  also  be  noted  that 
the  annual  account  of  the  yield  of  the  salt-water  flsheries  is 
published  by  the  Inspector  of  Fisheries,  and  that  the  annual 
business  statistics  for  about  one  half  of  the  dairies  of  the 
country  are  published  by  a  special  committee.  These  are 
fields  of  Danish  statistics  lying  outside  of  the  province  of 
the  department.  (The  results,  in  addition  to  being  pub- 
lished by  the  above-mentioned  institutions,  are  given  in  a 
summary  form  in  the  Statistical  Year  Book  of  the  depart- 
ment.) 

The  foundation  of  the  activities  of  the  department  is  to 
be  sought  in  the  law  of  1895  governing  the  State  Statistical 
Bureau  in  connection  with  a  law  of  1913  and  the  arguments 
pertaining  to  them.    The  law  of  1895  says: 

"The  activity  of  the  Bureau  shall  be  to  furnish  informa- 
tion in  regard  to  the  conditions  of  population,  social  con- 
ditions particularly  with  reference  to  the  wage  earners, 
financial  and  industrial  life,  culture,  the  administration  of 
the  state  and  the  communes,  and  the  participation  of  the 
population  in  public  life — all  so  far  as  such  information  can 
be  obtained  and  presented  statistically.  The  Bureau  shall, 
furthermore,  contribute  to  international  statistics.  Finally, 
it  is  a  duty  of  the  Bureau  to  aid  the  administration  by  sta- 
tistical analyses  and  information,  in  preparing  opinions,  etc." 


206  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

In  conformity  with  the  above  field  of  labor  the  bureau  deals 
with  the  following  principal  subjects : 

1.  Statistics  of  population,  including: 

(a)  Enumerations  of  population. 

(b)  Marriages,  births,  deaths  and  migrations. 
8.  Judicial  and  moral  statistics,  including: 

(a)  Civil  cases,  including  attachments. 

(b)  Criminal  court  cases. 

(c)  Cases  of  public  morals  (sexual  morality,  intemperance,  etc.). 

3.  Social  statistics,  including: 

(a)  Conditions  of  living  in  the  different  strata  of  society,  including  the  con- 

ditions of  livelihood  and  consumption. 

(b)  Special  objects  of  consideration  are  the  conditions  of  the  wage  earners  in 

their  different  relations,  the  conditions  of  wealth  and  income  as  well 
as  working  men's  insurance. 

4.  Industrial  statistics,  including: 

(a)  Agriculture. 

(b)  Industries. 

(c)  Fisheries. 

(d)  Financial  transactions,  thereunder  banks  and  institutions  for  savings. 

5.  Statistics  in  regard  to  culture,  thereunder  education  and  instruction. 

6.  Statistics  in  regard  to  public  relations: 

(a)  The  financial  affairs  of  the  state  and  the  communes. 

(b)  Public  elections. 

7.  International  statistics,  including: 

Participation  in  the  mutual  Scandinavian  as  well  as  in  the  general  inter- 
national statistical  work. 

In  regard  to  the  statistical  publications  of  the  bureau, 
reference  is  made  to  the  appended  list;  but  some  remarks 
are  in  point  concerning  the  basis  and  collection  of  material 
in  the  different  branches  of  statistics. 

Although  the  law  of  1895,  with  the  resolutions  pertaining 
to  it,  etc.,  on  the  whole  affords  the  department  the  necessary 
authority  to  demand  the  requisite  information  of  the  public 
authorities  and  the  citizens  of  the  country,  it  has  been  cus- 
tomary that,  for  instance,  enumerations  of  trades  and  indus- 
tries are  in  conformity  with  special  legislation;  just  as  the 
basis  of  the  statistics  of  commerce  is  the  regulation  incor- 
porated in  the  tariff  law  of  1908  in  regard  to  the  duty  of 
commercial  people  to  furnish  data  concerning  the  magnitude 
of  the  imports  or  exports,  etc.  While  these  special  legis- 
lative acts  contained  penalty  clauses  (fines)  in  case  of  neglect 


DENMARK  207 

to  furnish  this  requisite  information,  no  other  forcible  means 
of  obtaining  it  is  available;  nor  is  it  needed.  The  existing 
penalty  clauses  have  never  been  brought  into  use. 

As  a  rule  the  provincial  governors  and  the  communal 
councils  (city  and  parish  councils)  function  as  intermedi- 
aries between  the  department  and  the  public.  Thus  it 
may  be  mentioned  that,  for  instance,  the  population 
schedules  are  forwarded  to  the  municipalities  and  parishes 
through  the  provincial  governors,  to  be  distributed  in  the 
cities  by  commimal  authorities  to  every  house-owner,  whose 
duty  it  is  to  see  that  the  inhabitants  of  the  house  fill  them 
out  correctly;  while  in  the  country  districts  distribution  is 
made  by  enumeration  commissioners,  especially  appointed 
by  the  parish  councils,  who  have  the  duty  of  assisting  the 
population  in  properly  filling  out  the  schedule.  Very  much 
in  the  same  manner  a  schedule  or  card  is  directed  to  each 
farm,  to  be  filled  out  with  information  in  regard  to  the  num- 
ber of  live  stock  and  other  questions  connected  with  it,  such 
as  the  participation  in  the  agricultural  cobperative  activi- 
ties, etc.,  or  in  regard  to  the  use  made  of  the  farm  area.  Data 
concerning  the  number  of  live  stock  and  the  utilization  of 
the  area  are,  as  remarked  before,  collected  every  five  years. 
Aside  from  this  interest  which  is  inherent  in  the  facts  rela- 
tive to  the  utihzation  of  the  area  (the  areas  devoted  to  the . 
diflFerent  crops),  data  obtained  also  serve  as  a  basis  for 
the  annual  statistics  of  crops.  The  method  of  procedure 
here  is,  generally  speaking,  the  following:  For  each  of  the 
parish  communities  of  the  country  (of  which  there  are  about 
1,200),  when  the  threshing  is  done  the  communal  council 
states  according  to  its  best  judgment  the  yield  obtained 
(hectoliter  per  hectare)  for  the  different  crops.  By  multi- 
plying the  result  by  the  known  area  covered  by  the  different 
crops  in  the  parish,  the  total  of  the  harvest  is  ascertained. 
The  figures  from  other  parishes  are  added  to  secure  data 
for  larger  districts  and  the  whole  country.  By  using  the 
same  area  as  basis  for  five  years  in  succession  some  inac- 


208  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

curacy,  of  course,  arises.     It  is  not  believed,  however,  that 
this  is  of  essential  importance. 

Among  other  larger  branches  of  statistics  to  be  mentioned 
in  this  connection  is  that  relative  to  marriages,  births  and 
deaths.  Here  the  clergy  of  the  state  church  and  of  other 
recognized  religious  organizations  act  as  registrars  and  fill 
out  an  individual  blank  for  each  marriage,  birth  and  death. 
These  schedules  are  collected  and  transmitted  to  the  depart- 
ment for  tabulation.  Individual  cards  are  also  used  in  the 
collection  of  criminal  statistics.  The  method  employed  is 
that  the  criminal  records  are  not  kept  in  the  jurisdiction 
within  which  the  prosecution  has  taken  place  but  in  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  birth-place  of  the  criminal,  and  that  the 
first  mentioned  jurisdiction  transmits  to  the  jurisdiction  of 
the  birth-place  of  the  criminal  a  "penal  card"  in  regard  to 
him  as  soon  as  a  sentence  is  pronounced  in  the  first  instance, 
and  after  the  contents  of  this  card  are  entered  on  the  record 
it  is  sent  to  the  Statistical  Department.  It  is  thus  possible 
to  follow  up  the  same  person,  a  very  essential  point  in  the 
production  of  rational  statistics  of  recidivism. 

Information  in  regard  to  suicides  and  deaths  from  acci- 
dents are  obtained  from  the  transcriptions  of  hearings  and 
inquests  which  the  jurisdictions  are  obliged  to  send  to  the 
department. 

Brief  mention  has  been  made  above  of  the  enumerations 
of  trades  and  industries  and  of  the  commercial  statistics. 
So  far  as  the  first  mentioned  branch  is  concerned  the  dis- 
tribution and  collection  of  the  schedules  are  usually  made 
through  the  communal  councils.  At  the  last  two  enumera- 
tions (1906  and  1914)  there  were,  in  addition  to  information 
in  regard  to  the  number  of  industrial  establishments,  the 
wage  earners,  and  their  distribution  according  to  sex,  age, 
training,  etc.,  collected  data  in  regard  to  the  gross  value  of 
production  for  the  year  preceding  enumeration,  the  amount 
of  wages,  hours  of  labor,  etc.  In  the  future,  information 
about  wages  will  be  obtained  also  through  another  channel 
as  the  department  is  to  receive  the  data  communicated  to 


DENMAKK  209 

the  employers'  strike  insurance  organizations,  in  regard  to 
the  wages  paid  by  each  individual  employer  week  by  week. 
This  information  goes  into  great  detail,  and  as  the  amount 
of  strike  compensation  is  awarded  in  proportion  to  the  wages 
paid  there  is  a  guarantee  that  the  data  will  be  complete. 
Besides,  the  department  has  the  right  to  regulate  the  man- 
ner in  which  the  data  are  collected  and  exercises  another 
method  of  control  in  regard  to  the  statistics  of  tariff  agree- 
ments which  have  also  been  begun  recently.  About  the 
statistics  of  commerce,  it  should  be  said  that  the  importer 
is  in  duty  bound  to  hand  in  to  the  Customs  Department, 
which  controls  the  correctness  thereof,  a  notification  of  the 
kind  of  goods  imported,  their  quantity,  place  of  production, 
etc.  In  the  same  manner  exporters  must  report  to  the 
Customs  Department,  the  Railway  Department,  and  the 
Post  Office  Department,  in  regard  to  the  goods  exported. 
In  the  blanks  used  the  value  of  the  goods  is  not  inquired 
into,  but  information  about  it  is  obtained  by  the  depart- 
ment through  communication  with  a  large  number  of  lead- 
ing firms  in  the  different  branches. 

We  have  now  accounted  for  some  of  the  principal  fields 
within  which  the  organization  of  the  Danish  statistics 
offers  points  of  special  interest.  Meanwhile,  in  all  cases  in 
which  public  documents  are  concerned,  for  instance,  in 
regard  to  the  finances  of  the  state  and  local  communes, 
banks  and  savings  institutions,  stock  companies,  the  rail- 
ways, post  office,  telegraphs,  etc.,  such  accounts  and  reports 
of  course  form  the  basis  of  the  statistical  surveys  prepared 
by  the  department.  To  what  extent  these  reports  provide 
such  a  basis  may  be  gathered  from  the  statement  incor- 
porated in  the  Statistical  Year  Book  relative  to  the  sources 
of  the  single  tables. 

While  the  subordinate  work  in  the  Statistical  Department 
is  carried  on  by  students  of  pohtical  economy  and  by  women 
with  office  experience,  the  higher  positions  (10  assistants,  5 
experts,  3  bureau  chiefs  and  the  departmental  chief)  are 
practically  always  filled  by  graduates  in  economic  science. 


210  MEMORUL  VOLUME 

Among  the  assistants  are  to  be  found,  however,  two  gradu- 
ates in  law  (on  account  of  the  judicial  statistics)  and  a  math- 
ematician. The  graduates  in  political  economy  have  com- 
pleted a  five  years'  university  course  (10  semesters)  and 
taken  their  final  examinations.  The  examinations  cover 
the  theory  and  poKcies  of  the  national  economy,  finance, 
the  statistics  of  Denmark,  the  theory  of  statistics,  sociology, 
different  branches  of  law,  poHtical  history,  etc.  Such  train- 
ing must  naturally  be  regarded  chiefly  of  a  theoretical  nature, 
but  since  those  who  are  appointed  assistants  as  a  rule  have 
worked  in  the  department  while  attending  the  university, 
this  shortcoming  is  in  no  small  measure  compensated  for. 
The  studies  in  question  draw  considerable  numbers,  and  it 
is  always  easy  for  the  department  to  secure  the  necessary 
working  force. 

In  view  of  the  development  of  the  official  Danish  statis- 
tics, and,  moreover,  from  the  nature  of  conditions  in  a  small 
country,  the  centralization  of  statistical  work  in  a  single 
institution  has  imquestionably  been  the  happiest  form.  It 
makes  for  rational  determination  in  the  treatment  of  the 
different  kinds  of  material  as  well  as  for  uniformity;  and  it 
is  of  great  importance  to  the  working  statisticians  in  modern 
society,  where  all  things  are  inter-related,  to  come  into  as 
close  a  contact  as  possible  with  the  different  branches  of 
statistics  in  the  course  of  their  labors. 

A  central  bureau  is  also  the  most  fortunate  form  for  the 
development  of  statistics  and  for  undertaking  new  subjects. 
There  will  thus  always  be  an  institution  to  which  new  work 
can  be  referred,  and  its  officials  by  reason  of  their  training 
accustomed  to  dealing  with  many  subjects  of  different 
kinds. 

It  has  also  been  found  in  this  country  that  it  is  quite  easy 
for  the  Statistical  Department  to  keep  pace  with  develop- 
ments. What  self-evidently  in  great  degree  has  contributed 
to  this  is  that  the  legislative  authorities  and  public  opinion 
show  the  department  much  good-will,  manifesting  consid- 
erable interest  in  its  work,  and  that,  on  the  whole,  no  mean 


DENMARK  211 

degree  of  statistical  sense  has  been  awakened  in  the  pop- 
ulation. In  order  to  achieve  this,  effort  has  been  made  to 
bring  the  results  of  statistical  work,  before  embodying  it  in 
more  ponderous  tabulations,  quickly  before  the  public  in 
an  easily  accessible  form.  The  publication,  "Statistical 
Communications,"  has  provided  an  excellent  medium  to 
this  end.  The  material  it  contains  is  extensively  reprinted 
by  the  daily  press.  Although  there  are  fields  in  regard  to 
which  both  interested  parties  and  the  department  itself 
might  wish  to  furnish  more  information  than  now  can  pos- 
sibly be  given,  it  may  surely  be  said,  in  general,  that  what 
can  be  done  is  in  a  measure  being  done,  in  order  that  the 
department  may  keep  pace  with  developments. 

Self-evidently  every  requirement  on  the  part  of  inter- 
national statistics  is  being  met  so  far  as  possible.  It  has 
always  been  the  especial  concern  of  the  department  to  pro- 
vide information  as  fully  as  possible  for  the  use  of  Inter- 
national Year  Books,  Summaries,  etc.  In  the  same  manner 
the  International  Crop  Reporting  Institute  has  been  given 
as  much  support  as  feasible;  and  it  is  a  pleasure  to  state 
that  the  Danish  Government  has  granted  oflScial  assistance 
to  the  permanent  bureau  of  the  International  Statistical 
Institute.  So  far  as  compatible  with  the  peculiar  condi- 
tions of  each  country  it  is  imquestionably  true  that  inter- 
national statistics  should  be  considered  of  the  greatest  inter- 
est and  significance.  But  on  the  other  hand,  it  must  not 
be  forgotten  that  there  still  exist  several  fields  in  regard  to 
which  the  difference  between  one  country  as  compared  with 
another  are  so  great  that  some  of  the  descriptions  used  fre- 
quently pertain  to  widely  different  things.  It  is  precisely 
the  co-relation  of  such  heterogeneous  numbers  for  which 
international  statistics  must  have  a  care,  and  it  is  the  more 
difficult  to  guard  against  them  as  only  a  thorough  knowledge 
of  the  conditions  in  the  individual  countries  make  it  possi- 
ble to  realize  that  there  is  danger.  Here  as  well  as  in  sta- 
tistics generally  the  greatest  difficulty  consists  in  framing 
the  questions  to  be  put. 


THE  PUBLICATIONS  OF  THE   STATISTICAL 
DEPARTMENT  OF  DENMARK 

/.  Area  and  Population 

The  Area  of  Denmark,  1906 

The  Length  of  Roads 

The  Condition  of  Roads 

Rural  Districts  United  with  Munidpalities 

The  Number  of  Rural  Communes,  1850 

The  Popiilation  of  Denmark  in  the  19th  Century 

Population  Enmnerations 

(a)  Denmark  from  1801  to  1911,  which  is  the  latest  enimieration 

(b)  The  Duchies 

(c)  Copenhagen 

(d)  Jurisdictions 

(e)  Faero  Islands 

(f)  Iceland 

(g)  Greenland 

(h)  Danish  West  Indies 

(i)  Danish  East  Indies,  1835 
Enumeration  Communal  Populations 
Marriage  Statistics 
The  Number  of  Deaf  and  Dumb 
Marriages,  Births  and  Deaths 

(a)  Denmark,  the  first  publication  for  1801  to  1833,  the  last  publica- 

tion for  1906  to  1910 

(b)  Duchies 

The  Mortality  in  Denmark  and  the  Duchies,  1845  to  1854 

The  Causes  of  Death  in  Municipalities  (after  1899  published  separately 

by  the  Board  of  Health) 
Suicides,  the  first  for  1835  to  1844;  the  last  for  1886  to  1895 
Suicides  and  Accidents,  1896  to  1905 
Accidents  on  Seeland;  in  agriculture  and  forestry 

//.  Agriculture  and  Forestry 

Conditions  of  Agriculture  in  Denmark,  1850  to  1910 

Farming  in  Denmark,  1850  to  1905 

Conditions  of  Agriculture,  1853 

The  Measure  of  Land,  Appraisement,  Distribution  of  Farms,  etc.,  1835 

Live  Stock,  the  Utilization  of  the  Area,  etc. 

Larger  Agricultural  Properties  and  Their  Location 

Farm  Properties  According  to  Size,  1901 

Sales  and  Prices  of  Farms,  the  first  tor  1845  to  1849,  the  last  for  1905  to 

1909 
The  Utilization  of  the  Area,  the  last  for  1907 


DENMARK  218 

Statistics  of  the  Utilization  of  the  Area 

Censuses  of  Live  Stock,  the  last  for  1909 

The  Cooperative  Unions  in  Agriculture 

The  Utilization  of  Agricultural  Machinery 

Statistics  of  Crops,  Preliminary  and  Final  Annual  Reports 

Forestry,  1907 

III.  Trades  and  Industry 
Manufactures,  etc. 

Industrial  Enumerations,  1897  to  1906 
Home  Industries  in  Copenhagen,  1906 

IV.  Commerce  and  Navigation 

Foreign  Commerce,  Navigation  and  Merchant  Fleet 
Importation  and  Exportation  in  Denmark,  Annual 
Importation  and  Exportation  (Quarterly  Statistics) 
Foreign  Commerce  (Quarterly  Statistics) 
Productions  Controlled  by  the  State,  the  last  for  1912 

V.  Prices 

Official  Prices  of  Cereals,  1600-1902 
Official  Prices  of  Cereals,  the  last  1912 

Official  Prices  of  Cereals,  Averages  for  the  Years  1829  to  1848,  1882  to 
1851 

VI.  Social  Statistics 
Savings  Banks 
Sick  Associations 
Morbidity  Statistics,  1908 

The  Frequency  of  Tuberculosis  in  Denmark,  1906 
Old  Age  Relief,  the  last  for  1897  to  1900 
Organization  for  Poor  Relief,  1901 
Poor  Relief,  1901 

Widowers  and  Widows  with  Children,  1911 
The  Work  of  School  Children  in  Gainful  Occupations,  1908 
Strikes  and  Lockouts,  1897  to  1899,  1900  to  1904,  1905  to  1910 
Wages  of  Workmen  for  the  State 
Wages  of  Industrial  Workers,  1897  to  1905 
Wages  in  Agriculture,  1897,  1905, 1910 
Conditions  of  Labor  among  the  Restaiuant  Keepers 
Hours  of  Labor  in  Industries,  1906 
Budgets  of  Wage-Earning  Families,  1897 
Household  Budgets,  1909 
Drunkenness,  1892 

VII.  Education 

The  Common  Schools  in  Rural  Districts 
Public  Schools,  the  last  for  1911 

High  Schools  for  the  Agricultural  Classes  and  Agricultural  Schools,  the 
last  for  1911 


214  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

VIII.  Judicial  Statistics 

Civil  Judicial  Statistics 

Estates  of  Bankrupt  and  Decedent  Persons 

Criminal  Judicial  Statistics 

Civil  and  Criminal  Justice,  1901  to  1905 

IX.  Public  Elections 

Registered  Voters 
Qualified  Electors 
Elections  to  the  Folketing 
Communal  Elections 

X.  Finance  and  Taxation 

Receipts  and  Expenses  of  the  Monarchy 
Receipts  and  Expenses  of  the  State 
Communal  Accounts 

Persons  Liable  to  Taxation  (Law  of  1864) 
Persons  Liable  to  Taxation  (Law  of  1862) 
Persons  Liable  to  Taxation  (Law  of  1870) 
The  New  State  Taxes,  1904  to  1905 
Valuation  for  the  Purpose  of  Property  Tax,  1904 
State  Income  and  Property  Tax 

XI.  Income  and  Wealth  According  to  Taxation 
Other  Publications 
The  Stature  of  Conscripts 
Ability  of  Soldiers  to  Read  and  Write 
Thermometrical  Conditions  in  Copenhagen 
Value  of  the  Buildings  of  the  State 

The  Statistical  Bureau,  Laws  and  Circulars  Pertaining  to  it 
The  Statistical  Bureau,  Its  Activity,  1896  to  1897 
The  Statistical  Bureau,  List  of  Publications 

The  Statistical  Bureau,  The  Organization  of  OfiBcial  Statistics,  1886 
The  Statistical  Bureau,  Scandinavian  Statistical  Meeting,  1900 
Statistical  Information  about  Iceland,  1907;  about  Greenland,  1012 
Foreign  Commerce  of  the  Danish  West  Indies 
R€sum€  of  Statistical  Information 
Statistical  Year  Book,  1896  to  1913 
Precis  de  Statistique,  1907 
Statistical  Siunmaries,  1913 
Statistical  Communications,  1909  to  1013 
History  of  The  Statistical  Bureau,  1900 
History  of  Danish  Statbtics,  1800  to  1850 
Commerce  between  the  Scandinavian  Countries,  1900  to  1906 


FRANCE 


THE  DEVELOPMENT  AND  PROGRESS  OF 
STATISTICS  IN  FRANCE 

By  Fernand  Fatjre 

Professor  of  Law  at  the  University  of  Paris  and  Member  of  the  Conseil 
Sup^rieuT  de  Statistique 

Wishing  to  conform  to  the  clear  "suggestions"  of  The 
American  Statistical  Association,  we  shall  limit  the  study, 
which  it  has  done  us  the  honor  to  ask  us  to  make,  to  prac- 
tical statistics,  to  a  description  of  the  actual  work  of  enum- 
eration. We  shall  eliminate  as  far  as  possible  whatever 
relates  to  the  doctrines  or  the  theories  which  have  as  their 
aim  the  organization,  methods  and  data  of  statistics.  We 
shall  divide  our  study  into  three  parts:  1,  The  History  of 
Statistics  in  France;  2,  The  Actual  Organization  of  the 
Work;  3,  Desirable  and  Possible  Lines  of  Progress. 

Part  I.    History  of  Statistics  in  France 

In  the  domain  of  history  it  has  long  been  the  habit,  espe- 
cially in  France,  to  confuse  the  practice  of  statistics  with 
the  theory  of  statistics.* 

These  are,  however,  in  the  past  as  in  the  present,  two  very 
different  things.  It  is  necessary  to  study  them  separately, 
in  spite  of  the  intimate  relations  that  can  be  discovered 
between  them,  just  as  it  is  important  to  study  separately 
the  history  of  economic  fact  and  the  history  of  economic 
theory. 

What  we  intend  to  set  forth  here  is  the  history  of  the 
practice  of  statistics. 

Usually  one  traces  the  beginning  of  this  history  to  the 
plans  for  investigation  conceived  by  Sully  and  Colbert  and 
especially  to  the  celebrated  mSmoires  drawn  up  by  the 

*  Moreau  de  JonnSs,  Maurice  Block,  Emile  Levasseur,  to  cite  only  the  leading 
French  experts  in  the  subject  in  the  second  half  of  the  nineteenth  century,  have 
been  guilty  of  this  confusion.  See  Levasseur,  La  Population  Frannaise,  Vol.  I, 
Histoire  sommaire  de  la  Statistique,  pp.  47-73. 


218  MEMORIAL '  VOLUME 

Intendants  from  1697  to  1700.  It  is  assumed  that  before 
the  last  years  of  the  eighteenth  century  there  was  no  attempt 
at  official  statistics  worthy  of  the  name.* 

This  error  is  due  to  a  rather  superficial  view  of  things.  It 
is  right  to  say  that  "the  creation  of  an  organization  exclu- 
sively devoted  to  gathering  numerical  inforn^ation  in  France 
does  not  go  back  of  the  last  years  of  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury." But  it  is  wrong  to  conclude  that  to  have  official  sta- 
tistics France  had  to  wait  for  the  reorganization,  by  Necker, 
of  the  bureau  of  the  balance  of  trade. 

However  far  one  goes  back  into  the  remote  history  of  our 
country,  one  finds  not,  indeed,  the  word  "statistics,"  for 
that  did  not  come  until  later,  but  the  thing  for  which  the 
word  stands.  Enumerations  are  contemporaneous  with 
the  establishment  of  a  regular  administration,  and,  like  it, 
they  owe  their  origin,  by  a  tradition  a  little  obscure  some- 
times but  none  the  less  certain,  to  the  powerful  organization 
which  the  Romans  left  on  the  soil  of  the  Provinces  of  Gaul. 
The  enumerations  were  made  as  well  as  might  be  with  the 
limited  means  at  the  disposal  of  a  rudimentary  public  service. 
They  are  very  imperfect,  but  they  exist,  and  they  correspond 
in  point  of  efficiency  to  the  administrative  institutions  of 
the  times. 

What  explains  and  excuses  the  error  of  those  who  refuse 
to  see  them,  is  that  in  the  absence  of  an  organization  with 
the  especial  duty  of  making  these  enumerations  they  lie 
buried  and  hidden  under  the  mass  of  work  done  by  the 
general  government  of  the  state;  moreover,  the  documents 
which  reveal  their  existence  are  extremely  rare;  their  pres- 
ence is  more  easily  conjectured  than  discovered;  and  in 
order  to  find  traces  of  them  it  is  necessary  to  apply  oneself 
to  long  and  difficult  researches  like  those  excavations  which 
are  undertaken  in  certain  countries  to  bring  to  light  the 
remains  of  buried  cities. 

Nothing  serves  better  than  the  history  of  statistics  to 

*  See  in  this  connection:  StaMstique  GinSrale  de  la  France,  Historique  el  iravaux 
de  la  fin  du  XVIIKme  slide  au  dihvi  du  XXhne,  1913,  p.  6. 


FRANCE  219 

reveal  to  us  the  narrow  bonds  which  unite  this  form  of  the 
study  of  facts  with  the  work  of  the  political  and  administra- 
tive institutions  of  a  country.  Indeed,  one  might  say  that 
in  tracing  the  history  of  applied  statistics  we  are  writing  one 
of  the  most  interesting  chapters  in  the  history  of  institutions. 

On  the  one  hand,  indeed,  are  the  departments  of  public 
service  which,  alone,  up  to  the  nineteenth  century,  have 
made  enumerations  and  have  made  them  only  to  the  extent 
demanded  by  the  necessities  of  their  work.  So,  on  the  other 
hand,  in  our  time  individuals  and  private  societies  can  make 
enumerations  in  the  very  limited  domain  with  which  they 
are  concerned.  But  only  the  state  is  capable  of  enumerating 
regularly  the  enormous  amount  of  social  phenomena  numer- 
ical knowledge  of  which  is  indispensable  for  the  develop- 
ment of  its  departments  of  service  and  is  in  the  interest  of 
the  several  phenomena  themselves.  One  must  go  still 
further.  It  is  necessary  to  add  that  in  making  a  census  of 
social  phenomena  which  no  private  initiative  would  be  able 
to  reach,  the  state  fulfills  one  of  its  duties  which  is  just  as 
essential  as  guaranteeing  order  and  safety.  To  the  old 
formula  by  which  the  uncompromising  individualists 
summed  up  the  attributes  of  public  authority:  "The  state, 
soldier,  judge  and  policeman,"  we  must  add  a  fourth  epithet, 
statistician.  The  state  ought  to  be  statistician  as  it  ought 
to  be  soldier,  judge  and  policeman,  because  the  function  of 
'  statistics  answers  a  need  of  the  most  general  order  and  be- 
cause the  state  alone  is  in  a  position  to  discharge  that  func- 
tion well. 

In  reviewing  the  long  evolution  of  statistics  in  France,  we 
may  distinguish  four  periods  corresponding  to  four  historical 
epochs  (moments)  which  are  fairly  definite  and  have  rather 
precise  characteristics. 

I.  From  the  Eighth  to  the  Thirteenth  Century. 

II.  From  the  Fourteenth  to  the  Sixteenth  Century. 

III.  The  Seventeenth  and  Eighteenth  Centuries. 

IV.  The  Nineteenth  Century. 

For  each  of  these  periods,  however  difficult  it  may  be  for 


220  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

those  that  are  farthest  away  from  us,  we  shall  try  to  answer, 
a  little  more  clearly  than  has  been  done  hitherto,  the  three 
following  questions: 

A.  By  whom  and  how  was  the  science  of  statistics  founded? 

B.  What  was  the  object  of  it? 

C.  In  what  sort  of  documents  were  the  data  of  statistics 
written  and  preserved? 

I.     Statistics  in  France  from  the  Eighth  to  the   Thirteenth 

Century 

The  period  of  nearly  six  hundred  years  which  we  shall 
try  to  embrace  in  this  paragraph,  opens  in  752,  the  first 
year  of  the  reign  of  Pepin  the  Short,  the  first  of  the  Carlo- 
vingian  kings,  and  extends  to  the  death  of  Philip  the  Fair, 
in  November  1314. 

There  is  nothing  in  the  Middle  Ages  which  recalls,  even 
remotely,  the  institution  of  the  Roman  censura,  so  imposing 
in  its  redoubtable  authority  and  so  strongly  specialized  in 
its  function  of  census-taking.  In  that  period  we  find  no 
trace  of  a  defined  organization  appointed  to  make  the  neces- 
sary enumerations.  This  task  was  entrusted,  without  the 
slightest  inkling  of  a  division  of  labor,  to  the  officials  of  the 
rudimentary  governmental  departments  of  the  French  mon- 
archy at  their  very  beginning.  We  may  assert  that  they  did 
the  work  incompetently  and  without  method  and  that  their 
labors  had  not  the  remotest  relation  to  the  census,  solemn, 
almost  sacred  in  character,  which  the  Roman  censor  was 
required  to  make  every  five  years. 

The  enumerations  so  made  were  essentially  limited  and 
fragmentary,  and  nothing  justifies  us  in  believing  that  they 
were  periodically  renewed. 

The  essential  object  of  all  the  official  registrations  of  that 
time  was  land.  Land,  because  in  those  days  it  was  the  prin- 
cipal, if  not  the  only,  source  of  power,  of  wealth,  and  because 
its  multiple  divisions  and  subdivisions  were  the  basis  of  the 
feudal  system.  The  possession  of  land  had  such  vital 
interest  for  those  who  controlled  it  that  they  could  not 


FRANCE  221 

afford  not  to  know  about  it.  And  that  is  why  everybody 
whose  estate  was  of  a  certain  size  submitted  it  to  a  minute 
inventory  which  constituted  a  real  census.  It  was  an 
imperative  need  which  had  to  be  satisfied  at  any  cost  and 
which  was  imposed  not  only  on  the  king  himself  and  his 
domains  but  also  on  all  the  community-holdings  of  the 
private  orders  which  held  such  a  great  place  in  medieval  so- 
ciety, on  churches,  abbeys,  monasteries.  The  property  of 
these  communities  was  sometimes  so  important  that  its 
registration  was  imposed  by  royal  authority,  or,  at  any  rate, 
royal  authority  thought  it  ought  to  take  a  hand  in  it.  So 
it  came  about  that  on  their  accession  to  power  Pepin  the 
Short  in  758  and  Charlemagne  in  762  ordered  the  detailed 
description  of  church  lands.  The  Polyptiques,  of  which  we 
shall  speak  presently  and  which  constitute  the  statistical 
documents  par  excellence  of  this  period,  were  essentially  a 
registry  of  the  land. 

Demographical  Statistics  in  the  Middle  Ages 

From  the  earliest  times  in  Rome  and  during  the  whole  of 
the  Republic  and  the  Empire  the  census  is,  by  definition,  a 
work  intended  to  give  the  number  of  the  population  with  its 
essential  divisions  according  to  age  and  sex.  And  that  is 
what  it  is  in  our  time,  in  all  civilized  countries  that  we  know. 
Enumeration  of  the  people  (demography)  is  everywhere,  as 
in  Rome,  the  main  branch  of  statistics.  K  we  open  a  copy 
of  an  Annuaire  Statistique,  one  of  those  volumes  in  which  the 
intention  is  to  gather  together  every  year  all  statistical  data 
through  which  the  life  of  a  country  is  set  forth,  we  see  that 
the  first  place  there  is  always  reserved  for  the  statistics  of 
population.  And  that  seems  to  us  very  natural.  Is  not 
the  first  need  of  an  organized  society  to  know  itself  and  to 
take  as  the  measure  of  its  strength  the  knowledge  of  the 
number  of  individuals  who  compose  it? 

Why  was  it  otherwise  from  the  eighth  to  the  fourteenth 
centuries?    It  is  not  difficult  to  see  why. 

The  general  census  of  the  population  of  a  country  presup- 


222  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

poses  a  public  authority  powerfully  organized  and  strong 
enough  to  break  down  the  resistances  which  a  work  of  this 
kind  inevitably  encounters.  This  authority  did  not  exist 
in  the  period  with  which  we  are  dealing. 

But  to  this  reason,  which  in  itself  is  enough,  can  be  added 
another.  As  a  matter  of  fact  the  population  was  not  left 
completely  out  of  the  census  of  that  period.  It  was  included 
in  it  automatically  and  incidentally.  Without  being  the 
object  of  it,  the  enumeration  of  the  people  was  a  result. 
Take  the  case  of  the  rural  population:  composed  in  large 
part  of  peasants  and  of  serfs,  it  was  all  alike  attached  to 
the  soil;  it  was  part  and  parcel  of  the  land  and  so  naturally 
found  itself  included  in  the  land-census.  The  Polyptique 
de  I'AbhS  Irminon  as  well  as  the  Cartulaire  de  VAlbaye  de 
Reims  and  the  Description  des  Serfs  de  I'Eglise  de  Marseille, 
which  date,  like  the  Polyptique,  from  the  first  half  of  the 
ninth  century,  afford  us  the  striking  proof  of  this.  Was  it  a 
question  of  the  industrial  population  which  was  almost  all 
grouped  in  the  cities?  Without  counting  it  one  could  esti- 
mate it  by  some  one  of  the  measures  which  the  nascent 
fiscal  system  of  the  monarchy  demanded.  Thus  thanks  to 
the  Ksts  of  taxes  (tailles)  levied  in  Paris  in  1292  and  in  1300, 
we  possess  a  registration,  street  by  street,  of  all  the  artisans 
subject  to  the  tax.  They  number,  for  the  manual  and 
mechanical  trades  alone,  4,159  in  1292  and  5,844  in  1300.* 

This  much  is  certain,  and  it  is  not  one  of  the  least  char- 
acteristic traits  of  French  statistics  in  the  Middle  Ages, 
that  population  was  never  the  direct  and  principal  object 
of  a  census;  they  never  dreamed  of  setting  to  work  to  enu- 
merate the  total  population  of  France;  the  public  powers  of 
that  time,  whether  they  were  in  the  vigorous  hands  of  a 
Philip  Augustus  (1180-1223)  or  of  a  Philip  the  Fair  (1285- 
1314),  were  content  to  remain  ignorant  of  the  number  of  the 
population  subject  to  their  authority,  and  they  preferred 
to  increase  it  by  ceaseless  conquests  rather  than  know  it 
exactly  by  careful  census. 

*  See  the  details  on  this  subject  given  by  M.  Fagniez,  Etudes  aur  I'lnduiirie  i 
Paris  aux  Xllllme  et  au  XlVime  si^cle,  p.  6. 


FRANCE  223 

Are  we  not,  then,  safe  in  saying,  as  our  learned  master 
Emile  Levasseur  says  in  his  great  work,  La  Papulation  Fran- 
gaise  (Vol.  I,  p.  154) :  "One  may,  without  fear  of  error,  when 
one  considers  the  two  extremes  of  the  period,  assert  that  the 
total  population  of  France  increased  considerably  from  the 
ninth  to  the  fourteenth  century,  if  not  everywhere  and  in  a 
continuous  manner,  at  least  taken  as  a  whole." 

This  suggestion  rests  on  pure  hypotheses.  But  of  one  of 
them,  the  figure  for  the  population  in  the  ninth  century, 
this  is  what  Levasseur  himself  tells  us  in  a  passage  near  the 
one  we  have  just  quoted  "From  these  data  (those  of  the 
Polyptique  of  Irminon)  it  is  not  possible  to  draw  an  hypothesis 
suflficiently  sound  as  to  the  numerical  state  of  the  population 
in  the  Frankish  empire."     (See  ib.,  p.  134.) 

Among  the  scattered  fragments  of  demographical  statis- 
tics of  this  time  which  ought  to  be  noted,  we  shall  mention 
some  figures  which  relate  to  the  military  organization.  The 
great  interest  which  that  organization  held  for  the  feudal 
monarchy  of  the  twelfth  and  the  thirteenth  century  suffi- 
ciently explains  the  application  of  enumerations  to  the  enroll- 
ment of  the  armies.  A  document  known  as  a  prisSe,  the 
date  of  which  is  placed  between  1190  and  1202,  gives  the 
figures  for  the  armed  contingent  due  Philip  Augustus  from 
the  commoners  (roturiers)  and  the  communes.  That  was  a 
new  military  resource  which  the  feudal  monarchy  had  not 
obtained  without  great  effort.  The  figures  for  the  contin- 
gent due  from  the  cities  and  the  communes  are  foimd  in  a 
document  of  a  somewhat  later  date;  for  the  eight  bailiwicks 
of  Sentis,  Vermandois,  Orleans,  Bourges,  Sens,  Paris,  Amiens 
and  Gisors  they  amounted  to  6,270  sergents  with  153  chariots. 
Finally,  we  have  for  the  year  1231  a  fairly  detailed  Ust  of 
the  troops  sent  by  St.  Louis  against  the  Count  of  Brittany, 
and  we  find  there  precious  information  as  to  the  composition 
of  the  royal  army  at  that  time.* 

*  See  in  Etudes  sur  le  RSgime  Financier  de  la  France  atant  1789,  by  Vuitry,  the 
interesting  chapter  devoted  to  military  service  under  the  monarchy  from  Hugh 
Capet  to  Philip  the  Fair  (pp.  372-384). 


224  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Financial  Statistics  in  the  Middle  Ages 

After  the  land  and  its  inhabitants  there  is,  in  every 
organized  society  and  even  in  a  society  on  the  way  to  organi- 
zation, a  subject  which  it  is  impossible  to  avoid  measuring 
numerically,  that  is,  financial  facts,  the  total  of  receipts  and 
expenses  which  are  inseparable  from  the  very  existence  of 
the  state,  however  modest  their  character.  The  most 
embryonic  of  financial  systems  cannot  be  conceived  in  prac- 
tice without  the  aid  of  statistics.  The  domain  of  finance  is 
essentially  the  domain  of  figures  and,  consequently,  that  of 
statistics.  In  it  one  makes  statistical  enumerations  with- 
out intending  to  and  without  suspecting  it,  as  Monsieur 
Jourdain  spoke  prose,  and  even  those  individuals  or  states 
of  whom  one  sometimes  says  they  spend  without  counting 
do  not  succeed  in  escaping  it  long. 

That  there  were  in  the  Middle  Ages  public  finances  and, 
consequently,  financial  facts  no  one  can  doubt.  That  gives 
us  the  right  to  say  that  there  were  also  financial  statistics. 
But  it  is  hardly  necessary  to  add  that  the  value  of  those 
statistics  depends  closely  on  the  worth  of  the  departments  of 
public  service  whose  duty  it  was  to  prepare  them.  And  one 
can  understand  without  difficulty  that  the  financial  statis- 
tics of  the  feudal  monarchy  reflect  all  the  imperfections  of 
its  financial  organization.  These  imperfections  are  well 
known,  and  we  need  not  recite  them  here.* 

*  There  exists  an  immense  literature  on  the  finances  of  Ancient  Prance.  See 
Stourm,  Bibliographie  HiMorique  des  Finances  de  la  France  au  XVIIIime  Siicle 
IV,  in  -8°,  1895.  To  those  who  wish  to  find  in  detail  the  organization  of  finan- 
cial statistics  in  the  organization  of  Finance  itself  we  shall  confine  ourselves  to 
citing:  among  ancient  authors  Jean  Hennequin,  Le  Guidon  Qen&ral  des  Finan- 
ciers, 1585,  in  -12°.  This  book  is  hard  to  read,  but  it  is  extremely  instruc- 
tive in  all  that  concerns  financial  organization  from  the  fall  of  the  Roman 
Empire  to  the  sixteenth  century.  Among  the  moderns:  Vuitry,  Etudes  sur  le 
Regime  Financier  de  la  France  avani  1783,  3  Vols.  g.  in  -8°,  1878-1883,  bearing  on 
the  period  between  the  fifth  century  and  the  end  of  the  fourteenth. — Bouchard, 
Systhm  Financier  de  I'Ancienne  Monarchic,  in  -8°,  1891. — Glasson,  Histaire  du 
Droit  et  des  Institutions  de  la  France,  Vol.  V,  pp.  490-546,  and  Vol.  VI,  pp.  1- 
152. — Brissaud,  Histoire  G&n&rale  du  Droit  Fransais  public  et  privi.  Vol.  I,  pp. 
908-961. 


FRANCE  225 

We  possess  only  a  small  number  of  documents  of  financial 
statistics  of  this  time,  and  moreover  they  are  for  the  most 
part  obscure  and  full  of  lacunas.  When  several  of  them 
bear  on  the  same  facts,  their  figures  are  often  very  different 
and  nothing  explains  the  differences.  All  their  figures  are 
approximate  and  uncertain  and  ought  not  to  be  accepted 
without  reserve.  And  there  is  the  strongest  reason  for  dis- 
trusting figures  set  down  for  us  by  historians  who  were 
ingenious  rather  than  learned,  who  do  not  resist  strongly 
enough  the  temptation  to  reconstruct  out  of  whole  cloth  a 
vanished  past.  Do  they  not  pretend  to  give  us  exactly 
the  Bvdget  des  recettes  et  des  dSpenses  de  la  Monarchic, 
under  Philip  Augustus  (1180-1223),  under  St.  Louis  (1226- 
1270)  and  under  Philip  the  Fair  (1285-1314)?  The  unfor- 
tunate thing  is  that  it  is  much  to  be  feared  that  they  are 
creating  a  work  of  imagination  as  well  as  of  science.  The 
truth,  as  Vuitry  very  justly  says  (Vol.  I,  p.  303,  nouvelle 
serie),  is  that  "the  ancient  monarchy  never  had  a  real 
budget:  at  the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century  neither 
receipts  nor  expenses  were  yet  of  such  nature  that  they 
could  be  seriously  assessed  in  order  to  be  as  a  consequence 
checked  by  the  government.* 

Land  Statistics  of  the  Middle  Ages 

We  have  no  statistical  document  especially  concerned 
either  with  the  population  or  with  the  finances  between  the 
eighth  century  and  the  fourteenth.  But  the  case  is  other- 
wise with  the  land.  The  agricultural  exploitations  which 
the  land  sustains  are  the  object  of  enumerations  the  results 
of  which  were  habitually  inscribed  on  a  polyptique,  that  is  to 
say,  according  to  the  etymology  of  the  word,  a  sheet  folded 
several  times. 

It  is  the  polyptique  which  at  this  time  replaces  or  com- 
pletes the  census  which  the  Roman  Empire  had  established 

*  The  statute  of  January  19, 1314,  one  of  the  last  acts  of  Philip  the  Fair,  has  as  its 
object  not  so  much  to  constitute  a  budget  as  to  divide  by  specializing  them,  from  the 
point  of  view  of  expenses  to  pay,  the  Treasury  of  the  Temple  and  that  of  the  Louvre. 

16 


226  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

in  its  provinces  to  serve  as  a  basis  for  the  division  of  imposts. 
We  have  been  more  fortunate  with  it  than  with  the  tabulce 
censorcB  of  Rome.  Of  those  not  a  vestige  remains.  One 
easily  understands  why  when  one  considers  the  revolutions 
of  which  Rome  and  her  provinces  were  the  theater.  On 
the  contrary,  we  possess  remarkable  fragments  of  polyp- 
tiques. 

One  of  the  most  important  and  most  justly  celebrated  is 
the  Polyptique  of  the  Abbey  of  Saint  Germain-des-Pr6s, 
known  as  the  Polyptique  de  I'abbS  Irminon,  after  the  man 
through  whose  eflforts  and  under  whose  direction  it  was 
established  in  the  year  806.* 

The  extent  of  the  domain  of  the  abbey  is  estimated  by 
Gu6rard  to  have  been  430,000  hectares,  about  the  area  of 
one  of  our  medium  French  departments.  But  the  details 
contained  in  the  Polyptique  are  limited  to  221,000  hectares 
situated  in  the  departments  of  the  Seine,  Seine-et-Oise, 
Seine-et-Marne,  Eure-et-Loir,  Orne,  Eure,  and  Indre. 
These  details  deal  with  the  difiFerent  categories  of  land,  with 
the  alleux,  lands  free  from  impost  and  rent,  and  with  the 
h6n6fices,  lands  burdened  with  different  sorts  of  rent  in 
exchange  for  the  assured  protection  of  the  lord.  The  tenures 
or  manses  included  in  the  category  of  bSn^ices  are  by  far 
the  most  numerous.  There  were  1,646  of  them  as  against 
24  seigneurial  tenures.f  A  separate  paragraph  is  devoted 
to  each  Mn^fice;  the  extent  and  composition  of  the  tenure, 
from  the  point  of  view  of  the  different  varieties  of  culture 
found  there,  are  indicated  as  well  as  the  names  of  the  tenants, 
those  of  their  wives  and  children,  and  thus  it  is  that  some 

♦  The  text  of  this  polyptigve  was  published  in  1834  by  Guerard.  The  work  in  8 
volumes  which  this  scholar,  in  1844,  devoted  to  the  Polyptique  of  Abb6  Irminon, 
with  its  prolegomena,  its  commentaries  and  elucidations,  is  of  great  interest  both 
for  the  history  of  statistics  and  for  the  economic  and  social  history  of  the  Middle 
Ages.  Another  French  scholar,  M.  Longnon,  published  in  1886,  in  docimients 
relating  to  the  history  of  the  City  of  Paris,  a  new  edition  of  the  Polyptique  of  Irminon. 

t  In  each  holding  was  a  dwelling  house  of  varying  importance.  The  24  seigneu- 
rial tenures  covered  a  surface  of  204,000  hectares,  of  which  197,600  were  woodland. 
The  1,646  tributary  tenures  occupied  only  15,000  hectares,  of  which  152  were  wood- 
land. 


PRANCE  227 

elements  of  dempgraphical  statistics  are  found  mingled  with 
land  statistics. 

One  would  like  to  know  what  precisely  was  the  nature 
and  value  of  this  document.  But  in  this  regard  we  lack 
exact  and  sure  information.  It  is  nevertheless  permissible 
to  suppose  that  the  Polyptique  of  Saint  Germain-des-Pr6s 
was  more  than  a  document  of  a  private  nature  drawn  up  by 
the  Abbott  Irminon  to  facilitate  the  administration  of  the 
domains  which  came  under  his  authority.  It  was  rather  an 
official  and  authentic  document.  This  character  was  im- 
pressed on  it  by  the  intervention  of  officers  of  the  king,  in 
whose  presence  were  made,  by  those  interested,  declarations 
which  served  as  a  basis  for  the  census.  It  could  constitute 
a  true  registry-book  for  property  and  a  civil  census  of  people. 
One  has  every  ground  for  believing  that,  once  established, 
it  was  continued  indefinitely;  one  knows  indeed  that  the 
changes  which  supervened  in  the  condition  of  property  or 
in  that  of  people  could  be  mentioned  there.  The  Polyptique 
of  Irminon  bears  the  trace  of  numerous  changes  of  this  kind 
and  the  blank  spaces  which  one  notices  at  the  close  of  the 
chapters  seem  intended  to  receive  them. 

For  the  other  polyptiques  of  this  epoch,  drawn  up  by  order 
of  the  kings,  the  bishops  or  the  abbotts,  we  shall  confine  our- 
selves to  referring  to  the  list  of  them  which  Gu6rard  gives 
(Vol.  I,  pp.  18-25)  and  to  completing  it  by  the  mention  of  the 
Polyptique  of  the  Church  of  Saint  Paul,  at  Lyon,  which 
contains  the  enumeration  of  tenants,  possessions,  rents  and 
revenues  of  that  church  in  the  thirteenth  century.* 

The  word  polyptique,  moreover,  was  not  by  any  means 
the  only  word  used  to  designate  statistical  tables  dealing 
with  the  land.  The  word  had  both  synonyms  and  deriva- 
tives. Its  synonyms  were  breviarium,  rationarium,  capitu- 
latium,  inventarium,  planarium.  Its  derivatives  were  pole- 
ticum,  puleticum,  puletum,  pulegium,  whence  came  the  word 
pouilU  as  applied  especially  to  the  estate  of  the  b6nefices 
of  a  diocese,  of  an  abbey,  of  a  monastery. 

*  This  Polyptique  was  published  in  1875  by  M.  Guigne,  1  Vol.  in-4°. 


228  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

//.     Statistics  in  France  from  the  Beginning  of  the  Fourteenth 
Century  to  the  End  of  the  Sixteenth 

As  in  the  preceding  period,  enumerations  are  limited  to 
the  satisfaction  of  essential  needs  of  public  authority,  and 
one  has  difficulty  in  discovering  here  any  trace  of  appre- 
ciable improvement.  They  remain  very  imperfect  because 
they  continue  to  be  carried  out  without  method  by  the 
automatic  and  unconscious  play  of  a  still  rudimentary  ad- 
ministration. 

There  take  place,  however,  between  the  beginning  of  the 
fourteenth  century  and  the  end  of  the  sixteenth,  between 
Philip  the  Fair  and  Henry  IV,  some  changes  which  are  of 
great  importance  in  the  history  of  statistics  in  France. 

Enumerations  become  much  more  frequent.  They  are 
not  better  made,  but  they  increase  in  the  more  and  more 
extended  domain  over  which  the  royal  power  is  exercised; 
and  that  is  to  end  by  attracting  the  attention  of  those  who 
reflect  on  the  conditions  of  good  state  administration.  Thus 
well  before  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century  Jean  Bodin,  in 
his  Six  Limes  de  la  RSpublique,  is  to  write  that  admirable 
chapter  on  la  Censure  in  which  we  find  for  the  first  time  the 
necessity  of  enumerations  set  forth  with  so  much  force  and 
proved  so  ingeniously. 

The  increasing  extension  of  royal  power  is  the  only,  the 
profound  cause  of  the  development  of  statistics  in  France 
from  the  fourteenth  to  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
That  extension  manifests  itself  in  two  ways,  by  police 
measures  [and  by  fiscal  measures;  police  measures  and  fiscal 
measures  which  are  inspired  by  very  different  considerations 
but  which  are  very  often  closely  connected  and  the  execu- 
tion of  which,  in  any  case,  cannot  be  conceived  without 
numerical  knowledge  of  the  things  and  persons  to  which 
they  apply. 


PRANCE  229 

The  First  Applications  of  Economic  Statistics 

The  police  measures  arise  from  the  economic  policy  of 
the  monarchy.  A  policy  of  intervention  and  excessive 
regulation  which  equals,  if  it  does  not  sometimes  surpass, 
the  regulation  by  which  our  contemporary  socialists  imagine 
social  progress  can  be  realized,  and  the  chief  end  of  which, 
loudly  proclaimed,  was  the  protection  of  consumers.  It 
was  a  question  of  safeguarding  their  interests  by  rendering 
impossible  their  exploitation  by  the  producers  and  especially 
by  the  tradesmen.  The  pretension  was  to  keep  the  popula- 
tion not  only  from  absolute  lack  of  indispensable  necessi- 
ties, from  famine,  but  from  want  and  even  simply  from  high 
prices.  To  this  end  it  was  necessary  to  be  master  of  produc- 
tion, transportation  and  markets,  it  was  necessary  to  render 
obligatory  the  conditions  and  forms  of  sale  and  to  limit  the 
price  by  establishing  a  maximum.  Well,  how  could  that 
be  brought  about  without  incessant  enumerations  to  make 
known  the  quantities  produced,  the  quantities  brought  to 
market  and  the  quantities  demanded? 

The  monarchy  soon  learned  the  advantage  it  could  gain 
from  the  organization  of  the  trades  in  corporations  to  extend 
first  over  Paris  and  its  vicomtS,  then  over  the  rest  of  France, 
the  close- woven  mail-shirt  of  its  policy  of  intervention. 
That  is  why  it  applied  itself  so  carefully  to  the  work  of 
organization.  Its  eflForts  were  crowned  with  success  from 
the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century,*  and  they  resulted 
in  transforming  into  an  instrument  of  economic  tyranny 
institutions  which  had,  at  first,  protected  the  liberty  of  the 
workers.  So  we  learn  the  existence  and  forms  of  certain 
enumerations  from  the  regulations  of  the  corporations. 

Corn  was  throughout  the  ancient  regime,  almost  equally 
with  money,  the  merchandise  par  excellence,  the  regulation 
of  which  has  most  often  occupied  public  authority. 

*  So  King  Charles  V  could  assert  in  1372  without  arousing  any  objection:  "qu'au 
Toi  seul  appartient  et  pour  le  tout  en  son  royaume  et  non  k  autre,  d'octroyer  et  d'or- 
donner  toutes  foires  et  tous  marches"  (to  the  king  belongs  for  the  whole  of  his  king- 
dom and  not  to  another  the  right  to  license  and  control  all  markets).  See  Glasson, 
Histoire  du  Droit  et  dea  Institutiona  de  la  France,  Vol.  VI,  p.  39. 


230  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Beside  the  corporation  of  talemeliers  (bakers)  and  that  of 
hlatiers  (corn  merchants),  there  is  mentioned  in  theiifre  des 
MStiers  of  Etienne  Boileau,  Prev6t  of  Paris  from  1254  to 
1271,  the  corporation  of  measurers.  To  this  corporation 
belongs  the  honor  of  having  been  for  the  first  time  especially 
called  upon  to  fulfill  a  statistical  function. 

The  measurers  were  authorized  to  measure  corn  sold  in 
the  Paris  market  every  time  the  quantity  exceeded  a  setier, 
about  156  litres  of  corn.  But  their  intermediary  r6le  be- 
tween merchants  and  buyers  was  not  confined  to  measuring. 
It  extended  to  the  verification  and  guarantee  of  the  quality 
and  of  the  price.* 

They  were  also  called  upon  to  know  most  of  the  business 
transacted  in  the  market.  The  only  thing  that  could  escape 
them  was  the  retail  sales,  that  is  to  say,  sales  which  involved 
quantities  not  exceeding  a  setier.  So  it  became  the  custom 
to  ask  them  to  make  out  the  memoranda  of  transactions 
in  which  they  had  a  hand.  In  this  regard  an  ordinance  of 
the  PrSvot  des  Marchands  drawn  during  the  reign  of  Charles 
VII,  July  2,  1438,  reads  as  follows:  "They  shall  be  required 
to  certify  and  to  report  every  Saturday  in  the  presence  of 
the  Clerk  of  the  PrivotS  of  Paris  the  price  which  corn  {blS- 
froment)  shall  have  been  valued  at  that  day  and  the  indication 
of  the  quantities  sold,  also  the  transaction  in  grain  at  the 
highest  price  at  which  it  shall  have  been  sold,  together  with 
the  places  where  the  said  grain  shall  be  believed  to  be." 
And  the  ordinance  of  1438,  which  probably  did  nothing  more 
than  regulate  a  custom  already  ancient,  was  confirmed  by 
three  others  of  December  12,  1471,  November  23,  1546, 
and  November  21,  1577. 

This  is  a  remarkable  example  of  the  application  of  sta- 
tistics to  some  of  the  most  important  facts  of  economic  life. 
One  could  surely  find  other  examples  of  it.  There  were 
from  the  first,  always  in  everything  that  concerned  corn, 
enumerations  which  were  not  periodic  but  rendered  neces- 

*  See  in  I'Histoire  GSn4rale  de  Paris,  the  volume  devoted  to  the  Livre  dea  MMieri, 
by  Etienne  Boileau,  with  the  Introduction  by  Messrs.  de  Mespinasse  and  Bonnardot, 
p.  XXVI  of  the  Introduction  and  pp.  18-20  of  the  text. 


FRANCE  231 

sary  by  accidental  circumstances.  So  in  1304  the  price  of 
corn  in  Paris  having  reached  the  figure,  which  was  thought 
altogether  extraordinary,  of  5  and  6  livres  a  setier,  Philip 
the  Fair  ordered  the  PrhSt  des  Marchands  to  have  a  census 
made  of  all  the  corn  harvested  in  the  vicomtS  of  Paris,  to 
leave  the  quantity  necessary  for  local  consumption  and  to 
have  the  rest  brought  to  the  nearest  market.  The  same 
thing  was  done  in  the  reign  of  Charles  VI  in  1391.* 

And  it  is  not  only  the  census  of  corn  but  also  that  of  many 
other  commodities,  wine  and  meat  among  others,  which  had 
to  be  more  or  less  regularly  taken.  The  gaugers  formed  a 
corporation  whose  business  it  was  to  do  for  liquids  what 
the  measurers  did  for  grain.  Why  should  not  they  likewise 
have  checked  up  the  quantities  brought  to  market  and  the 
prices?  The  statutes  of  the  profession  of  butcher,  though 
they  go  back  to  Philip  Augustus  (1180  to  1223),  do  not 
figure,  one  does  not  know  just  why,  in  the  Livre  des  Metiers. 
But  we  know  from  the  author  of  Minagier  de  Paris  (1393) 
that  they  knew  at  that  time  the  number  of  butcher-shops  in 
Paris,  the  number  of  butchers  and  even  the  number  of  head 
of  cattle  delivered  each  week  for  consumption.! 

Perhaps  it  may  be  remarked  that  the  different  enumera- 
tions of  which  we  have  just  spoken  apply  only  to  the  vicomtS 
of  Paris.  That  is  true.  But  we  shall  ask  that  it  also  be 
noticed,  on  the  one  hand,  that  the  vicomtS  of  Paris  was  from 
the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century  one  of  the  most 
important  territorial  and  administrative  divisions  of  the 
realm,J  and  on  the  other  hand,  that  according  to  the  just 
observation  of  Delamare§  "the  policy  pursued  in  the  Paris 
markets  influences  all  the  other  cities  of  the  realm." 

*  See  Fagniez,  Etude  sur  Vlnduslrie  d.  Paris  au  XIII  ime  et  a  XIV  erne  SHcle,  pp. 
155-156. 

t  See  Fagniez,  loe.  dt.  pp.  181-182.  According  to  the  M^nagier  de  Paris  the 
number  of  head  of  live  stock  consumed  each  week  in  Paris  was  3,626  sheep,  583 
beef,  377  veal,  592  swine. 

t  The  vicmnU  of  Paris,  which  was  to  become  later  the  glnSralitS  of  Paris,  included, 
about  1328,  567  parishes  and  113,786  families.  See  Levasseur,  La  Population 
Frangaise,  Vol.  I,  p.  156. 

§  See  TraiU  de  la  Police,  4  vols.  in-4°,  1722,  Vol.  II,  pp.  79-80. 


232  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

But  two  measures  of  a  general  incontestable  character 
were  adopted,  one  under  Francis  I,  by  the  ordinance  of 
Villers-Cotterets  (August,  1539),  the  other  under  Charles 
IX  by  the  edict  of  the  chancelier  Biragne  (1572).  The  first 
made  it  obligatory  for  the  municipal  authorities  of  each 
seneschal  town  or  baiUwick  (chef-lieu  de  sSnSchaussSe  ou 
bailliage)  to  draw  up  a  weekly  statement  of  provisions,  corn, 
wine,  hay  and  other  such  merchandise.  The  second  made 
it  obligatory  to  draw  up  a  semi-annual  statement  of  the 
condition  of  the  harvests.* 

The  trades  plied  and  the  markets  held  in  the  urban  cen- 
ters were  not  the  only  things  regulated  at  this  period. 
Agriculture  was,  too,  and  here,  as  always,  regulation  often 
had  as  a  condition  and  as  a  result  the  making  of  an  enumera- 
tion. Thus  when  Charles  IX  wished  to  limit,  by  an  edict 
promulgated  in  1566,  the  area  devoted  to  vineyards  to  a 
third  of  all  arable  lands,  one  can  hardly  admit  that  such  a 
decision  was  made  unless  it  was  based  on  the  data  furnished 
by  some  sort  of  enumeration.! 

Finally,  we  should  not  forget  that  maritime  commerce, 
eveli  that,  from  the  thirteenth  century,  was  subject  to  numer- 
ous and  minute  regulations.  In  Atlantic  ports,  as  in  those 
on  the  Mediterranean,  imports  and  exports  were  closely 
watched  by  agents  in  the  service  of  the  king.  These  agents 
were  under  a  high  ojEcial  created  by  Philip  the  Fair,  ordi- 
nance of  February  1,  1305,  under  the  name  of  Maitre  de» 
Fonts  et  Passages,  in  whom  we  can  discern  the  distant  an- 
cestor of  our  present  Director  General  of  Customs.  The 
customs  system  instituted  in  the  first  half  of  the  fourteenth 
century  looked  after  exportations  particularly,  sometimes 
to  prohibit  them  altogether,  sometimes  to  load  them  with 
heavy  duties.    By  an  ordinance  of  December,  1324,  these 

*  See  Levasseur,  Note  sut  Vorganizaiion  du  service  des  subsiMances  et  la  publication 
dea  Mercuriales,  XXVeme  anniversaire  de  la  SocUU  de  Siatistigue  de  Paris  (1886)^ 
p.  192  et  seg. 

t  See  Moreau  de  Jonn&s,  Etai  Economique  et  Social  de  la  France  de  1689  d  1715„ 
p.  is  et  seq. 


FRANCE  235 

duties  had  to  be  established  according  to  the  nature  and 
quantity  of  the  objects  exported  without  regard  to  their 
value.  All  this  regulation,  which  was  extremely  complex, 
for  its  aims  were  at  once  political,  economic  and  fiscal,  could 
not  go  on  without  real  enumerations.*  Their  results  un- 
fortunately have  not  come  down  to  us  because  they  were 
not  methodically  collected  and  preserved.  We  assume 
their  existence  rather  than  prove  it.  But  how  many  proofs 
lack  the  strength  of  the  hypothesis  which  we  establish 
here! 

Financial  Statistics 

After  the  enumerations,  chiefly  of  an  economic  order,  of 
which  we  have  just  spoken,  it  remains  for  us  to  say  a  word 
about  the  financial  and  the  demographic  enumerations. 

From  the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century  financial 
enumerations  assume  an  importance  which  increases  inces- 
santly up  to  the  French  Revolution.  This  is  easily  explained 
by  the  fact  that  all  the  kings  of  France,  without  exception, 
have  been  in  need  of  money  and  for  them  financial  questions 
were  the  vital  questions.  And  here  it  is  not  an  hypothesis, 
which  we  are  laying  down:  it  is  a  fact  which  we  verify  and 
which  impresses  the  mind  of  the  attentive  observer  more  and 
more  forcibly  as  the  financial  departments  of  public  service 
extend  and  grow  strong.  In  the  period  which  we  are  now 
considering,  as  in  the  preceding  period,  the  historian  of 
statistics  ought  always  to  remember  that  the  domain  of 
finance  is  essentially  the  domain  of  numbers;  that  to  engage 
in  finance  is  to  count  at  the  same  time  as  to  pay,  and  that 
any  financial  service  whatever  in  order  to  function  must 
make  enumerations.  Consequently,  for  us  to  be  justified 
in  asserting  the  existence  of  financial  statistics  from  the 
fourteenth  century  to  the  sixteenth  and  even  to  some  extent 
in  estimating  the  value  of  those  statistics,  it  is  suflBcient  for 
us  to  know  the  mechanism  and  the  method  of  procedure  of 

*  See,  for  the  maritime  commerce  of  France  from  the  twelfth  century  on, 
Levasseur,  Hiataire  du  Commerce  en  France,  Vol.  I,  pp.  147-174,  and  Glasson,  loe. 
eit.  Vol.  VI,  pp.  35-43. 


234  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

the  financial  institutions  of  the  time.  Now,  from  PhiHp 
Augustus  on,  the  rich  and  abundant  collection  of  Ordinances 
of  the  French  Kings  and  books  of  the  type  of  that  of  Jean 
Hennequin,  Le  Guidon  Giniral  des  Financiers  (1585),  throw 
full  light  on  the  subject. 

The  French  monarchy  did  not  possess  the  resources  of  a 
permanent,  obligatory  impost  prior  to  1439,  and  before 
1498  a  budget  was  almost  unknown  in  the  sense  which  we 
give  the  word  today,  namely,  an  annual  detailed  tabulation 
of  the  expenses  and  receipts  of  the  state.  But  well  before 
1498,  even  before  1439,  the  monarchy  had  organized  in  a 
substantial  way  its  system  of  public  accounts  both  as  regards 
expenditures  and  as  regards  receipts. 

It  was  forced  to  this  by  the  double  necessity  of  yielding  to 
the  will  of  those  {Etats-GSnSraux,  Seigneurs,  ClergS)  who 
granted  it  taxes  which  it  had  not  yet  the  power  to  impose  on 
them,  and  to  protect  itself  against  the  waste  with  which  its 
treasury  was  continuously  threatened.  The  two  tresoriers 
gSniraux  existing  under  Philip  the  Fair,  one  of  the  Temple, 
the  other  of  the  Louvre,  rendered  their  accounts  to  the  king 
himself.  One  finds  in  the  Bibliotheque  Nationale  the  journal, 
written  in  Latin,  of  one  of  these  treasurers  for  the  years  1298 
to  1307  with  detailed  entries,  day  by  day,  of  all  expendi- 
tures and  all  receipts.  It  is  one  of  the  rare  original  financial 
documents  of  the  time  which  we  possess.*  But  the  con- 
trol was  much  strengthened  when  Philip  the  Fair,  by  the 
ordinance  of  April  20,  1309,  transformed  the  Chambre  aux 
Deniers  into  the  Chambre  des  Comptes,  and  when  the  latter 
was  definitely  organized,  under  the  reign  of  Philip  the  Fair, 
by  the  ordinance  of  July  13,  1318.t 

Now,  what  are  the  laws  of  accounting  and  comptroUing 
but  the  natural  frame-work  of  financial  statistics?     When  it 

*See  Glasson,  loc.  cii.  Vol.  VL  p.  92. 

t  The  organization  of  the  Chambre  des  Comptes  was  completed  and  strengthened 
by  the  celebrated  ordinance  of  May  26,  1413,  after  the  revolt  of  the  Cabochiens. 
One  may  find  on  this  subject  interesting  details  in  the  thoroughly  documented 
book  by  M.  Coville,  Les  Cabochiens  et  I'ordinance  de  H13.  (Book  I,  Ch.  Ill  and 
Book  IV,  Ch.  II.) 


FRANCE  235 

is  a  question  of  receipts  and  expenditures,  whether  ordinary 
or  extraordinary,  temporary  or  permanent,  it  is  impossible 
to  set  them  down  in  the  account  books  and  to  make  a  peri- 
odic statement  of  them  to  an  authority  invested  with  the 
power  of  supervision,  without  giving  an  enumeration  of 
them.  That  is  true  in  our  time.  It  could  not  be  otherwise 
in  the  period  we  are  considering. 

The  next  question  is  what  was  the  value  of  these  financial 
enumerations  and  the  statistical  doquments  to  which  their 
results  had  to  be  consigned?  A  very  small  number  of  these 
documents  have  come  down  to  us,  which  is  very  natural,  if 
one  remembers  that  they  were  relatively  rather  rare,  that 
they  were  strictly  confidential,  and  that  in  the  absence  of 
archives  their  preservation  was  not  well  insured.  At  the 
same  time  we  may  believe  that  their  quality  was  very  medio- 
cre. Everything  conspired  to  falsify  the  figures  of  financial 
statistics  in  this  period  from  the  fourteenth  century  to  the 
sixteenth  which  was  constantly  confused  by  war,  foreign  war 
and  civil,  and  in  which  over  the  head  of  our  kings  the  real 
sovereign  was  almost  always  anarchy.  Those  who  disposed 
of  public  revenues,  the  comptrollers  (comptables)  and  the 
paymasters  (ordonnateurs),  for  they  had  been  separated  as 
early  as  the  fourteenth  century,  were  often  dishonest. 
Examples  of  their  malversations  were  numerous.  The 
Chambre  des  Comptes  itself  was  sometimes  their  accomplice.* 
Its  heads  and  clerks  did  not  hesitate  to  alter  the  figures  when 
they  saw  a  chance  of  profit. 

And  when  the  figures  furnished  were  not  falsified  by  those 
who  had  set  them  down,  they  were  often  falsified  by  those 
who  had  to  make  use  of  them.  They  were  often  falsified  by 
the  king  himself.  And  here  are  two  examples  borrowed  from 
the  history  of  the  Etats  G6n6raux  held  at  Tours  in  1484. 
The  receipts  from  the  domain  of  Normandy  were  put  at  22,000 
livres;  a  deputy  from  the  province  rose  to  declare  that  there 
were  in  the  assembly  people  ready  to  put  it  at  40,000.  The 
province   of    Burgundy   reported    annually   80,000   livres. 

*  See  Glasson,  loc.  dt.  Vol.  VI,  pp.  124  and  126. 


236  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

The  representative  of  the  king  ascribed  to  it  a  revenue  of 
18,000. 

The  figures  were  falsified  also  by  the  contemporaneous 
publicists  who  tried  to  rouse  public  opinion  about  the  de- 
plorable administration  of  the  finances  of  the  state  and  who 
succeeded,  thanks  to  the  indiscretions  of  the  king's  officials, 
in  rescuing  from  the  mystery  with  which  they  were  sur- 
rounded scattered  fragments  of  budgets  and  accounts.  For 
it  is  in  the  diatribes  of  the  opponents  of  royal  power  and 
not  in  the  original  and  authentic  documents  that  we  find 
the  rare  data  of  financial  statistics  of  this  period. 

One  of  the  most  curious  books  in  this  respect,  which  saw 
the  light  during  the  second  half  of  the  sixteenth  century 
(1581)  and  which  it  is  fitting  to  mention  in  the  history  of 
French  statistics,  is  Le  Secret  des  Finances  de  France  dScou- 
vert  et  dSparti  en  trois  livres,  by  Nicolas  Froumenteau.  It 
reveals  to  us  at  the  same  time  the  importance  and  the 
defects  of  financial  statistics  in  this  unhappy  period  of  the 
history  of  our  country.  It  is  rich  in  figures,  even  the  figures 
which  the  king  had  refused  to  communicate  to  representa- 
tives of  the  Etats  held  at  Blois  in  1577,  and  the  author  finds 
there  at  once  proof  of  the  marvelous  richness  of  France 
and  of  the  extravagances  committed  to  the  detriment  of  the 
royal  treasury.  But  it  is  difficult  to  take  them  seriously. 
Froumenteau  carefully  refrains  from  indicating  the  source  of 
them  just  as  he  takes  care  not  to  let  us  know  his  real  name,* 
and  he  renders  them  suspect  by  the  unrestrained  passion 
with  which  he  makes  use  of  them.  Under  his  pen  the  figures 
become  a  political  weapon  and  they  seem  intended  to  con- 
trovert rather  than  to  explain.  His  work  has  nothing  in 
common  with  "one  of  the  first  methodical  essays  in  statis- 
tics" which  Maurice  Blockf  found  it  to  be.     It  is  not, 

*  The  probable  author  of  the  Secret  des  Finances  de  France  is  a  protestant  publicist, 
Nicolas  Bamaud  du  Crest,  who  occupied  an  impoitant  place  in  his  party.  (See 
Noutelle  Biographie  Universelie, — ^Didot — ,  Vol.  18,  p.  952.) 

t  See  TraiU  Thiorique  el  Pratique  de  Siatistigue,  2d  Edit.,  p.  34. 


FRANCE  237 

moreover,  as  Baudrillart  called  it,*  "the  real  point  of  depart- 
ure of  the  history  of  French  statistics."  And  we  refuse  to 
admit  with  M.  Espinasf  that  the  Frenchman  of  the  six- 
teenth century,  hidden  under  the  pseudonym  Froumenteau, 
is  "the  first  who  knew  how  to  handle  the  instrument  par 
excellence  of  political  economy,  statistics."  Le  Secret  des 
Finances  is  the  work  of  a  politician,  not  that  of  a  statistician. 
It  is  a  pamphlet,  full  of  spirit,  to  be  sure,  and  full  of  truth 
at  bottom,  aimed  at  the  odious  and  scandalous  administra- 
tion of  the  Valois.     It  is  not  a  statistical  document. 

Demographic  Statistics 

Between  the  first  years  of  the  fourteenth  century  and  the 
end  of  the  sixteenth,  enumeration  of  the  French  population, 
as  we  practice  it  today,  was  wholly  unknown.  But  in 
default  of  enumerations  of  individuals,  there  were  enumera- 
tions of  groups,  such  as  towns,  villages  and  parishes,  families 
and  households.  The  enumeration  of  households  is  far 
the  most  frequent  and  also  very  probably  the  most  carefully 
done.  The  household,  indeed,  was  not  only  a  demographic 
unit,  it  was  also  a  fiscal  unit;  it  was  not  only  a  home  (foyer), 
a  menage,  it  was  a  quota  of  taxation,  and  upon  it,  even 
before  they  became  permanent  and  obligatory,  were  imposed 
the  subsidies  demanded  by  the  king. 

"Etats  de  subsides"  was  the  name  given  to  documents  to 
which  were  consigned  the  results  of  enumerations  of  parishes 
and  households  undertaken  in  the  territory  of  the  royal 
<lomain  with  a  view  to  establishing  direct  imposts  gathered 
for  the  benefit  of  the  king  in  the  time  when,  in  order  to  get 
them,  he  had  to  appeal  to  the  good  will  of  the  contributors, 
"They  were  tax-lists  rather  than  statistics  of  population," 
^ays  Emile  Levasseur.  J  We  beg  the  learned  master's  pardon. 
Statistics  of  population  were  the  basis  of  the  Stats  de  subsides. 
No  doubt  the  purpose  behind  it  was  fiscal  rather  than  demo- 

*  See  Dea  TMories  PoUtiques  et  des  IdSes  Economique)  au  XV lime  aUcle,  p.  87, 
«nd  to  the  same  effect,  Levasseur,  La  Population  Frangaise,  Vol.  I,  p.  55. 
t  See  Histoire  des  Doctrines  Economiques,  p.  166. 
%  See  La  PojndaHon  Frarmaise,  Vol.  I,  p.  169,  note  2. 


238  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

graphic.  But  that  did  not  alter  the  nature  of  it.  It  was 
population  statistics  as  they  were  then  understood  and 
practiced. 

The  Mats  de  subsides  were  drawn  up  as  need  might  arise, 
by  functionaries  called  " Commissaires"  du  rai.  They  were 
not  periodic,  and  that  is  easy  to  understand  because  up  to 
1439  only  exceptional  circumstances  justified  the  demand 
for  subsidies.  Some  applied  to  the  entire  kingdom,  with  its 
divisions  and  subdivisions  into  bailiwicks,  sSnSchaussSes, 
seigneuries  (chdtellenies),  shires  (vicomtSs)  and  cities;  others 
applied  only  to  one  of  these  divisions  and  subdivisions. 
The  more  extensive  were  naturally  the  more  infrequent. 
Their  contents  were  not  fixed  in  an  invariable  fashion. 
The  number  of  parishes  and  households,  the  figure  of  re- 
ceipts to  be  collected  seem  to  be  the  minimum  of  data  which 
we  find  gathered  together  in  them.  In  certain  manuscripts* 
it  is  a  question  of  the  name  of  the  inhabitants  and  an  esti- 
mate of  their  property.  But  it  could  only  be  a  question  of 
the  heads  of  the  households  and  their  patrimony. 

Dureau  de  la  Malle  discovered  in  1829,  among  the  manu- 
scripts in  our  Archives  Nationales  and  in  our  Bibliotheqtie 
Nationcde,  the  text  of  an  Stat  de  subside  drawn  up  in  the 
course  of  the  first  half  of  the  fourteenth  century,  probably 
on  the  occasion  of  the  Flemish  war,  under  the  title:  "C'est 
la  manihre  comme  le  subside  jut  fait  pour  I'ost  (armSe)  de 
Flandre  et  que  il  Tnonta;  ce  qu'on  peut  trouver  par  les  contes 
rendus";^  it  constitutes,  together  with  the  memoranda  of  the 
intendants  of  the  last  years  of  the  seventeenth  century,  a 
capital  document  of  demographic  statistics  under  the  ancient 
rigime,  though  it  belongs  to  a  time  when  imposts  had  not 
yet  become  permanent  and  obligatory.  There  is  difference 
of  opinion  as  to  what  date  ought  to  be  assigned  to  it.  Some 
refer  it  back  to  the  year  1328,  and  others  to  the  year  1345.^ 

*  See  the  manuscript  cited  by  Levasseur  (loc.  dt.)  relating  to  the  legistiation  of 
the  assessments  (rSpartition)  of  the  households  of  Castel  Sarrozin,  1414. 

t  "This  is  the  way  the  subsidy  was  made  for  the  host  (army)  of  Flanders  and 
what  it  amounted  to;  which  can  be  found  in  the  accounts  rendered" — Tr. 

t  See  Dureau  de  la  Malle,  MSmoires  de  I'AcadSmie  des  Inscription  et  Belles  Lettres, 


FRANCE  239 

But  that  is  a  small  matter  and  does  not  detract  from  the 
interest  presented  by  the  figures  which  we  find  there,  those 
for  the  parishes  and  those  for  the  households,  between  1304 
and  1345,  in  the  territory  which  then  constituted  the  royal 
domain  and  which  equalled  about  half  the  actual  area  of 
France.  These  figures  are  given  separately  by  chdtellenies 
and  towns  for  the  vicomtS  of  Paris,  by  bailiwicks  and  sSnS- 
chatissSes  for  the  rest  of  the  realm.  They  amount  in  total 
to  24,150  for  the  parishes  and  2,411,149  for  the  households. 
They  are  and  can  be  only  approximate,  but  they  are  by  far 
the  most  trustworthy  that  we  have,  and  it  is  going  too  far 
to  pretend  with  M.  d'Avenel  that  they  ought  to  be  con- 
sidered "of  no  value  from  the  point  of  view  of  population" 
or  to  speak  with  Moreau  de  Jonn^s  of  "their  unbelievable 
results"  (leur  incroyables  rSsuUats). 

What  diminishes  their  value,  but  without  destroying  it, 
is  the  extreme  difficulty  which  one  finds  in  basing  on  them 
a&vestimate  of  the  figure  for  the  total  population  of  the 
epoc^  In  the  first  place,  indeed,  we  have  no  way  of  know- 
fib^  ^^ctly  how  many  persons  made  up  a  household.  It 
■migr^  run  from  one  or  two  persons  to  five  or  six  or  even 
more,  according  to  whether  it  consisted  of  a  celibate  or  of  a 
numerous  family,  and  as  for  discovering  a  plausible  average 
figure,  we  shall  have  to  give  that  up,  for  we  lack  every  ele- 
ment necessary  for  a  serious  calculation.  Even  those  who 
will  not  give  it  up,  and  they  are  many,  must  recognize  that 
the  composition  of  a  household  varied  according  to  the 
period  and  in  the  same  period  according  to  the  district.* 

Vol.  14,  2d  Part,  p.  36. — Moreau  de  Jonn^,  Etat  Economique  et  Social  de  la  France 
de  1589  d  1716,  p.  26. — ^Levasseur,  La  Population  Frangaise,  Vol.  I,  p.  15S  and  ff. — 
D'Avenel,  Histoire  Economique  de  la  PropriMi,  des  Salairea,  des  DenrSes  et  de  tous  let 
Prix  en  G6n(ral  de  Pan  1200  a  Van  1800,  Vol.  3,  p.  429  ,and  S. — Vintry,  Etudes  aur  le 
Regime  FinawAer  de  la  France  avant  1789,  Vol.  II,  p.  7  and  ff. 

*  On  the  number  of  persons  included  in  a  household  one  can  read  with  profit, 
besides  the  passages  from  Levasseur  and  M.  d'Avenel  which  we  have  just  cited: 

1.  The  extended  explanations  of  the  word  Feux,  by  I'abbi  Expilly  in  the  3d  Vol. 
of  his  great  Dictionnaire  GSographique,  Historique  et  Politique  des  Gaules  et  de  la 
France  (6  Vol.  in-folio,  1761-1767); 

2.  All  the  fourth  chapter  of  the  third  book  of  I'Economie  Politique  duMoyen- 


■240  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

And  we  know,  in  the  second  place,  that  not  all  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  country  were  accounted  for  in  the  division 
into  households.  The  nobles  and  priests  did  not  figure  there 
nor  did  the  villeins  and  serfs  who  had  less  than  ten  livres 
parisis,  those  whom  today  we  call  paupers  (indigents). 
Now,  we  cannot  say,  even  approximately,  what  in  the  course 
of  the  fourteenth  century  was  the  number  of  these  different 
categories  of  people. 

In  default  of  figures  furnished  by  the  Mats  de  subsides  we 
have  for  the  fifteenth  century  and  for  the  second  half  of  the 
sixteenth  those  that  we  find  in  certain  writings  of  the  epoch. 
But  they  generally  err  by  evident  exaggeration.  Such 
writings  are:  those  of  the  historian  who  wrote,  in  the  Grand 
Chroniques  de  France,  the  history  of  the  reign  of  Charles  VI 
(1380-1422),  and  who  mentions  a  count  of  the  year  1404 
which  attributes  to  France  1,700,000  towns  and  villages;* 
those  of  Louis  Boulenger,  author  of  a  pretended  cadastre  of 
France,  ordered  by  Charles  IX,  in  1570,  who  estimated  the 
number  of  towns  and  villages  at  130,000  and  the  number  of 
households  at  25,000,000  ;t  those  of  Nicolas  Froumenteau 
who  reduces  the  number  of  households  to  4,000,000,  but  who 
raises  the  number  of  "paroisses  cm  clochiers"  to  132,000. 

So  it  seems  that  one  ought  to  refuse  to  follow  the  learned 
men  of  our  time  who  pretend  to  calculate  fairly  accurately 
either  the  figure  for  the  total  population  of  France  during 
the  three  centuries  which  we  are  considering,  or  the  figure 
for  the  population  of  certain  cities,  notably  Paris.f  It  is 
with  these  figures  as  it  is  with  those  in  which  certain  authors 
pretend  to  give  us,  year  by  year,  from  1200  to  our  own  time. 

Age  by  Cibrario,  Vol.  II,  pp.  125-136  of  the  French  translation  by  Bareaud. — 
According  to  the  Italian  economist,  the  household  in  France,  of  the  first  half  of  the 
fourteenth  century  must  have  included  at  least  six  persons;  this  number  might 
increase  to  seven  in  the  great  cities,  such  as  Milan,  Paris,  London,  and  even  to  eight 
in  the  university  cities. 

*  See  Moreau  de  JonnSs,  loc.  cU.  pp.  16-17. 

t  See  Moreau  de  Jonnds,  loc.  dt.  pp.  11-13. 

t  See,  on  the  population  attributed  to  Paris  and  on  the  very  divergent  figures 
'which  have  been  proposed:  Dupre  de  Saint-Maur,  Essai  sur  lea  Monnaieg  (1746), 
pp.  59-63. — Levasseur,  loc.  cit.  Vol.  I,  pp.  154  ff. — D'Avenel,  loc.  cit.  pp.  430  ff. 


FRANCE  241 

the  price  of  corn,  of  bread,  of  cultivable  land,  of  houses.* 
All  these  tables  of  prices,  dating  back  to  the  Middle  Ages, 
are,  at  least  for  the  period  between  1200  and  1600,  ingenious 
but  uncertain  constructions.  They  have  only  the  appearance 
of  genuine  historical  documents.  Instead  of  relying  on  the 
sure  data  of  regular  enumerations,  they  are  made  up  with 
the  aid  of  isolated  figures,  drawn  from  the  most  diverse 
sources,  which  are  most  often  the  expression  of  an  opinion 
rather  than  of  an  established  fact.  It  is  well  to  be  especially 
distrustful  of  them  when  they  contain  averages  of  the  sort 
that  M.  d'Avenel  offers  us  in  Vol.  II,  pp.  882-914,  of  his 
learned  work,  Histoire  Economique  de  la  PropriitS,  des 
Denries,  des  Salaires  et  de  tous  les  Prix  en  GinSral.  Prices 
from  the  thirteenth  century  to  the  eighteenth  do  not  lend 
themselves  to  averages;  their  extreme  diversity  either  in 
time  or  in  space  makes  the  computing  of  averages  impos- 
sible. 

Statistics  of  population  are  not  Uxnited  to  the  enumeration 
of  the  inhabitants  of  a  country.  They  extend  to  the  facts 
which  determine  and  variate  the  figure  for  the  population, 
to  marriages,  births  and  deaths.     But  in  order  for  statistics 

*  Not  only  in  France  but  also  in  England  works  of  thb  sort  have  been  often  under- 
taken.   We  shall  confine  ourselves  to  citing  for  England: 

1.  The  tables  published  by  Fleetwood,  bishop  of  Ely,  in  his  Chronicon  preiioaum, 
printed  in  London  in  1707,  covering  the  years  from  1494  to  1706,  and  continued  by 
G.  Warden  from  1706  to  1740,  by  warrant  of  an  Act  of  Parliament. 

2.  The  numerous  figures  which  one  finds  in  the  two  works  of  Thorold  Rogers, 
Histoire  de  V Agriculture  et  det  Prix  and  Histoire  du  Travail  et  des  Salaires  en 
Angleterre. 

3.  The  tables  of  prices,  beginning  with  the  year  1401,  which  Thomas  Tooke 
inserted  or  cited  in  the  fifth  volume,  pp.  345-443,  of  his  great  work.  History  of 
Prices  1793  to  1866  (6  Vol.  1858).  See  Tooke's  observations  on  the  value  of  these 
tables,  very  different  in  the  different  periods,  p.  347. 

For  France: 

1.  The  table  of  "variations  arrivies  dans  le  prix  de  diverses  choses  pendant  le  eours 
des  cinq  demiers  siicles  lS0S-17iS,"  published  in  I'essai  sur  les  Monnaies  de  1746, 
by  Dupr6  de  Saint-Maur. 

i.  The  table  of  prices  of  the  setier  of  com  (Paris  measure)  by  Germain  Gamier, 
inserted  at  the  end  of  Vol.  I  of  the  Recherehes  sur  la  Nature  et  les  Causes  de  la  Richess 
des  Nations  by  Adam  Smith. 

3.  The  tables  of  prices  which  fill  Vol.  II  (914  pp.)  of  the  great  work  of  M.  d'Avenel. 

17 


242  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

to  arrive  at  these  facts,  it  is  necessary  that  they  be  regularly 
verified.  Here  statistics  are  bound  up  with  civil  legislation, 
and  on  its  progress  they  depend  for  their  progress.  Now, 
throughout  the  Middle  Ages  and  up  to  the  beginning  of  the 
sixteenth  century  our  civil  legislation  does  not  contain  a 
single  statute  concerning  the  establishment  of  the  facts  in 
regard  to  what  we  call  les  actes  de  I'itat-civil.  In  this  matter 
civil  legislation  in  France  has  been  preceded  and  prepared 
for  by  the  usages  and  regulations  of  a  religious  character. 
It  is  not  connected  by  any  bond  of  affiliation  with  the  process 
of  enumerating  births  and  deaths  which  we  find  applied  in 
Greece  and  Rome  from  the  most  remote  times. 

The  practice  of  registering  marriages  and  deaths  appears 
for  the  first  time  at  the  beginning  of  the  fourteenth  century 
in  certain  regions  of  Burgundy.  The  reason  for  it  was  not 
to  verify  civil  acts  in  themselves  but  to  register  the  payment 
of  sums  due  the  curates  on  the  occasion  of  their  intervention 
in  the  accompHshment  of  these  acts.  A  century  later,  in 
1406,  in  the  Statutes  of  the  Bishop  of  Nantes,  Henri  le 
Barbu,  registrations  of  baptisms  are  mentioned  for  the  first 
time.  Their  purpose  was  to  furnish  proof  of  the  bonds  of 
kinship  existing  between  the  persons  involved  and  to  render 
possible  the  sanction  of  the  rules  of  Canonical  Law  which 
prohibited  the  marriage  of  relatives. 

It  is  not  until  1539  that  the  action  of  royal  power  began  to 
be  felt  in  this  domain  and  that  the  ordinance  of  Villers- 
Cotterets  came  to  require  of  the  curates  the  keeping  of  regis- 
ters of  baptism.  This  measure  was  sanctioned  and  even 
extended  to  marriages  in  1563,  by  the  Council  of  Trente. 
And  it  was  definitely  consecrated  in  1579,  by  the  ordinance 
of  Blois  which  for  the  first  time  set  down  in  article  181  the 
rules  applicable  to  the  keeping  of  three  registers,  of  baptisms, 
of  marriages  and  of  burials* 

So,  beginning  at  this  date,  one  possessed  the  essential 
elements  of  statistics  of  the  actes  de  V etat-dvil.    But  the 

*  See  VioUet,  Histoire  du  Droit  Franiais,  2d  Edit.,  pp.  454  ff. — and  Planiol, 
Traiti  EWnmiaire  de  Droit  Civil,  4th  Edit.,  Vol.  I,  pp.  168  ff. 


FRANCE  243 

utilization  of  those  statistics  was  destined  to  wait  a  long 
time.  If  from  the  sixteenth  century  some  enlightened  spirits 
understand  and  demonstrate  the  great  usefulness  of  enu- 
merations of  the  population,  their  way  of  looking  at  it  remains, 
in  this  regard,  without  influence  on  the  conceptions  and 
methods  of  public  authorities. 

III.     Statistics  in  France  in  the  Seventeenth  and  Eighteenth 

Centuries 

The  great  investigations  of  Sully,  at  the  beginning  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  those  of  Colbert  in  the  middle  and 
toward  the  end  of  the  centm-y,  those  of  the  Intendants,  from 
which  result  the  first  official  documents  of  general  statistics 
in  France,  the  creation,  in  the  eighteenth  century,  of  statis- 
tics of  the  actes  de  I'etat  civil  and  of  some  specialized  depart- 
ments of  statistics,  and  finally  the  publicity  given  to  the 
financial  statistics  of  the  monarchy,  these  were  the  cardinal 
points  in  the  development  of  statistics  in  France  between 
1595  and  1800,  between  Sully,  minister  of  Henry  IV,  and 
Lucien  Bonaparte,  minister  of  Napoleon. 

But  this  development  no  longer  finds  its  sole  explanation 
in  the  needs  of  an  administration  with  an  incessantly  in- 
creased field  of  activity,  or  even  in  the  necessity  of  rescuing 
France  from  some  violent  and  prolonged  crisis  of  anarchy, 
as  was  the  case  in  1595,  in  1661  and  in  1798;  part  of  the 
explanation,  and  there  is  a  great  new  fact  which  it  is  well  to 
underhne,  is  to  be  found  in  the  movement  of  thought  and 
in  the  doctrines  which  took  shape  toward  the  middle  of  the 
second  half  of  the  sixteenth  century,  under  the  double  in- 
fluence of  ideas  surviving  from  Greco-Roman  antiquity  and 
of  the  desire  to  find  a  remedy  for  the  abuses  and  misdeeds  of 
the  unhappy  government  of  the  Valois.  These  doctrines 
were  expounded  for  the  first  time,  with  an  extraordinary 
abundance  of  arguments,  at  once  sohd  and  subtle,  by  Jean 
Bodin,  in  1577,  in  his  immortal  work,  Les  Six  Livres  de  la 
RSpublique  (Bk.  VI,  Ch.  1),  and  we  shall  find  them,  forty 
years  later,  in  the  TraitS  d'Economie  Politique  published  by 


244  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Montchrdtien  in  1615.  They  can  be  summed  up  thus:  the 
uses  of  the  enumeration  of  subjects  and  of  their  revenues 
are  infinite;  they  aflford  the  means  of  insuring  the  defense  of 
the  country  and  the  peopUng  of  the  colonies,  of  rendering 
more  clear  the  juridic  condition  of  individuals,  of  knowing 
"de  quel  estat  chacun  se  mesh  et  quel  mestier  il  exerce"  (to 
what  social  rank  each  one  belongs  and  what  is  his  occupa- 
tion), of  driving  out  vagabonds,  loafers,  robbers,  ruflSans 
who  live  in  the  midst  of  respectable  people,  of  providing  for 
the  just  grievances  of  the  poor  against  the  rich,  of  laying  and 
collecting  equitably  the  "thousand  kinds  of  imposts"  which 
existed  then  and  which  "the  ancients  never  knew,"  of 
abolishing  the  extortions  of  the  officials,  "who  distribute 
and  equalize  taxes,  subsidies  and  imposts,"  and  finally  of 
"putting  an  end  to  all  rumors,  appeasing  all  complaints, 
quieting  all  movements,  suppressing  all  occasions  for 
riot."* 

Although  it  is  impossible  to  give  a  strict  proof,  it  is  in- 
finitely probable  that  all  the  great  statistical  works  of  the 
seventeenth  century,  the  great  investigations  of  Sully  and  of 
Colbert,  the  editing  of  the  memoranda  of  the  Intendants,  were 
undertaken  under  the  inspiration  of  Jean  Bodin  and  Anthoyne 
de  Montchretien.  Sully  could  not  ignore  Bodin.  Colbert 
had  certainly  read  Montchretien.  And  when  Fenelon  taught 
the  Duke  of  Burgundy  the  usefulness  of  enumerations,  when 
he  placed  in  the  mouth  of  the  mentor  who  instructed  Bang 
Idomeneus  a  complete  program  of  general  statistics,  it  is 
the  strong  thought  of  Bodin  and  Montchretien  that  he 
expressed. 

Sully  and  Statistics 

Sully  entered  the  Conseil  du  roi  in  1596  and  he  became  su- 
perintendent of  finance  in  1599.    Administrative  anarchy 

*  See  Jean  Bodin,  Les  Six  lAvres  de  la  Ripvblique,  Bk.  VL  Ch.  1. — De  la  Censure, 
pp.  878-888;  de  Montchretien,  TraitS  d'Eeonomie  Politique,  Bk.  IV — De  I'exemple 
et  dea  soins  prineipaux  du  prince,  pp.  345-353  of  the  edition  Funk-Breutano. — De 
Montchretien  has  confined  himself  to  summing  up,  by  reproducing  them  often 
textually  but  without  ever  citing  them,  the  results  of  Jean  Bodin. 


FRANCE  245 

and  "graft"  (dilapidations)  in  the  departments  of  finance 
surpassed  anything  that  we  can  imagine.  The  public 
revenues  were  in  the  hands  of  an  army  of  officials  whose 
ability  and  honesty  alike  left  much  to  be  desired.  Expenses 
were  much  greater  than  receipts.  A  small  part  of  the  re- 
ceipts found  their  way  to  the  Treasury.  The  public  debt, 
so  far  as  it  could  be  calculated,  exceeded  330  million  livres, 
more  than  a  billion  francs  in  our  money,  truly  a  formidable 
figure  for  that  time. 

To  bring  order  out  of  this  chaos,  that  was  the  mission 
entrusted  to  Sully,  and  these  were  the  first  measures  by 
which  he  tried  to  fulfill  it.  He  wanted  to  have  a  detailed 
tabulation  and  an  accurate  inventory  of  all  the  debts  and 
all  the  revenues  of  the  king,  with  a  list  of  all  those  officers  of 
the  crown,  civil,  military,  judiciary,  of  the  police  and  of  the 
departments  of  finance  which  it  might  be  deemed  necessary 
to  keep.  But.  how  arrive  at  this  except  by  enumerations 
and  figures?  We  know  the  program,  the  object,  the  aim  of 
the  enumerations  which  were  made  at  this  time.*  We  know 
even  how  they  were  carried  out.  Long  and  minute  inves- 
tigations were  made  by  Sully  himself  and  by  his  secretaries, 
in  the  provinces  as  well  as  in  Paris,  in  all  the  registers  and 
documents  of  the  treasurers,  receivers  and  Chambres  des 
Comptes.  But  what  were  the  statistical  results?  We  do 
not  know.  We  have  only  the  right  to  suppose  that  they 
did  not  give  complete  satisfaction  to  Sully.  One  thing  that 
would  tend  to  prove  this  is  that  in  trying,  in  a  memorandum 
of  which  his  secretaries  give  us  the  complete  text,  to  deter- 
mine by  figures  the  situation  to  which  he  should  have  to 
apply  his  efforts,  he  takes  care  to  remark  that  he  confines 

*  Numerous  figures  and  a  throng  of  details  on  this  subject  are  given  to  us  in  the 
work  which  is  usually  known  under  the  title  Les  Economies  royales  de  SvUy,  and  of 
which  the  exact  title  is  MMnoires  des  Sages  el  Royales  Economies  d'Estat  de  Henry  le 
Grand.  The  eight  volumes  in  -8°  which  these  memoirs  fill  are  part  of  the  Col- 
lection des  M&moires  relative  to  the  history  of  Prance  from  the  accession  of  Henry 
rV  to  1763.  They  are  the  work  of  obscure  secretaries  who  mingle  their  stories  and 
reflections  with  the  notes,  memoirs,  reports  and  letters  of  Sully  and  Henry  IV. 
They  are  hard  to  read  but  very  instructive. 


246  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

himself  to  estimating  (evcduer),  "being  impossible  to  compute 
{supputer)  anything  with  accuracy."* 

However  that  may  be,  when  these  first  researches  were 
once  completed.  Sully,  in  a  letter  of  April  1, 1607,  demanded 
all  the  financial  accounts  from  1598  to  1607.  After  he  had 
received  them,  taking  his  inspiration  from  the  verifications 
which  he  could  make  by  them,  he  decided,  in  agreement  with 
the  king,  to  reform  the  whole  French  system  of  public 
accounts.!  The  drawing  up  of  new  statistical  statements, 
the  number  of  which  reached  25,  was  made  obUgatory  on  the 
occasion  of  the  estabUshment  of  the  brevet  gSniral  of  taxes 
(taille)  for  1609. J  Then  to  crown  his  work  of  restoring  to 
health  the  finances  of  the  king  by  methodically  conducted 
investigations.  Sully  resolved  to  create  a  Cabinet  d' Archives, 
intended  to  centraUze  and  preserve  all  the  documents  which 
might  henceforth  constitute  a  record  of  an  administration 
that  had  become  at  once  clearer  and  surer.  Twice  at  least 
in  the  Economies  Royales,  Sully's  secretaries  mention  the 
new  institution.  §  They  do  it  with  such  discretion  that  we 
may  well  believe  that  they  did  not  understand  the  importance 
of  it.  Its  creation,  however,  is,  in  the  history  of  French 
statistics,  one  of  the  facts  which  deserve  not  to  be  forgot- 
ten. 

But  when  Sully  left  his  post  in  1611,  his  method  was 
abandoned.  However  vigorous  and  well  conducted  his 
work  had  been,  it  did  not  last  long  in  circumstances  hostile 
to  the  thought  that  inspired  it;  it  perforce  remained  too 
superficial  and  fragile  to  survive  him.  Of  his  Cabinet  d^ Ar- 
chives, notably,  in  a  short  time  nothing  more  was  heard. 
His  successors,  Richelieu  and  Mazarin,  absorbed  by  the 

*  See  Economies  Scales,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  218-224. 

t  See  Economies  Royales,  Vol.  VII,  pp.  353-357. 

X  See  Economies  Royales,  Vol.  VIII,  pp.  4-23.  The  brevet  g&niral  of  taxes  (faiUe) 
had  to  do  only  with  the  personal  tax.  It  was  the  annual  table  in  which  the  king 
fixed  six  months  in  advance  the  total  amount  of  the  iaiUe  for  all  parts  of  the  country 
where  it  was  optional.  There  was  none  for  the  districts  where  the  taiUe  was  com- 
pulsory. 

§  See  Vol.  lU,  p.  218,  and  Vol.  VHI,  pp.  73-86. 


PRANCE  247 

task  of  realizing  at  any  cost  their  vast  political  schemes, 
were  much  more  bent  on  wresting  the  royal  finances  from 
the  control  of  the  States-General  than  on  maintaining  by 
regular  enumerations  the  correctness  and  clarity  dear  to 
Henry  IV.  So  that  less  than  ten  years  after  Henry's  death, 
the  extravagances  had  begun  again  in  full  swing,  most  of  the 
financial  officials  being  released  from  the  regulations  of 
Sully.  Disorder  was  at  its  height  under  Mazarin,  and  dur- 
ing the  first  years  of  the  reign  of  Louis  XIV,  from  1643  to 
1661.  And  when  Colbert  entered  the  Conseil  des  Finances, 
in  1661,  when  he  became  Controleur  giniral  in  1665,  the 
situation  which  he  found  resembled,  so  closely  that  one  can 
hardly  tell  the  difference,  that  which  Sully  had  found  in 
1595.* 

Colbert  and  Statistics 

Like  Sully,  Colbert  had  recourse  to  statistics,  first  to 
clarify,  then  to  reform,  to  measure  the  extent  of  the  evil 
before  applying  a  remedy. 

The  enumerations  of  Colbert  were  made  by  maitres  des 
requites  sent  into  all  the  provinces  and  equipped  with  instruc- 
tions which  were  drawn  up  by  Colbert  in  September,  1663. 
The  inquiry  was  not  confined  to  financial  operations.  It 
was  to  extend  to  all  parts  of  the  administration,  to  the  clergy 
as  well  as  to  officials  of  every  degree,  to  commerce,  to  manu- 
factures and  even  to  the  spirit  and  temper  of  the  people  of 
each  province.! 

Two  subjects  especially  attracted  Colbert's  attention,  and 
on  these  he  did  not  cease  to  ask  of  the  intendants  information 
which  could  not  come  without  numerical  tables,  without 
statistics;  one  was  the  distribution  of  the  personal  tax  {repar- 

*  In  1620,  10  treasurers  of  the  Savings  Department  (I'Epargne),  more  than  100 
receivers-general,  more  than  120  tax-farmers  (fermiers)  and  as  many  collectors 
(traitants)  who  should  have  sent  their  accounts  in  every  three  months,  had  not 
rendered  them  for  five  years.  In  1665,  la  Chamhre  de  Justice,  instituted  by  Colbert 
against  the  traitants,  found  the  responsible  agents  guilty,  for  a  period  of  only  six 
months,  of  384  millions  of  falsified  statements  and  forged  accoimts.  (See  Victor 
Duruy,  Chrmwhgie  de  I' Atlas  Historique  de  la  France,  pp.  241  and  254.) 

t  See  Clement,  Lettres,  Instructions  et  Mimoires  de  Colbert,  Vol.  II,  pp.  2  fif. 


248  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

tition  des  tailles)  and  the  abuses  which  it  entailed,  the  other 
was  population,  its  number  and  movement. 

He  wrote  in  1680,  apropos  of  the  tailles,  "As  that  is  the 
matter  in  which  the  most  abuses  can  be  committed,  it  is 
also  that  to  which  the  most  attention  has  been  given  and  is 
always  given."  These  abuses  resulted  from  the  unjustified 
extension  of  exemptions  enjoyed  by  certain  categories  of 
persons,  the  ecclesiastics,  the  nobles,  the  oflBcers  of  the  king. 
From  the  month  of  March,  1666,*  he  had  a  warrant  issued  for 
the  search  of  those  who,  to  escape  payment  of  the  tailles, 
usurped  titles  of  nobility.  And  he  required  that  a  statement 
of  the  exempt  be  sent  to  him  regularly,  as  he  wished  to  know 
the  extent  of  the  frauds  committed  by  the  accounting  officers 
and  discovered  by  the  Chambre  de  Justice.  On  this  subject 
one  should  read  his  great  memoir  of  1663  on  financial  affairs.f 

And  as  for  the  population,  it  is  not  only  with  the  just  ap- 
portionment of  taxes  that  he  is  concerned.  In  1663  mor- 
tahty  had  been  great  in  the  financial  district  of  Tours.  Col- 
bert, in  a  letter  of  April  6  addressed  to  the  intendant,  asks  for 
"the  number  of  inhabitants  compared  with  the  number  three 
or  four  years  ago."  Also,  in  a  letter  of  September  16,  1672, 
he  questions  the  intendant  of  Alengon  about  the  causes  of  the 
increase  and  the  diminution  of  population.f  But  the  most 
important  measure  in  the  matter  of  demographic  statistics 
at  this  time,  the  honor  of  which  belongs  to  Colbert,  is  the 
publication,  for  the  City  of  Parip,  beginning  with  the  year 
1670,  of  the  number  of  actes  de  VHat-ciml  (baptisms,  births* 
burials)  which  the  curates  of  all  the  parishes  of  France  were 
obliged  to  register  after  the  ordinance  of  Villers-Cotterets 
(1539)  and  of  Blois  (1579).  If  the  statistics  of  the  actes  de 
I'Stat  civil  show,  in  France  of  the  eighteenth  century,  the  re- 

*  See  Clement,  loc.  cit.  Vol.  I,  Ch.  VIII:  les  tailles;  and  Bailly,  Hisioire  Finaneitre 
de  la  France,  Vol.  I,  pp.  428-129. — Colbert  was  planning  to  suppress  the  peisonal 
tax  in  the  pays  d'Slection  (countries  where  it  was  optional? — Tr.)  and  to  substitute 
the  property  tax  based  on  a  firmly  established  assessment,  when  death  overtook 
him. 

t  See  Lettres,  Instructions  et  MSmoires,  Vol.  II,  pp.  17-67. 

i  See  Lettres,  Instructions  et  Mimmres,  Vol.  II,  p.  5  and  pp.  251-252. 


FRANCE  249 

markable  development  of  which  we  shall  speak  presently, 
we  owe  it  entirely  to  the  happy  initiative  of  Colbert.* 

We  may  say  that  in  the  hands  of  Colbert,  as  in  the  hands 
of  Sully,  statistics  were  the  essential  instrument  with  which 
these  two  great  ministers,  sixty  years  apart  and  in  strikingly 
analogous  circumstances,  succeeded  in  reestablishing  order 
in  the  public  finances  and  prosperity  in  the  national  economy 
of  France. 

But  Colbert  was  more  fortunate  than  Sully.  He  was  in 
power  longer  and  he  succeeded  in  rooting  his  method  deeply 
enough  in  the  administrative  methods  of  the  monarchy  to 
impose  the  following  of  that  method  on  his  successors. 
Whereas  Sully's  work  disappeared  with  him,  Colbert's  sur- 
vived him.  It  was  continued  and  to  some  extent  devel- 
oped by  the  series  of  30  contrdleurs  ginSraux  who  were  in 
oflBce  from  1683  to  1789.  From  1662  Colbert  directed  his 
efforts  especially  to  building  up  solidly  all  that  has  to  do  with 
the  Archives,  the  final  organization  of  which,  due  to  his  far- 
seeing  purpose,  has  been  so  valuable  in  preserving  the  sta- 
tistical documents  of  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  cen- 
turies.f 

The  Successors  of  Colbert  and  Statistics 

Pontchartrain,  the  immediate  successor  of  Colbert,  made 
great  efforts  to  insure  the  preservation  of  municipal  archives 
and  those  of  the  Intendances.  The  man  who  did  perhaps 
more  than  anyone  else,  with  the  help  of  his  faithful  commis 
de  cdntrole,  Malet,  both  for  the  establishment  of  financial 
statistics  and  for  the  preservation  of  documents  in  the 
archives  of  the  department  of  Finance,  is  Desmarets,  who 
was  contrdleur  gSnSral  in  1708.  After  him  mention  should 
be  made  of  the  contrdleurs  giniraux,  Marchault  d'Arnouville, 

*  We  have,  thanks  to  Colbert,  the  statistics  of  VStat-cimi  for  Paris  from  1670.  We 
lack  the  figures  from  1684  to  1709.  But  we  have  them  again  continuously  from 
1709  to  our  time;  See  on  this  subject,  Levasseur,  La  Population  Frangaise,  Vol.  I, 
pp.  248-249. 

t  See  for  fuller  details  the  AvanUPropos  by  BoislDe  in  Vol.  I  of  the  Correspondence 
des  Contrdleurs  Giniraux  des  Finances  avec  lea  Iniendants  des  Provinces. 


250  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

de  Silhouette  and  Bertin.  The  first  allowed  Forbonnais  to 
draw  from  the  archives  of  the  Contrdle  giniral  all  the  numer- 
ous statistical  elements  of  his  Recherches  et  ConsidSrations  sur 
les  Finances  de  la  France  depuis  I'annSe  1595  jusqu'd,  I'annee 
1721.  The  second  created  "la  bibliotheque  des  Finances." 
The  third  conceived  the  idea,  new  and  original  at  that  time, 
of  having  detailed  notes  gathered  in  all  the  courts  of  Europe 
concerning  "les  impositions  et  droits"  existing  in  the  different 
countries.  From  these  notes  were  drawn  up  rnhnoires  which 
constitute  the  oldest  document  of  Legislation  et  de  Statistique 
financieres  comparees*  which  is  to  be  found,  not  only  in 
France,  but  in  any  country. 

The  MSmoires  of  the  Intendants 

"Les  MSmoires  des  Intendants,"  says  Levasseur,t  con- 
stitute "the  most  considerable  and  the  most  complete  docu- 
ment which  we  possess  on  the  economic  and  administrative 
condition  of  ancient  France  and  the  only  general  view  of 
French  population  before  1780  which  has  an  official  char- 
acter." There  is  no  fault  to  find  with  this  judgment  of  our 
learned  historian  of  French  demographic  statistics. 

The  Memoires  des  Intendants  are  32  in  number,  one  for 
each  of  the  32  provinces  or  g6neralites  into  which  the  France 
of  Louis  XIV  was  divided.  Each  one  of  them  is  a  sort  of 
monograph  of  a  province.  Their  object  is  as  general  as 
possible.  To  convince  oneself  of  this  one  has  only  to  read 
the  questionnaireX  which  served  as  a  program  and  plan,  and 
the  title  of  the  three  folio  volumes  in  which  the  due  de  Bou- 
lainvillier  made  a  resume  of  them  in  1711.  § 

*  The  editing  of  these  M&moires  Concemant  les  Impositions  et  Droits  en  Europe, 
which  were  published  in  1768,  was  entrusted  to  the  intendant  des  Finances,  Moreau 
de  Beaumont. 

fSee  La  Population  Frangaise,  Vol.  I,  p.  202. 

i  See  the  collection  of  MSmoires  des  Intendants,  the  publication  of  which  was  en- 
trusted to  M.  de  Boislile,  in  1876,  by  the  Minister  of  Public  Instruction.  Vol.  I, 
Mhnoire  de  la  Oeneralite  de  Paris,  pp.  2-3. 

§  This  is  the  title  of  the  work:  Etat  de  la  France  dans  lequel  on  vait  tout  ce  qui 
regarde  le  gouvernement  eccUsiastique,  le  militaire,  la  Justice,  les  Finances,  le  Com- 
merce, les  Manufactures,  le  nombre  des  habitants  et  en  gSniral,  tout  ce  qui  pent  faire 


FRANCE  251 

They  were  composed,  in  the  course  of  the  years  1698, 1699 
and  1700,  on  a  questionnaire  drawn  up  by  the  due  de  Beau- 
villier  in  consultation  with  Fenelon,  and,  doubtless,  with 
Vauban.  We  know  that  the  due  de  Beauvillier  was  tutor 
of  the  Duke  of  Burgundy  and  Fenelon  was  his  instructor. 

Without  ever  having  been  sharply  defined,  the  object 
of  the  inquiry  directed  to  the  intendants  regarding  the  con- 
dition of  their  giniraliUs  can  easily  be  conjectured.  It  was 
in  reality  threefold.  The  first  purpose  was  to  instruct  the 
dauphin  in  matters  essential  to  the  good  government  of 
France.  The  second  purpose  was  to  enlighten  Louis  XIV, 
who  was  beginning,  after  a  reign  of  more  than  thirty  years, 
to  have  misgivings  as  to  the  success  of  his  government  and 
the  prosperity  of  his  kingdom.  And  another  object  was  to 
try  to  find,  in  an  enumeration  of  the  people,  a  fiscal  instru- 
ment the  lack  of  which  had  been  sadly  felt  in  1694  and  1695, 
when  Pontchartrain  had  wanted  to  try  to  establish  a  new 
poll-tax  {impot  de  capitation).* 

The  contents  of  the  M6moires  can  be  divided  into  two 
parts,  the  purely  descriptive  part  and  the  statistical  part. 
But  the  second  is  more  important  than  the  first.  It  is  by 
figures,  first  of  all,  that  Louis  could  be  enlightened  as  to  the 
fatal  results  of  his  incessant  wars  and  of  the  revocation  of  the 
Edict  of  Nantes,  and  that  the  dauphin  could  also  be  in- 
structed. This  was  especially  true  as  regards  population. 
Population,  then,  was  one  of  the  dominant  preoccupations 
of  the  authors  of  the  questionnaire  addressed  to  the  intendants 
toward  the  end  of  1697.  This,  in  effect,  is  what  we  find  in 
the  questionnaire :'\  "Number  of  towns;  number  of  men, 
about,  in  each;  number  of  villages  and  hamlets;  total  of 

eonnaitre  d  fond  cette  monarchie, — Extrait  des  memoires  dressSs  par  les  intendants  du 
royaume  par  ordre  du  roi  Louis  XIV  h  la  soUidtation  de  Mgr.  le  due  de  Bourgoyne. 

*  Very  interesting  details  relating  to  the  enumerations  which  were  attempted  on 
the  occasion  of  this  tax  can  be  found  in  the  excellent  study  of  the  Capitation  dans 
des  pays  de  taiUe  personelle  by  Georges  Larde  (Paris,  1906),  see  pp.  86-45  and 
209-213. 

t  We  possess  two  manuscript  copies  of  the  text  of  this  questionnaire.  See  de 
Boislile,  Mimoire  de  la  GenSralitS  de  Paris,  p.  3,  No.  1. 


252  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

parishes  and  of  souls  in  each.  Consult  the  old  registers  to 
see  if  the  people  were  more  numerous  formerly  than  today; 
causes  of  the  decrease;  if  there  were  Huguenots  and  how 
many  of  them  have  gone  away."  And  this  is  how  Fenelon 
expressed  himself  in  his  Directions  pour  la  conscience  d'un 
roi:*  "It  is  not  enough  to  know  the  past;  it  is  necessary  to 
know  the  present.  Do  you  know  the  number  of  men  that 
compose  your  nation:  how  many  men,  how  many  women, 
how  many  laborers,  how  many  artisans,  how  many  mechan- 
ics (praticiens),  how  many  tradesmen,  how  many  priests 
and  monks,  how  many  nobles  and  soldiers?  What  would 
one  say  of  a  shepherd  who  did  not  know  the  number  of  his 
flock?  It  is  as  easy  for  a  king  to  know  the  number  of  his 
people.     He  has  only  to  wish  to  know." 

How  was  this  capital  document  of  French  statistics  of 
the  seventeenth  century  prepared? 

The  data  which  we  find  there  were  brought  together  by 
the  cooperation  of  all  the  departments  of  administration 
which  then  existed,  the  supreme  head  of  which,  in  each  prov- 
ince, was  the  intendant. 

The  intendant  was  in  his  province,  in  all  matters  of  public 
policy,  justice  and  finance,  the  word  policy  (police)  being 
taken  in  its  broadest  sense,  the  holder  of  all  authority.  He 
was,  as  they  used  to  call  him,  "I'homme  du  roi."t  He  was 
also,  it  is  necessary  to  add,  the  man  of  the  contrSleur  geniral 
des  Finances,  who  was,  next  to  the  king,  the  real  ruler  of 
France.  It  was  to  him  alone  that  the  contr61eur  applied  to 
get  all  the  information  and  all  the  figures  that  he  needed. 
And  in  turn  the  intendant  applied  to  the  many  agents  under 
his  orders,  to  no  one  of  whom,  moreover,  was  especially 
assigned  the  task  of  enumeration.  So  that  those  who  have 
most  thoroughly  studied  the  administrative  organization 
of  the  French  monarchy  have  never  failed  to  pay  their 

*  See  Article  1,  §  9. 

t  On  the  origin  and  on  the  great  rdle  played  by  the  intendants  of  the  prov- 
inces or  gSrUraliUs  see  the  substantial  pages  devoted  to  them  by  Brissaud. 
Histoire  G&nirale  du  Droit  Frangais  Public  et  Privi,  Vol.  I,  pp.  844-850. 


FRANCE  253 

respects  to  the  service  which  the  intendants  rendered  to  the 
science  of  statistics.  "The  principal  sources  for  statistical 
studies  of  France,"  writes  M.  Ardascheff,*  "before  the  Revo- 
lution, are  to  be  sought  in  the  archives  of  the  intendants  de 
'province.  The  intendants  have  rendered  considerable  serv- 
ice in  the  work  of  statistics."  That  is  quite  true.  But  the 
learned  Russian  professor  goes  so  far  as  to  declare  "that 
they  were,  in  France,  the  real  founders  of  this  science": 
in  which  he  is  mistaken,  for  he  simply  forgets  Bodin  and  de 
Montchretien,  Sully  and  Colbert,  not  to  speak  of  F6nelon 
and  Vauban.f  By  the  nature  and  universality  of  his  func- 
tions, the  intendant  lived  in  the  midst  of  numbers.  Head  of 
the  departments  of  taxation  and  finance,  first  in  authority 
over  the  raising  and  maintenance  of  the  military  forces, 
over  public  works,  agriculture,  industry  and  commerce,  over 
religious  ceremonies  and  public  attendance,  he  could  not 
accomplish  a  single  act  without  making  statistics,  gathering 
them  together  and  using  them  as  data.  It  is  through  him 
that  in  the  eighteenth  century,  statistics  of  population, 
economic  statistics  and  financial  statistics  came  together. 

Among  the  collaborators  of  the  intendant  in  the  field  of 
statistics  one  of  the  administrative  agents  of  the  time  de- 
serves special  mention,  we  mean  the  chief  of  the  parish,  the 
curate.l  The  cure  holds  a  great  place  in  the  history  of 
statistics  under  the  ancient  regime.  The  ordinance  of  Vil- 
lers-Cotterets  had  made  him  a  veritable  officer  of  the  civil 
state.  In  this  capacity  he  had  to  draw  up  a  summary  of 
marriages,  births  and  deaths.  It  was  moreover  his  duty  to 
publish  and,  as  it  were,  promidgate  the  acts  of  the  authorities 
by  reading  them  from  the  pulpit.  Finally,  he  was  often 
entrusted  with  the  carrying  out,  in  his  parish,  of  the  detailed 

*  See  Les  Intendants  de  Province  sous  Louis  XVI,  by  Paul  Ardascheflf,  Professor  of 
the  University  of  Kiev,  tr.  by  Jousserandot,  1909,  pp.  383-385. 

t  See,  in  particular,  on  the  part  played  by  Vauban,  in  the  preparation  of  the 
Tn&moire  de  I'Intendant  de  la  g&niralitS  de  Paris,  de  Boislile,  Introduction  au  Mimoire 
de  la  GenSralitS  de  Paris,  pp.  IV  and  V. 

J  On  the  administrative  functions  of  the  cur^s  see  Brissaud,  Histoire  Q6nkale  du 
Droit  Fransais  Public  et  Privi,  Vol.  I,  pp.  861  flE. 


254  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

enumerations  necessitated  by  the  imposing  of  certain  taxes. 
Thus,  for  example,  by  two  circulars  of  October  31  and  No- 
vember 26,  1694,  relative  to  "I'etahlissement  proposS  d'une 
capitation,"  the  controleur  giniral  Pontchartrain  requested 
the  intendants  to  ask  the  cures  for  "  le  dHail  des  paroisses  de 
leur  generaliU."  And  the  intendant  of  Paris  complied  with 
this  request  by  addressing  to  the  curSs  of  his  gSnSralite  a 
scheme  of  enumeration,  the  framework  of  which  included  no 
less  than  16  columns  corresponding  to  16  differ ent  numerical 
data  bearing  upon  persons,  taxes  and  incomes.*  No  doubt 
the  moral  authority  of  the  curi  was  counted  on  to  insure  the 
accuracy  of  the  enumeration.f 

The  remaining  consideration  is,  what  is  the  value  of  the 
figures  which  we  find  in  the  Mimoires  of  1698? 

Their  quality  varies  widely.  It  is  seldom  good  and  often 
bad.  They  are  most  often  the  result  of  more  or  less  sound 
estimates  rather  than  of  exact  proofs.  And  that  is  due  to 
causes  which  persist  to  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century — 
to  the  habitual  mediocrity  of  the  subordinate  oflScers  of 
French  administration  in  this  period,  and  to  the  particular 
difficulties  then  presented  by  most  of  the  enumerations,  in 
consequence  of  the  insufficient  means  of  communication, 
especially  in  winter,  and  also  because  of  the  resistance,  fre- 
quent and  difficult  to  overcome,  which  the  people  made  to 
all  the  investigations  of  authorized  officials. 

The  figures  are  defective  not  only  in  point  of  quality,  but 
in  uniformity.  Uniformity,  it  would  seem,  ought  to  have 
been  insured  by  the  unity  of  the  program  outlined  by  the 
due  de  Beauvillier.  But  there  was  none.  The  program  was 
far  from  being  understood  and  carried  out  in  the  same  way 
by  all  the  intendants.  Some  give  the  number  of  inhabi- 
tants; others  give  only  the  number  of  households.  Among 
the  first,  some  give  the  number  of   all  the  inhabitants! 

*  See  de  Boislile,  M&moire  de  la  GenSralitS  de  Paris,  pp.  5S2-6S3. 

t  This  authority  was  not  always  efficacious.  We  are  told  that  sometimes  when 
the  cui£  wished  to  read  at  the  parochial  mass  (au  prone)  the  instructions  addressed 
to  him  by  the  intendant,  most  of  the  parishioners  left  the  church.  See  de  Boislile, 
Nouvelle  iditum  des  m&moires  de  Saint-Simon,  Vol.  IL  P-  461. 


FRANCE  255 

while  others  exclude  certain  classes  of  peoples.  Among  the 
second,  some  count  all  the  households,  others  count  only 
the  taxable  households,  and  some  take  the  figures  from  the 
lists  of  the  Capitation  of  1695.  And  this  doubtless  explains 
the  severity  with  which  the  Mimoires  were  judged,  even  by 
contemporaries,  notably  by  the  Count  de  Boulainvilliers.* 
This  severity  is  perhaps  "excessive"  as  Levasseurf  thinks, 
but  it  is  certainly  merited  in  our  opinion,  at  least  in  great 
measure. 

The  Mhnoires,  according  to  the  custom  of  the  times  in  the 
matter  of  official  documents,  remained  in  manuscript  and 
secret.  However,  under  the  increasing  pressure  of  opinion, 
the  mystery  which  was  supposed  to  surround  them  was  often 
penetrated.  Numerous  copies  were  made.  Of  the  mSmoire 
of  the  gSniralitS  of  Paris,  M.  de  Boislile  has  counted  27  manu- 
scripts and  he  thinks  there  were  more.  How  many  readers 
does  that  figure  indicate?  It  is  impossible  to  say.  But 
the  number  was  certainly  very  high.  Official  statistics  then 
had  all  the  attraction  of  forbidden  fruit.  And  this  explains, 
no  doubt,  the  fascination  which  statistics  had  for  certain 
spirits,  for  example.  Abbe  de  Dangeau,  whom  Boislile,  not 
without  some  exaggeration,  has  characterized  as  the  "pre- 

*  Speaking  of  the  Mimoire  of  the  ggn£ralit£  of  Paris,  Boulainvilliers  says:  "Its 
tedious  prolixity,  its  useless  and  continual  digressions  would  have  disgusted  me  for- 
ever with  reading  such  things,  if  I  had  not  reflected  that  from  this  chaos  and  others 
like  it  it  was  not  impossible  to  extract  some  knowledge  which,  digested  in  another 
way,  might  be  incomparably  useful  not  only  to  me  and  my  associates  but  to  the 
public."  He  reproaches  the  intendant  of  Bouen,  "for  not  having  entered  into  the 
details  of  families,  of  lands,  of  taxes,  for  having  neglected  to  make  known  various 
imposts  (impositions  diverses),  for  having  confined  himself  to  talking  about  the 
poverty  of  the  people."  "The  pitiful  author  of  this  m&moire,"  he  says,  of  the 
mSmoire  of  Poitou,  "  cannot  be  acquitted  of  many  serious  faults."  And  as  for  the 
mSmoire  of  Bordeaux,  "that,"  he  says,  "is  really  one  of  the  most  imperfect  that 
have  been  drawn  up  in  the  provinces." 

The  Abb6  de  Saint-Pierre,  more  moderate  and  just  than  Boulainvilliers,  confined 
himself  to  seeking  for  the  means  "  of  having  better  m4moires  des  intendances  than 
those  which  were  sent  to  the  court  by  the  intendants  in  1698  and  1699." — See 
MSmoire  sur  le  Gouvernement  InterieuT  de  I'Etat,  Oeuvres  completes  de  1733,  Vol.  VII, 
p.  259. 

t  See  La  Population  Frangaise,  Vol.  I,  p.  202. 


256  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

curseur  de  la  Statistique,"*  but  who  was  at  least  the  most 
remarkable  amateur  of  his  time,  if  one  judges  by  the  224 
manuscripts  of  his  in  our  Biblioth^que  Nationale.^  And  the 
publicity  given  to  the  figures  by  the  manuscripts  which 
were  passed  from  hand  to  hand  was  nothing  to  what  they 
received,  in  1707,  1709,  and  1727,  from  certain  books,  such 
as  La  Dime  Royale  (The  Royal  Tithes)  of  Vauban,  Le  dinom- 
brement  de  la  France  par  geniralitis,  Elections,  paroisses,  et 
feux  by  Saugrain,  I'Etat  de  la  France  by  Count  de  Boulain- 
villiers,  in  spite  of  the  severe  condemnations  pronounced 
against  some  of  them  and  in  spite  of  the  necessity  that  the 
authors  were  under  of  having  them  printed  secretly  or 
abroad.l 

Demographic  Statistics 

As  in  oiu:  time,  but  for  different  reasons,  the  question 
of  population  was,  during  the  eighteenth  century,  one  of 
the  dominant  objects  of  interest  of  the  public  authorities 
and  of  the  enlightened  spirits  which  at  that  time  shaped 
opinion. 

Much  is  written  today  about  the  causes  of  the  decline  of 
the  birth  rate  and  the  means  of  remedying  it.  Even  more 
perhaps  was  written  in  the  eighteenth  century  on  the  ques- 
tion of  determining  what  was  the  figure  for  the  population  of 
France.  Some  put  it  high,  others  put  it  low;  some  thought 
it  to  be  increasing,  others  thought  it  to  be  diminishing.  § 

The  public  authorities  were  interested  in  the  population, 
its  status  and  movement,  with  the  sole  purpose  of  obtaining 
larger  and  larger  military  and  fiscal  resources.  The  writers 
sought  in  the  increase  or  decline  of  the  number  of  inhabitants 
the  touchstone  of  the  prosperity  of  France,  and  consequently, 

*  See  de  Boislile,  La  Gfydraliti  de  Paris,  Introd.,  p.  LVII. 

t  See  Biblioihkgue  Naiionah  (Manuscrits  franQais,  Vols.  22593-22817). 

i  Boulainvilliers  was  printed  in  London  and  Vauban  was  printed  secretly  at 
Rouen. 

§  Among  them:  Votius  attributed  to  France  15,000,000  inhabitants,  the  Marquis 
de  Mirabeau  in  I' Ami  des  Homines  or  Trail6  de  la  Population  put  the  figure  at 
18,000,000,  and  Montesquieu  reduced  it  to  14,000,000,  at  the  same  time  declaring 
that  France  could  support  50,000,000. — See  Oeuwes  inedits.  Vol.  I,  p.  180. 


FRANCE  257 

that  of  the  virtues  and  vices  of  the  royal  administration  and 
of  the  absolute  monarchy  itself,  which  many,  as  early  as  the 
middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  had  already  ceased  to  re- 
gard as  eternal  and  irrefragable. 

Both  parties  needed  statistics  to  satisfy  their  legitimate 
curiosity.     How  were  they  to  be  arrived  at? 

Not,  any  more  than  for  the  preceding  centuries,  by  general 
enumerations  applied  to  the  entire  population  counted  head 
by  head.  Such  enumerations  were  not  made  until  the 
nineteenth  century.  Until  the  end,  the  administration  of 
the  ancient  regime,  which  concealed  so  much  weakness 
under  the  appearance  of  strength  lent  to  it  by  the  absolute 
power  of  the  king,  felt  itself  powerless  to  undertake  them. 
Of  the  32  intendants,  authors  of  the  MSmoires,  twelve  con- 
fined themselves  to  counting  the  popidation  by  a  census  of 
households,  fifteen  borrowed  their  figures  from  the  tax 
registers  and  from  the  Capitation  of  1695,  four  or  five,  notably 
those  of  Paris  and  Languedoc,  dared  to  try  direct  enumera- 
tion, head  by  head.  And  the  most  remarkable  of  the  in- 
tendants of  the  eighteenth  century,  de  la  Michodi^re,  who 
hides  under  the  name  of  Messance,  and  de  Montyon,  who 
hides  under  the  name  of  Moheau,  men  who  left  justly  cele- 
brated writings  on  the  subject  of  population,*  are  unani- 

*  The  title  of  Messance 's  book  is  Recherches  sur  la  population  dea  gMraliUs 
d'Auvergne,  de  Lyon,  de  Rouen,  et  de  guelques  provinces  el  villes  du  royaume  avec  des 
Tiflexions  sur  la  valeur  du  hied  tant  en  France  qu'en  Angleterre  de  167i  ct  176i.  It  is 
dated  1766  and  was  written  at  the  beginning  of  1765.  The  name  of  Messance  is 
followed  by  the  title:  receveur  des  taiUes.  Barou  Grimm,  one  of  the  best  informed 
men  of  his  time,  presents  Messance  to  us  as  the  secretary  and  proxy  (jwlte-nom) 
of  the  intendant  Michodifere.  "This  opinion  is  not  supported  by  proofs,"  says 
Levasseur  {La  Population  Franqaise,  Vol.  I,  p.  215).  True,  but  it  is  so  likely  that 
one  caimot  hesitate  to  admit  it. 

The  book  signed  "Moheau"  has  a  more  general  scope  than  that  of  Messance;  it 
is  entitled:  Recherches  et  considerations  sur  la  population  de  la  France;  it  is  dated 
1778,  but  to  judge  from  the  date  of  the  epistle  to  the  king,  it  was  written  in  1774. 
We  have  set  forth  elsewhere  the  various  reasons  which  warrant  us  in  ascribing  the 
work  to  M.  de  Montyon  (La  SocOU  de  Statistique  de  Paris,  p.  XXIII,  and,  to  the 
same  effect,  M.  Ardaschefl,  Les  Intendants  de  Province  sous  Louis  XVI,  p.  178). 
And  we  cannot  help  clinging  to  our  opinion  in  spite  of  serious  objections  which  have 
been  raised  by  our  learned  colleague  M.  Ren6  Gounard  in  the  Notice  which  he  put 
at  the  beginning  of  the  new  edition  (Paris,  1912)  of  the  book  signed  "Moheau." 
IS 


258  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

mous  in  regarding  direct  enumeration  as  an  enterprise  so 
diflScult  and  expensive  that  it  seemed  to  them  unreasonable 
to  try  it.  Necker  expressed  the  same  thought  in  1784,* 
and  also  the  Chevalier  des  Pommelles,  in  his  Tableau  de  la 
Population  de  toutes  les  Provinces  de  France^  published  in 
1789.  "There  does  not  exist  and  there  never  has  existed 
any  general  enumeration  of  the  kingdom,"  says  the  Chevalier 
des  Pommelles  (p,  45),  summing  up  very  well  what  de  la 
Mochodiere,  de  Montyon  and  Necker  had  said  before  him. 
"An  enumeration  of  individuals  which,  at  first  glance,  seems 
such  an  easy  thing,  not  only  would  be  expensive,  but,  when 
one  considers  it,  presents  so  many  difl&culties  in  carrying  it 
out  that  one  must  doubt  even  the  possibility,  above  all  the 
carrying  out  of  such  an  operation.  The  people  have  so 
many  prejudices  against  such  an  enumeration  that  in 
1786  the  provincial  Assembly  of  Auch  was  obliged  to 
stop  it  in  the  province  on  account  of  the  disturbance  it 
caused.  It  will  take  a  long  time  to  inspire  enough  confi- 
dence in  the  people  to  cure  them  of  their  prejudices  in  this 
respect." 

Such  was  the  opinion  of  men  in  the  best  position  to  know 
the  machinery  of  French  administration  in  the  eighteenth 
century  and  to  appreciate  the  value  of  the  means  at  its 
disposal  to  make  general  enumerations.J  Necker  and  des 
Pommelles  were  no  more  influenced  than  the  intendants 
by  the  sharp  remark  of  Saint-Simon  who  speaks,  with  his 
acrimonious  livehness,  "of  those  impious  enumerations 
which  have  always  outraged  the  Creator  and  drawn  the 
weight  of  His  hand  on  those  who  have  had  them  made  and 

*  See  De  I' Administration  des  Finances  de  la  France,  Vol.  1,  pp.  202-221. 

t  The  book  by  the  Chevalier  des  Pommelles,  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  fifth  regi- 
ment, d'Mat-major  (Paris,  1784)  is  twofold.  It  includes,  1st,  a  Mknoire  sur  ha 
Milices,  2d,  a  Tableau  de  la  poj/ulation  de  toutes  les  provinces  de  France  et  de  la  pro- 
portion sous  tous  les  rapports  des  naissances,  des  marts  and  des  mariages,  depuis  dix  ans, 
d^apris  les  registers  de  chaque  g&rUralM. 

%  Is  it  true,  as  we  are  told,  apropos  of  the  M&moire  de  la  g&n6ralitS  de  Paris,  pub- 
lished by  Boislile,  that  the  military  was  ordered  to  make  a  complete  enumeration  of 
the  g^^ralite,  house  by  house,  with  the  names  of  the  inhabitants,  men,  women  and 
children?    We  doubt  it. 


FRANCE  259 

almost  always  earned  startling  punishments."*  They  simply 
judged  as  men  accustomed  to  live  in  contact  with  reality 
and  practical  necessity. 

If  F^nelon  could  say  that  it  was  as  easy  for  a  king  to  know 
the  number  of  his  subjects  as  for  a  shepherd  to  know  the 
number  of  his  flock,  if  Vauban  could  propose  a  system  by 
which  could  be  completed  "without  confusion  and  with  ease, 
in  twice  tWenty-four  hours,  all  the  enumerations  which  it 
might  please  the  king  to  make  of  his  people"!  it  was  because 
these  great  and  generous  spirits,  inspired  above  all  by  their 
love  of  public  welfare,  were  not  afraid  to  demand  in  their 
day  something  that  could  not  be  realized  until  a  century 
later. 

But  if  French  administration  in  the  eighteenth  century  did 
not  dare  approach  a  poll  enumeration  of  the  population  of 
the  entire  kingdom,  it  frequently  made  one  limited  either 
to  several  selected  localities  or  to  a  definite  category  of 
persons.  By  combining  the  results  thus  obtained  with  those 
of  certain  other  enumerations,  it  succeeded  in  getting  the 
figure  for  the  total  population  of  France  with  that  degree  of 
accuracy  which  satisfied  de  Montyon  when  he  wrote:  "The 
Statesman  who  wishes  to  know  the  strength  of  the  population 
of  a  country  needs  only  the  approximate  figure,"J  and  he 
arrives  at  it,  he  adds,  by  "computing  from  the  facts  which 
have  a  constant  necessary  relation  with  the  population." 

The  particular  facts  and  materials  available  for  use  in 
calculating  the  figure  for  the  total  population  were  numerous 
enough.  De  Montyon  cites  eight  of  them,  births,  marriages, 
deaths,  the  consumption  of  certain  products  {consommations), 
parishes,  houses,  §  households,  the  quotas  of  capitation.     One 

*  See  the  new  edition  of  the  M&moires  by  de  Boislile,  Vol.  XX,  pp.  167  and  574. 

t  La  Dime  Royale  {petite  edit.  Gaillaumin),  pp.  177-178. 

X  Recherches  et  considerations  svr  la  'population,  (edit.  1778),  p.  23. 

§  One  may  find  an  attempt  to  calculate  the  population  of  Fans,  on  the  basis  of 
the  figures  for  the  annual  consumption  of  coin  and  the  number  of  houses,  in  I'Easai 
sur  les  Monnaies  by  Dupre  de  Saint-Maur,  master  of  accounts,  economist,  academi- 
cian, and  father  of  the  intendant  de  Guienne  who  was  one  of  the  great  intendants  of 
the  eighteenth  century.    See  p.  59  ff. 


260  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

may  add  the  Easter  communions.  But  from  the  middle 
of  the  eighteenth  century  it  was  commonly  agreed  to  adopt 
"the  least  uncertain  index,"  as  Necker  calls  it,  "that  which 
is  supplied  by  the  number  of  births."  "Since  births," 
says  de  Montyon,  "are  the  product  of  population,  and  since 
in  a  certain  period,  they  renew  the  mass  of  it,  then  they  have 
such  a  necessary  relation  to  it  that  they  can  be  taken  as  the 
measure  of  it." 

How  was  this  measure  determined?  How  in  the  eight- 
eenth century  was  the  population  of  France  counted?  By  a 
method  which  the  intendants  de  la  Michodiere  (Messance) 
and  de  Montyon  (Moheau),  and  Necker  and  des  Pommelles 
have  described  for  us  with  great  precision. 

Suppose  an  intendant  wished  to  know  the  figure  for  the 
population  of  his  g^niraliU.  He  began  by  selecting  a  certain 
number  of  parishes,  taking  care  to  group  districts  of  different 
character,  "so  that  different  conditions  may  be  combined 
and  balance  each  other  (forment  compensation),"*  and  in 
those  districts  made  a  poll  enumeration.  In  each  of  the 
parishes  thus  enumeratedf  the  total  number  of  inhabitants 
was  compared  with  the  mean  number  of  births  for  the  six 
preceding  years.  The  comparison  was  made  by  dividing 
the  first  by  the  second.  The  resulting  quotient  was  very 
variable,  no  doubt  according  to  locality,  because  it  swung 
between  the  extreme  limits  of  21  and  32  inhabitants  to  one 
birth,  but  it  was  reduced  to  an  average  figure  carefully  cal- 
culated. This  average  figure  was  applied  to  every  gSnSralitS. 
Suppose  it  was  25  inhabitants  to  a  birth; J  they  multiplied 
by  25  the  mean  annual  number  of  births  in  every  gSnSralitS 

*  See  de  Montyon  (Moheau),  Recherches  et  considSraiions,  pp.  32-46. 

t  The  number  of  parishes  in  which  a  poll  enumeration  was  made  was  fixed  arbi- 
trarily by  the  intendant.  The  glnlraliUpi  Rouen  comprised  1,885  parishes  in  1762, 
a  year  when  they  were  trying  to  determine  its  total  population.  A  poll  enumeration 
was  made  in  105  parishes.  In  1757,  in  the  Election  of  Saint-Flour  (Province  of  Au- 
vergne),  the  number  of  parishes  polled  {tete  par  tete)  was  17  out  of  148. 

i  That  was  the  expression  at  that  time  of  what  we  now  call  the  birth  rate  (nataliii) 
and  which  we  express  by  saying  that  there  are  so  many  births  to  100,000  or  10,000 
inhabitants.  Twenty-five  inhabitants  to  one  birth  gave  a  birth  rate  of  40  to  1000 
inhabitants. 


FRANCE  261 

and  fancied  that  they  had  the  figure  for  its  total  popu- 
lation. 

From  the  population  of  a  giniraliti  to  that  of  France  was 
only  a  step.  They  took  it  in  two  ways.  The  simplest  con- 
sisted in  adding  the  figures  obtained  in  all  the  gineralitis. 
However,  that  is  not  the  method  that  was  usually  followed. 
They  preferred  to  calculate  and  adopt  for  the  whole  of  France 
a  mean  ratio  of  the  number  of  births  to  the  number  of  in- 
habitants, and  then  multiply  the  total  number  of  births  in 
France  by  the  figure  expressing  this  ratio.  It  is  thus  that 
de  Montyon,*  multiplying  928,918  births,  the  average 
figure  for  the  five  years,  1769  to  1773,  by  25^,  attributed  to 
France  "about  23,500,000  or  24,000,000  inhabitants"  in 
1774,  and  that  Necker.f  multiplying  963,207  births,  the 
average  figure  for  the  five  years,  1776  to  1780,  by  24f ,  ar- 
rived, for  the  year  1781,  at  the  figure  of  24,802,500  individuals. 
The  Chevalier  des  Pommelles,  by  analogous  calculations, 
arrives  at  a  slightly  higher  figure.  "I  have  gone  over  the 
whole  kingdom,"  he  says;  "I  have  had  the  registers  of  all 
the  intendances  drawn  oflf;  I  have  made  or  verified  all  the 
calculations  myself;  after  that,"  he  adds,  not  without  a 
certain  naive  pretentiousness,  "I  believe  I  can  be  sure  that, 
in  the  actual  state  of  things,  the  estimate  of  25,065,883  is 
the  most  certain  that  can  be  made."  J 

When  it  was  decided,  in  the  eighteenth  century,  to  make  a 
poll  count  of  the  inhabitants  of  a  certain  number  §  of  parishes, 
of  very  different  types  and  of  very  unequal  importance,  the 
opportunity  was  usually  taken  advantage  of  to  make  rather 
detailed  enumerations.  To  th^se  enumerations  we  owe  most 
interesting  numerical  data  on  the  composition  of  the  French 
population  in  the  eighteenth  century,  both  from  the  point 

*  See  de  Montyon  (Moheau),  loc.  eit.  pp.  64-70. 

t  See  Necker,  loc.  eit.  Vol.  I,  p.  207  and  pp.  222-320,  where  Necker  gives  the 
figures  for  the  population,  imposts,  area  of  each  gMraliU,  of  Corsica  and  the  col- 
onies. 

J  See  des  Pommelles,  loc.  dt.  p.  47. 

§  This  number  did  not  reach  quite  6  per  cent,  of  the  total  number  of  parishes  in 
the  gfnh'aliU  of  Rouen,  but  it  exceeded  13  per  cent,  in  the  gMraliU  of  Auvergne. 


262  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

of  view  of  sex  and  family  relations  {Hat-dvil)  and  from  the 
point  of  view  of  age,  social  categories  and  professions,* 
which  we  find  either  in  the  manuscript  collections  of  our 
Archives  and  our  Bibliothtque  Nationale,  or  in  the  works  of 
contemporaries,  Vauban  and  Saugrain,  the  Abbe  d'Expilly, 
of  the  intendants  de  la  Michodiere  and  de  Montyon,  of  the 
contrdleur  genSral  Necker,  of  the  Chevalier  des  Pommelles, 
and  of  the  last  chief  of  the  Bureau  de  la  balance  du  commerce, 
under  the  monarchy,  Arnould,  or,  finally,  in  the  first  docu- 
ments published  in  1835  and  in  1837  by  the  Bureau  de  la 
Statistique  generale  de  la  France. 

The  eighteenth  century,  it  is  true,  based  the  enumeration 
of  the  total  population  on  the  enumeration  of  the  acts  of 
marriage,  birth  and  death.  So  it  is  not  surprising  that  it 
tried  to  strengthen  the  guaranties  of  accuracy  of  the  first 
and  to  improve  constantly  the  conditions  of  the  second. 

The  sixteenth  century  had  seen  the  beginning  of  com- 
pulsory registration  of  the  actes  de  Vetat-dvil  (birth,  death, 
etc.).  The  seventeenth  century  had  completed  the  ordi- 
nances of  1539  and  1579  by  imposing,  in  the  ordinance  of 
1667  on  procedure,  the  keeping  of  these  registers  in  dupli- 
cate. In  spite  of  that  the  statistical  use  of  them  was 
quite  exceptional.  That  demanded  special  measures  like 
that  which  Colbert  took  for  examining  the  registers  of  the 
parishes  of  Paris  from  1670  on.  Statistical  utilization  be- 
came possible  beginning  with  the  declaration  of  April  9, 
1736,  and  the  circular  of  Terray,  August  14,  1772. 

The  declaration  of  1736  prescribed:  1st,  that  curates, 
vicars,  parish  priests  (desservants) ,  the  superiors  of  the 
chapters  of  religious  orders  or  the  administrators  of  the 

*We  are  informed,  notably,  of  the  number  of  males  and  females  (mdles  and 
femelles  were  the  expressions  used  then),  of  the  number  of  individuals  below  and 
above  14  years,  of  the  number  of  bachelors,  married  men  and  widowers,  of  the 
number  of  nobles,  ecclesiastics,  officials,  domestics,  beggars.  These  five  categories 
of  persons  were  the  objects  of  very  minute  researches  and  studies.  See  on  this  sub- 
ject the  details,  fairly  numerous  but  sometimes  open  to  suspicion,  given  by  Moreau 
de  Jonnfis,  Etat  Economique  el  Social  de  la  France  de  1589  &  1715,  pp.  Sff-ST,  100, 
267-278.  On  the  niunber  of  fiscal  agents  and  employees,  see  Necker,  loc.  eit.  Vol.  I, 
pp.  193,  201. 


FRANCE  S63 

hospices,  deposit  every  year  at  the  office  of  the  baihwick* 
the  dupUcate  of  their  registers  of  baptisms,  marriages  and 
burials;  2d,  that  the  poUce  officers  keep  registers  of  the 
deaths  of  persons  to  whom  ecclesiastical  burial  should  be 
refused. 

The  circular  addressed  by  the  Abb6  Terray  to  the  in- 
tendants  in  his  capacity  as  contrdleur  giniral,  is  of  too  great 
importance  for  us  not  to  cite  the  text  itself,  at  least  in  part. 
"Monsieur  I'intendant,  it  is  very  important  for  the  adminis- 
tration to  know  exactly  the  state  of  the  population  of  the 
kingdom,  and  this  knowledge  will  be  no  less  useful  to  each 
one  of  MM.  les  intendants  des  provinces.  I  beg  you,  conse- 
quently, to  have  made  each  year  an  exact  resum6  of  the 
population  of  your  gSnSraliU  conforming  to  the  model  list 
which  you  will  find  herewith.  It  is  not  an  enumeration  by 
persons,  dwellings  (mSnages)  or  households  that  I  ask  of  you, 
that  enumeration,  although  easy,  f  would  demand  too  much 
time  and  trouble  to  be  renewed  each  year;  what  I  ask  is  that 
you  have  sent  to  you  each  year  by  the  clerks  of  the  royal 
jurisdictions  a  resume  of  births,  marriages,  deaths  in  all 
parishes,  chapters,  regular  or  secular  order,  hospices  or  other 
churches  which  may  be  authorized  to  celebrate  marriages, 
administer  baptisms  or  make  interments,  to  which  you  will 
cause  to  be  added  the  persons  of  both  sexes  who  shall  have 
entered  religious  orders  and  who  shall  have  died  in  the 
monasteries,  convents  and  nunneries  which  keep  records 
of  new  members  and  deaths.  The  lists  which  I  ask  of  you 
ought  to  contain  eight  columns.     .     .     . 

"You  will  finish  this  list  by  a  recapitxilation  for  each  dis- 
trict (Slecition)  and  you  will  add  a  general  recapitulation  for 
your  department.^  ...  I  beg  you  to  apply  yourself 
from  this  time  on  (before  1772)  to  this  work  and  to  begin  it 
with  the  years  1770  and  1771,  which  will  be  distinguished 

*  The  bailiwick  (bailliage)  was  a  judiciary  district.  There  were  829  of  them  in 
the  eighteenth  century. 

t  It  will  be  noted  that  the  Abb6  Terray  speaks  almost  as  Vauban  does  about  the 
ease  of  general  enumerations. 

I  The  word  dipartement  was  already  used  as  a  synonym  of  glniraliii. 


264  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

by  separate  lists.  .  .  .  The  more  utility  the  work  pre- 
sents, the  more  zeal  and  accuracy  I  hope  you  will  bring  to  it- 
It  is  moreover  easy  to  do.  .  .  .  It  is  necessary  to  see 
to  it  that  the  clerks  distinguish  carefuUy,  under  the  heads  of 
births  and  deaths,  the  numbers  of  both  sexes.  This  list> 
drawn  up  for  the  whole  kingdom,  will  make  it  possible  to 
know  in  a  few  years  whether  there  are  born  or  die  more  males 
than  females  and  in  what  proportion.  ...  I  beg  you 
kindly  to  take  all  necessary  measures  to  prevent,  if  possible, 
any  error  from  slipping  into  this  work,  which  I  earnestly 
commend  to  your  usual  zeal  for  all  that  concerns  the  good  of 
the  service." 

It  is  not  surprising  to  learn  that  the  noble  appeals  ad- 
dressed by  Terray  to  the  zeal  of  his  collaborators  were  not 
always  heeded  and  that  he  found  himself  obliged  to  repeat 
them  several  times  in  the  course  of  the  year  1773.  But 
that  does  not  at  all  detract  from  the  great  merit  of  the 
author  of  the  circular  of  1772.  Nor  is  his  merit  any  more 
diminished  by  the  fact  that  the  registers  ordered  by  Terray 
were  kept  by  the  Catholic  clergy,  that  they  could  serve  at 
that  time  only  for  Catholics,  and  that  it  was  only  beginning 
with  1787  that  a  lay  Mai-civil  was  granted  to  protestants. 

So  we  owe  to  Terray  the  organization  of  the  permanent 
and  regular  enumeration  of  the  actes  de  VEtat-Civil  in  France. 
And  this  organization,  which  has  maintained  its  original 
lines  up  to  the  beginning  of  the  twentieth  century,  it  is. 
important  to  note,  is  characterized  essentially  by  the  ab- 
sence of  administrative  utility.  The  regular  statistics  of 
Vetat-civil  date,  in  France,  from  1772,  and  not  as  has  been 
said  incorrectly  "from  the  creation  of  the  first  service  de 
Statistique  gSnSrale,  that  is  to  say  from  the  last  year  of  the 
eighteenth  century."*  Statisticians  ought  to  have  it  in 
their  hearts  to  do  justice  to  Terray  in  this  regard,!  the  more 

*See  Statiiiigue  Internationale  du  Mouvement  de  la  Population  d'apris  lea  Regiglers 
de  VEtat-CivU,  published  by  the  Direction  de  la  Statistique  ghUrale  de  la  France,  1907, 

p.  L 

tLevasseur,  whose  justice  equalled  his  knowledge,  had  the  honor  to  be  the  first  to. 
do  justice  to  Terray  (See  La  Population  Franfaise,  Vol.  I,  p.  250),  quoting  the  com- 


FRANCE  265 

SO  because  the  historians,  often  too  severe  on  him,  have  for 
the  most  part  remembered  him  only  as  an  unscrupulous 
administrator,  offering  to  the  monarchy,  to  reestablish  its 
damaged  finances,  expedients  of  questionable  morality.* 

The  First  Tables  of  Mortality 

To  the  great  progress  made  by  the  statistics  of  the  actes 
de  I'etat  civil  it  is  proper  to  append  the  establishment  of  the 
first  tables  of  mortality,  those  tables  which  Cournot  calls 
"the  most  diflficult  work  and,  as  it  were,  the  masterpiece  of 
statistics. " 

The  first  was  established,  at  the  request  of  the  contrdleur 
gSnSral  de  BouUongne,  by  Deparcieux  and  published  in  1746 
in  his  Essai  sur  les  probabilitSs  de  la  durie  de  la  vie  humaine, 
which  was  approved  by  the  AeadSmie  des  Sciences  after  a 
favorable  report  by  NicoUe  and  Buffon.  The  materials  for 
it  were  furnished  by  9,320  deaths  which  took  place  in  two 
tontines  created  in  1689  and  1696:  the  last  deaths  occurred 
in  1742. 

The  second  was  established  by  Dupr6  de  Saint-Maur  with 
the  help  of  observations  drawn  from  the  registers  of  deaths 
prior  to  1749  in  twelve  parishes  in  the  environs  of  Paris  and 
three  parishes  in  Paris  (Saint-Andr6,  Saint  Hippolyte  and 
Saint-Nicolas).  It  was  published  by  Buffon  in  1767,  inhis  ittide 
sur  Vhomme  et  spScialement  sur  les  prpbabilitSs  de  la  durie  de 
la  vie.\  "It  is  the  only  one, "  says  Buffon,  after  having  cited 
some  others  published  in  England  and  Holland,  "on  which 
one  can  establish  the  probabilities  of  the  life  of  men  in  gen- 
eral with  some  certainty,"  thanks  to  the  bringing  together 
in  the  same  calculation  of  city  parishes  and  country  par- 
ishes. 

plete  text  of  the  circular  of  1772.  We  allow  ourselves  to  rebuke  him  a  little  for 
one  thing.  The  circular  of  1772  appears  to  him  "important  for  the  history  of 
population  in  France";  one  ought  rather  to  say  important  for  the  history  of  statis- 
tics. 

*Note,  however,  the  impartiality  of  the  judgment  passed  by  M.  Marcel  Marion  on 
the  financial  work  of  Terray.  (See  Histoire  finamiiiTe  de  la  France  depuia  1716, 
Vol.  I,  pp.  248-279.) 

fSee  Oeuvres  Completes,  idit.  de  la  Soeitli  bibliophile.  Vol.  IV,  pp.  115-126. 


266  MEMORIAL    VOLUME 

A  third  is  to  be  found  in  Monty  on  (Moheau).*  The 
author  has  compiled  it  from  the  deaths  in  the  three  parishes 
of  Paris  and  the  twelve  parishes  in  the  country  which  had 
been  used  by  Dupr6  de  Saint-Maur,  to  which  he  has  added 
the  deaths  in  eight  parishes  of  the  gSnSralitS  of  Rouen,  eight 
in  the  isle  of  Re  and  eleven  in  different  provinces,  in  all 
50,567  deaths.  But  he  takes  care  to  announce  that  "his 
object  is  less  to  establish  the  duration  of  life  than  the  times 
and  periods  that  are  most  mortal. "  This  explains,  without 
doubt,  why  his  table  has  not  been  used  by  those  who  need  to 
know  the  probable  duration  of  human  life. 

There  is,  finally,  a  fourth  table  of  mortality,  that  of  Duvill- 
ard,  former  attache  of  the  Controle  gSnSral  under  Turgot, 
and  of  the  ministry  of  the  interior,  in  1805,  when  he  had 
charge  of  the  statistics  of  population.  The  author  does  not 
say  with  enough  precision  what  materials  he  used.  All  we 
know  is  that  his  table  of  mortality!  was  composed  in  1798 
and  that  it  was  compiled  from  101,542  deaths  drawn  from 
the  registers  prior  to  the  Revolution. 

After  the  population  it  is  the  economic  and  financial  facts 
which  are  the  object,  in  the  period  which  we  are  studying, 
of  enumerations  continuously  extended  and  improved. 

Economic  Statistics 

One  has  difficulty  in  getting  an  idea  of  the  prodigious 
extension  in  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries  of 
economic  statistics.  It  is,  indeed,  the  period  in  which,  after 
having  fully  triumphed  in  the  political  field  and  won  absolute 
power  there,  the  French  monarchy  gives  free  rein  to  its 
spirit  of  state  initiative  {esprit  Hatiste),  when  it  meddles, 
most  often  for  fiscal  reasons  but  also  under  the  most  varied 
pretexts,  in  the  domain  of  industry,  agriculture  and  com- 

*Recherches  et  amMkations  (6dit.  1778),  pp.  155-228. 

fit  was  published  in  1806,  in  a  memoire  presented  to  the  AcaMmie  des  Sciences 
in  1798  and  entitled:  Analyse  et  tableaux  de  V influence  de  la  petite  v&role  sur  la  mor- 
tality a  chaque  dge  et  de  ceUe  qu'un  prSseroatif  tel  que  la  vaccine  peut  avoir  sur  la 
population  et  la  longimlS, 


FRANCE  267 

merce.  It  is  the  period  when  nobody  in  France  may  work, 
choose  and  practise  any  profession  whatsoever  without  the 
permit  of  the  king.*  It  is  the  time  when  the  king,  feeling 
some  scruples  on  the  subject  of  applying  the  tithes  (dixieme) 
of  1710  to  the  benefit  of  the  nobles  and  the  clergy,  consulted 
the  Sorbonne  and  received,  as  Saint-Simon  says,  the  follow- 
ing response:  "that  all  the  wealth  of  the  French  was  the 
personal  property  of  the  king,  and  that  when  he  took  it  he 
took  only  what  belonged  to  him."  Now,  we  know  that 
excess  of  regulation  by  public  authority  imphes  at  once  as  a 
condition  and  a  consequence  an  enforced  multiphcation  of 
enumerations. 

What  might  lead  us  to  believe  that  in  the  seventeenth 
century  and  the  eighteenth,  statistics  were  less  highly  devel- 
oped than  in  reality  they  were  later,  is  that  they  were  still 
badly  organized,  that  the  instruments  specially  devoted  to  it 
were  defective  and  that  the  preservation  of  documents  was 
imperfectly  assured.  But  the  moment  approaches  when  we 
are  to  see  appear  a  certain  specialization  in  the  departments 
of  service  that  have  charge  of  preparing  them.  And  it  is 
precisely  in  the  domain  of  economic  statistics  that  we  are 
about  to  observe  this  phenomenon. 

From  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century  the  registers  of 
customs  (jdouane)  have  allowed  us  to  know  approximately 
the  amount  of  our  imports.  We  have  the  proof  of  it  in  a 
manuscript  the  date  of  which  lies  between  1551  and  1556t 
and  which  gives  us  the  value  of  the  different  imports  which 
France  received  from  Spain,  Portugal,  the  Netherlands,  Italy, 
Germany,  England. 

We  know  that  the  registers  of  the  customs  were  utilized 
by  Sully  to  evaluate  the  annual  product  of  an  export  tax 
(droit  de  sortie)  of  15  sous  (sols)  per  bale  of  merchandise 
exported,  which  an  edict  of  Henry  IV  had  established  in 

*See  on  the  statistics  of  corporations  in  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries, 
E.  Martin  Saint-Leon,  Histoire  des  Corporations  de  MMiers,  pp.  446  and  656. 

t  See  on  this  manuscript  Levasseur,  Histoire  des  Classes  Ouvrieres  avant  1789,  id 
edit..  Vol.  II,  pp.  49  and  50. 


268  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

1603.*     Colbert  often  had  recourse  to  it  in  order  to  get  in- 
formation on  the  movement  of  importations. 

But  it  is  his  successor  Pontchartrain,  aided  by  d'Aguesseau 
who  was  especially  in  charge  of  the  direction  of  Commerce, 
who  first  asked,  in  1693,t  that  detailed  tables  of  importation 
and  exportation  be  drawn  up.  And  the  definitive  confirma- 
tion of  this  measure  was  the  creation,  by  an  order  of  the 
Conseil  du  roi  on  April  18,  1713,  of  a  Bureau  appointed  to 
collect  the  elements  necessary  to  "la  balance  du  commerce," 
directed  at  first  by  de  Grandval,  formerly  fermier  gSnSral, 
and  placed  until  1785  under  the  authority  of  the  fermiers 
gSnSraux.X  That  is  the  first  branch  of  French  public  service 
in  which  one  can  see  a  department  especially  devoted  to 
statistics.  It  seems  to  have  functioned  satisfactorily.  To  it 
we  owe  the  possession,  year  by  year  since  1716,  of  the  statis- 
tics of  the  foreign  trade  of  France.  §  To  these  detailed  annual 
tables  were  added,  in  1756,  general  r6sum6s.  Necker,  to 
whom  the  creation  of  this  Bureau  has  been  incorrectly  at- 
tributed, II  did  nothing  more  than  reorganize  it  in  1781,  giving 
it  oflScially  the  name,  "Bureau  de  la  balance  du  Commerce." 
We  find  an  allusion  to  this  reorganization  in  V  Administration 
des  finances  de  la  France  (Vol.  II,  p.  127).  We  find  there  also 
very  instructive  observations  on  the  "usual  inaccuracy  of  the 
balances  de  Commerce. "  According  to  Necker  this  inaccuracy 
had  two  causes :  in  the  first  place,  the  impossibility  of  record- 

*  See  Amould,  De  la  balance  du  Commerce  et  des  relations  commerdales  extSrieures 
de  la  France  dans  Unites  les  ■parties  du  globe  avec  la  fxdeur  de  ses  importations  et  exporta- 
tions  progressives  depuis  1716jusqu'en  1788,  Vol.  II,  p.  118;  and  de  Natalis  Rondot, 
Dictionnaire  du  Commerce — Guillaumin,  1859,  under  the  words:  Commission  des 
fxdeurs  en  douane. 

t  It  is  curious  to  note  that  in  this  same  year,  1693,  began  the  annual  communica- 
tion of  tables  of  the  customs  to  the  English  Parliament. 

t  See  Levasseur,  Bistmre  du  Commerce  de  la  France,  Vol.  I,  p.  509,  and  Pallain, 
Les  Dovxmes  Franfaises,  new  edit.  1913,  Vol.  II,  pp.  313  £E. 

§  It  was  in  1716  that  the  publication  of  the  annual  resumes  was  decided  on.  An 
order  of  the  Conseil,  February  29,  1716,  appropriated  for  this  work  the  sum  of 
10,000  livres.  The  declaration  of  the  quantities  was  furnished  by  the  traders. 
The  valuations  were  given  by  the  Chambres  de  Commerce. 

II  Statistique  GSnSrale  de  la  France,  Historique  et  travaux  de  la  fin  du  XVIIIirtle 
tiide  A  la  fin  du  XlXime,  p.  6. 


FRANCE  269 

ing  on  the  registers  of  the  fiscal  agents  "the  secret  operations 
carried  on  in  contraband  which  are  sometimes  so  extended 
that  they  are  enough  to  change  entirely  the  first  ideas  that 
one  might  have  conceived  of  the  credit  or  debit  of  the  trade  of 
a  nation"  (p.  117) ;  in  the  second  place,  the  extreme  imperfec- 
tion of  valuing  in  money,  "as  it  is  ordinarily  done, "  the  ex- 
ports and  imports  of  a  kingdom  (p.  119).* 

As  it  was  organized  by  Necker,  the  Bureau  de  la  balance 
du  Commerce  lasted  until  1792.  It  was  then  replaced  {In- 
structions of  January  17,  1792)  by  the  "Bureau  des  archives 
du  Commerce,  "f  This  was  in  reality  only  a  change  of  name, 
to  judge  by  a  circular  of  January  17,  1792,  which  explained 
very  clearly  the  mission  of  what  pretended  to  be  a  new  bureau. 
Its  activity  is  shown  in  a  report  which  Roland,  Minister  of 
Interior,  presented  to  the  Convention,  at  the  end  of  1792,  on 
the  imports  and  exports  of  France  during  the  first  half  of  the 
year.  But  it  ceased  completely  from  that  date,  and  no  official 
statistics  of  the  foreign  trade  of  France  seem  to  have  been  set 
down  for  the  years  1793, 1794,  1795  and  1796.  The  political 
events  of  that  time  sufficiently  explain  this  interruption. 

The  annual  figure  for  the  imports  and  exports  is  found 
again  from  1797  on.  But  we  cannot  accept  without  serious 
reservations  either  the  figures  for  the  years  1797  to  1801, 
the  period  when,  thanks  to  Chaptal  who  had  become  Minis- 

*  The  critical  observations  of  Necker  are  fully  confirmed  by  the  learned  researches 
of  M.  Masson  into  the  customs  statistics  drawn  up  by  the  Chambre  de  Commerce  of 
Marseilles  apropos  the  commerce  of  the  Levant,  from  1660  to  1661,  from  1661  to 
1715  and  from  1715  to  1778.  See,  first,  Histoire  du  Commerce  frangaia  dans  le 
Levant  au  XVIIime  siicle.  Appendix  pp.  XIII-XXV;  second,  Histoire  du  Commerce 
Jrangais  dans  le  Levant  au  XVIIIime  siicle,  pp.  407-409  and  410-635. 

t  The  Bureau  des  archives  formed  part  of  a  Bureau  Central  de  V Administration  du 
Cofmtnerce  the  creation  of  which  was  ordered  by  the  Legislative  and  which  was 
connected  with  the  Ministry  of  the  Interior.  The  instructions  of  January  17,  1792, 
are  of  very  great  interest.  They  deserve  to  be  quoted  in  their  entirety.  But  for 
want  of  space  we  shall  be  content  to  refer  to  the  work  of  M.  Fallain',  he.  dt.  pp. 
316-319  where  the  complete  text  may  be  found.  The  reports  of  Roland  and  later 
those  of  Chaptal,  prepared  with  the  help  of  lists  drawn  up  by  the  Bureau  des  ar- 
chives, were  published  only  under  exceptional  circumstances.  These  lists,  the  ele- 
ments of  which,  from  1792  on,  were  furnished  by  the  customs  service,  remained 
locked  up  in  the  boxes  of  the  Ministry  of  the  Interior.  They  were  brought  to  light 
by  the  Bureau  de  la  Statistique  gSnSrale  in  its  first  volume  published  in  1838. 


270  MEMORIAL  VOLUME  ^ 

ter  of  Interior  November  6,  1800,  the  regular  publication  of 
the  statistics  for  foreign  trade  was  resumed,  or  those  for  the 
years  1811  to  1814  for  which  the  official  figures  are  lacking 
and  are  replaced  by  figures  borrowed  from  a  table  published 
in  August,  1830,  by  Cesar  Moreau,  President  of  the  SociStS 
Frangaise  de  Statistique  Universelle  in  the  Bulletin  of  that 
Society. 

Like  all  official  documents,  the  documents  of  customs 
statistics  were  kept  secret  up  to  1789.  We  have  them, 
however,  and  with  sufficient  guaranties  of  authenticity,  for 
the  years  1716  to  1787.  They  were  published  complete:  1st, 
in  1795,  by  Arnould,  in  his  book.  La  Balance  du  Commerce; 
2d,  in  1830,  by  Cesar  Moreau,  who  says  that  he  found  them 
in  a  "manuscript  table  made  for  the  instruction  of  the  king 
by  M.  Trudaine  de  Montigny,  of  all  the  magistrates  of  the 
Conseil  the  most  distinguished  for  vision,  talent  and  accu- 
racy"; 3d,  in  1838,  by  the  Ministry  of  Commerce  in  the  docu- 
ment entitled:  Statistique  de  la  France;  Commerce  extirieur. 

The  figures  of  Cesar  Moreau  are  the  same  as  those  of 
Arnould.  Those  of  the  Ministry  of  Commerce  often  differ 
from  them  widely.  With  de  Foville  we  believe  that  prefer- 
ence should  be  given  to  those  of  Arnould.  It  is  with  them 
that  our  learned  and  lamented  colleague  composed  the 
precious  tables  which  he  inserted  in  the  Bulletin  de  Statis- 
tique et  de  LSgislation  ComparSe  of  the  Ministry  of  Finance 
(number  for  January,  1883,  pp.  46-80).* 

We  ought  to  mention  here,  still  apropos  of  economic 
statistics,  the  creation,  in  1782,  under  the  Ministry  of  Cal- 
onne,  of  the  Comiti  de  l' Agriculture.  This  committee  which 
was  the  first  embryo  of  our  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  was 
very  actively  busy,  from  1785  to  1787,  in  establishing  a  sort 
of  agricultural  statistics  of  France.  It  ordered  one  of  its 
members,  Dupont  de  Nemours,  to  present  to  it  in  1786,  "a 

*  The  figures  given  by  Necker  in  V Administration  des  Finances  de  la  France  (Vol. 
II,  pp.  130  ff.)  and  those  which  one  finds  in  some  manuscripts  existing  in  the  Ar- 
chives Nationales  differ  also  from  those  of  Arnould.  But  that  does  not  prevent 
Levasseur  from  giving,  like  de  Foville,  preference  to  the  latter.  See  Hisimre  du 
Commerce,  Vol.  I,  p.  510. 


»  FRANCE  271 

summary  (apergu)  of  the  value  of  the  crops  of  the  kingdom." 
And  it  is  from  these  works  that  Lavoisier,  who  was  a  memjber 
of  the  Comity,  with  Dupont  de  Nemours,  borrowed  largely 
for  the  great  inventory  of  which  we  shall  speak  presiently.* 

Financial  Statistics 

No  special  organization  devoted  to  financial  statistics 
appeared  in  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries. 
The  facts  which  constitute  the  subject  matter  of  financial 
statistics  enumerate  themselves  as  they  are  accomplished. 

If  one  wishes  to  understand  the  burning  curiosity  with 
which  the  data  that  financial  statistics  might  furnish  were 
sought  for  and  commented  on,  one  must  remember  that  all 
the  enlightened  spirits  of  the  time  thought  as  Colbert  did 
when  he  said  to  Louis  XIV  in  his  great  m6moire  of  1663  on 
financial  afiPairs:  "It  is  a  constant  and  generally  recognized 
maxim  in  all  the  states  of  the  world  that  finance  is  the  most 
important  and  most  essential  part.  It  is  a  matter  which 
enters  into  all  affairs,  both  those  that  concern  the  internal 
existence  of  the  state  and  those  that  concern  its  external 
growth  and  power,  "f  One  must  also  remember  that  the 
claims  made  before  the  States-General  of  1614  by  the  Chan- 
cellor and  by  the  representative  of  the  Clergy  were  main- 
tained up  to  1789.  "Kings,"  declared  the  Chancellor, 
"cannot  without  danger  and  risk  make  known  the  state  and 
strength  of  their  finances  which  are  the  sinews  and  power  of 
their  state."  And  as  these  words  provoked  some  murmurs, 
the  representative  of  the  Clergy  came  to  the  assistance  of 
the  Chancellor,  saying:  "Finances  are  the  sinew  of  the  state. 
But  even  as  the  sinews  are  hidden  under  the  skin,  so  must 
financial  strength  or  weakness  be  kept  secret.  In  ancient 
times  when  the  Holy  of  Holies  was  unveiled  it  was  only  the 
High  Priest  who  entered  the  Sanctuary,  the  others  remained 
outside.     Finance  is  the  manna  enclosed  in  the  golden  ark." 

*  See  on  this  Comity,  Pigeonneau  and  de  Foville,  l' Administration  de  V Agriculture 
au  Contrdle  girUral  des  Finances,  1786-1787,  in  -8°,  1882,  and  on  the  Apergu  of 
Dupont  de  Nemours,  see  pp.  140-148. 

tSee  Letlres,  Instructions  et  Mimoires,  Vol.  II,  p.  17. 


272  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

It  is  true  that  the  celebrated  Compte  rendu  au  roi  of  Jan- 
uary, 1781,  was,  by  order  of  Louis  XVI,  offered  to  the  public 
and  circulated  to  the  extent  of  several  thousand  copies.* 
But  that  was  an  exception.  Necker  himself,  author  of  the 
Compte  rendu,  was  obliged  three  years  later  to  have  his  great 
work,  V Administration  des  Finances  de  la  France,  printed 
secretly,  and  there  was  a  procureur  gSnSral  who  denounced 
that  book  before  the  Parlement  of  Brittany  on  the  ground 
"that  it  revealed  the  operations  of  the  administration  and 
the  secrets  of  the  state." 

We  possess  a  sufficiently  large  number  of  statistical  data 
relating  to  the  last  two  centuries  of  the  French  monarchy. 
Much  was  published  in  the  course  of  the  eighteenth  century 
in  forbidden  works  whose  authors  often  found  accomplices 
among  those  who  ought  to  have  had  them  condemned. 
Much  also  was  published  by  the  scholars  of  our  time  who 
set  themselves  the  task  of  bringing  to  light  the  rich  collec- 
tions of  manuscript  in  our  Archives  Nationales. 

Among  the  works  of  the  eighteenth  century  we  shall  men- 
tion only  the  principal  ones : 

First,  Recherches  et  Consider ations  sur  les  Finances  de  la 
France  depuis  I'annSe  1596  jusqu'd  Vannie  1721,  by  Veron  de 
Forbonnais,  1758.  Two  editions  were  published  simultane- 
ously, one  dated  at  Basle  in  two  volumes,  quarto,  the  other 
dated  at  Liege  in  six  volumes,  duodecimo.  It  is  the  edition 
of  Basle  that  we  have  before  us.  Forbonnais  had  already 
written  several  memoires  on  finance,  and  a  book  entitled 
EUments  du  Commerce,  when  he  was  called  in  1756  to  the 
office  of  inspecteur  gSnSral  des  Monnaies  and  became  shortly 
after  the  right  arm  of  the  Controleur  giniral  Silhouette.  He 
was  in  a  position  to  get  in  touch  with  all  the  documents  kept 
by  the  administration  of  the  controle  gSnSral  des  Finances. 
That  is  why,  doubtless,  he  could  give,  year  by  year,  from 
1595  to  1721,  the  essential  elements  of  the  financial  situation 
of  France  with  numerous  tables  to  support  them. 

Second,  Comptes-rendus  de  V administration  des  Finances  du 

*  Six  thousand,  it  is  said. 


FRANCE  273 

royaume  de  France  pendant  les  onze  demises  annSes  du  rhgne 
de  Henri  IV,  le  regne  de  Louis  XIII  et  65  annSes  de  Louis 
XIV,  a  posthumous  work  of  M.  Mallet,  first  Commis  des 
Finances  under  M.  Desmaretz,  1708-1715,  London,  1789, 
quarto. 

Third,  Collection  des  comptes-rendus,  pieces  authentiques, 
Stats  et  tableaux  concernant  les  Finances  de  France  depuis 
1758  jusqu'en  1787  by  Mathon  de  la  Cour,  Lausanne,  1788, 
quarto.  The  state  of  French  finance  is  set  forth  in  this  work 
year  by  year.  It  seems  that  here  is  found  the  text  itself  of 
the  memoires  and  reports  of  the  Controleurs  gSnSraux. 

These  three  works  complete  each  other.  They  form  a  unit 
of  greatest  interest  from  the  twofold  point  of  view  of  the 
history  of  finance  and  of  the  history  of  French  financial 
statistics. 

Among  the  numerous  contemporary  works  which  contain 
the  documents  of  financial  statistics  taken  from  the  manu- 
script collections  of  our  national  archives  we  shall  mention 
only  the  following: 

First,  La  Correspondance  des  Controleurs  gSnSraux  des 
finances  avec  les  intendants  de  province  1683  a  1715,  published 
by  de  Boislile,  quarto.  Examination  one  by  one  of  the 
hundreds  of  pieces  which  make  up  this  correspondence 
reveals  a  priceless  mine  of  documents  which  are  of  interest 
not  only  for  the  history  of  financial  statistics  in  particular 
but  for  the  history  of  statistics  in  general. 

Second,  Les  Lettres,  Instructions  et  MSmoires  de  Colbert  by 
Clement,  Vols.  I  and  II;  Vol.  II  is  entirely  taken  up  with 
the  Affaires  des  Finances.  One  will  notice  there  (pp.  771- 
783)  one  of  the  annual  resumes  of  the  state  of  finance  which 
Colbert  presented  to  Louis  XIV,  that  of  the  year  1680,  at 
the  end  of  which  one  may  read  the  table  of  receipts  and 
expenses  from  1662  to  1680. 

But  a  double  question  arises.  What  is,  precisely,  the 
character  of  the  figures  contained  in  these  two  categories  of 
works  and  what  is  the  value  of  them? 

To  the  first  one  can  answer  that  the  figures  are,  for  the 

19 


274  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

most  part,  official  figures;  by  that  we  mean  that  they  are 
almost  always  taken  from  documents  which  the  department 
of  Finance  drew  up  in  conformity  with  the  rules  which  it 
had  to  observe  and  without  the  least  concern  for  publicity, 
which  they  were  not  intended  to  receive.  And  to  the  second 
question  the  reply  ought  to  be  that  in  spite  of  the  official 
character  of  these  figures,  it  would  be  very  unwise  to  believe 
them  absolutely  accurate.  We  know  by  too  numerous  ex- 
amples that  it  was  no  trouble  for  the  high  officials  of  the 
financial  administration  of  the  monarchy  to  falsify,  by 
alterations  or  concealments,  the  figures  which  rendered 
account  of  their  operations.  We  also  know  that  they  were 
encouraged  in  this  by  the  disorder  and  the  obscurity  which 
characterized  till  the  end  the  financial  management  of  the 
monarchy. 

Necker's  work  belongs  to  the  history  of  statistics  in  a 
double  sense.  First,  because  the  illustrious  Minister  of 
Finance  largely  used  and  sometimes  even  abused  statistics. 
Then  because  he  conceived  more  clearly  than  his  predeces- 
sors, Sully  and  Colbert,  the  necessity  of  coordination  by  the 
creation  of  a  real  organ  of  general  statistics. 

In  the  Compte-rendu  au  Roi  of  January,  1781,  in  a  great 
number  of  chapters  of  his  Administration  des  Finances 
de  la  France  (1784)  and  in  the  Etat  GSnSral  des  Revenus  et 
Defenses  fixes,  presented  to  the  States-General,  May  5, 1789, 
Necker  did  the  work  of  a  consummate  statistician.  It  is  in 
the  domain  of  financial  statistics  that  he  prefers  to  work. 
But  outside  finance  there  is  hardly  a  subject  lending  itself 
to  numerical  observation  which  he  does  not  approach  and 
try  to  illuminate  by  the  use  of  statistics,  such  as  population, 
foreign  trade,  the  monetary  circulation  of  France,  the  cultiva- 
tion of  land,  hospitals,  beggary.  That  the  figures  which  he 
gives  are  often  inexact  is  incontestable,  and  statisticians 
have  this  grievance  against  him  no  less  than  financiers  and 
politicians.  But  that  is  a  fault  which  would  have  been  cor- 
rected by  the  publication  of  all  statistical  documents,  which 
Necker  courageously  insisted  on  and  of  which  he  gave  the 


FRANCE  275 

first  example.  Not  only  administrative  conduct  but  also 
statistics  must  naturally  be  improved  by  publicity  which 
submits  them  to  the  control  of  public  opinion. 

Necker  and  General  Statistics  of  France 

Necker  has  set  forth  his  project  for  the  organization  of  a 
bureau  de  statistique  gSn6rale  in  his  book  V Administration  des 
Finances  de  la  France  (Vol.  Ill,  Ch.  XXVIII).  What  he 
"planned  to  propose  to  his  Majesty  was  the  establishment 
of  a  particular  bureau  intended  solely  for  the  collecting  of 
interesting  information  and  arranging  this  information  in  a 
clear  and  easy  order"  (p.  355).  The  object  of  this  informa- 
tion ought  in  his  opinion  to  be  (pp.  356-358) :  "  the  extent  of 
all  the  contributions  of  the  people,  the  respective  proportions 
of  each  class,  the  division  of  these  same  contributions  by 
provinces,  the  cost  of  collection,  the  number  of  employees 
in  the  treasury,  the  consumption  of  salt  and  tobacco,  the 
docket  of  seizures  and  condemnations  for  contraband,  the 
number  of  hospitals,  the  number  of  patients  which  they  re- 
ceive annually,  the  increase  or  diminution  of  mendicants  and 
abandoned  children,  the  extent  of  the  roads  and  their  an- 
nual increase,  the  average  number  of  those  subject  to  work 
on  the  roads  (corviables)  in  each  province,  general  table  of; 
the  public  debt,  statements  of  the  general  operations  of  the 
Caisse  d'Escompte  and  the  Mont-de-PiStS,  the  progress  of  the 
cultivation  of  lands,  the  progress  of  population  and  of  the 
circulation  of  coin,  the  sum  of  imports  and  exports  according 
to  the  kind  of  merchandise.  But  it  would  be  desirable  to  be 
able  to  find  also  in  the  same  depository  several  other  kinds  of 
information,  some  of  which,  though  apparently  a  matter  of 
simple  curiosity,  nevertheless  have  more  or  less  direct  bearing 
upon  all  the  deliberations  demanded  by  financial  administra- 
tion and  the  government  in  general:  such,  for  example,  are 
instructive  researches  in  the  amount  of  consumption  of  the 
principal  articles,  the  mean  proportion  between  the  seeding 
and  the  product  of  lands,  in  different  parts  of  the  realm,  in 
the  amount  of  land  under  cultivation,  in  variations  in  the 


276  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

price  of  labor,  in  the  relations  between  the  number  of  nobles 
and  privileged  and  the  number  of  common  people  (roturiers), 
in  the  number  of  ecclesiastics,  in  the  number  of  Protestants, 
in  the  progress  of  luxury  in  the  capital,  in  the  brevity  of  life 
in  some  dangerous  occupations,  in  the  interest  of  foreigners 
and  of  each  nation  in  particular  in  the  public  funds,  in  the 
condition  and  occupation  of  beggars  or  unfortunates  assisted 
in  the  diflFerent  houses  of  charity  and  in  many  other  equally 
interesting  subjects. " 

One  might  wish  for  a  better  arranged  enumeration,  but 
one  could  hardly  ask  for  a  more  complete  one.  Does  it  not 
include  all  the  chapter  headings  in  the  Annuaires  Statistiques 
published  by  all  civiKzed  countries  today?  Necker  had  in 
mind,  moreover,  the  preparation  of  a  veritable  Annuaire  de 
Statistique  which  the  new  bureau  was  to  supply.  "It  should 
be  observed, "  he  says  (pp.  358-359)  "that  in  all  departments 
of  the  administration  there  are  persons  in  a  position  to  make 
researches  relating  to  their  ordinary  occupations;  and  so  the 
new  work  would  be  limited  to  directing  them,  to  soliciting  the 
different  sorts  of  information,  to  putting  them  in  order  and 
noting  the  variations  which  time  might  bring  about.  .  .  . 
All  the  information  which  might  be  gathered  ought  to  be  in- 
scribed in  abridged  form  in  a  special  register,  referring  for  the 
details  to  separate  books;  and  in  this  way  a  general  abstract 
of  the  work  could  be  brought  together  every  year  in  a  very 
small  space."  Is  not  a  "general  abstract  every  year"  ex- 
actly our  contemporaneous  Annuaire  Statistique? 

But  Necker  went  still  further.  He  conceived  and  insisted 
on  international  statistics.  The  following  passage  (p.  361) 
leaves  no  doubt  of  that:  "It  would  be  desirable  for  all  the 
governments  to  form  a  depository  similar  to  that  we  have  just 
indicated;  it  would  be  desirable  if  they  should  come  some  day 
to  commimicate  without  diflSculty  all  the  general  observa- 
tions of  which  they  should  not  be  too  jealous.  It  seems  to  me 
that  this  noble  and  touching  rapprochement  would  be  likely 
to  unite  them  still  more  and  arouse  generous  sentiments 
everywhere. " 


FRANCE  277 

It  is  true  that  the  illustrious  and  clear-seeing  Genevan  did 
not  succeed  in  realizing  his  vast  program  of  statistical  or- 
ganization. Events  did  not  permit  it.  But  if  others,  more 
fortunate  than  he,  succeeded  a  little  later  in  realizing  it  fully, 
is  it  not  just  to  ascribe  to  him  at  least  in  part  the  merit  and 
honor  of  it? 

The  Revolution  and  Statistics 

It  was  the  French  Revolution  which  tried  immediately  to 
realize  the  program. 

The  Revolution  of  1789  opened  in  France  a  new  era  in 

statistics.     It  is  difficult  to  imagine  the  extraordinary  vogue 

-which  this  form  of  observing  social  facts  enjoyed,  from  1790 

to  1805,  not  only  with  the  public  authorities  but  in  public 

opinion. 

Setting  out  to  renew  from  top  to  bottom  the  fiscal  system 
of  France,  the  Constituent  Assembly  felt  the  need  of  knowing 
as  exactly  as  possible  the  state  of  the  resources  of  the  country 
and  the  number  of  the  population.  It  put  the  first  problem 
to  Lavoisier  and  the  second  to  a  general  enumeration  or- 
ganized under  Articles  I  and  II  of  the  Law  of  July  22,  1791. 

Lavoisier  responded  to  the  appeal  of  the  ComitS  des  Con- 
tributions publiqties  of  the  Constituent  by  offering  it  the 
r6sum6  of  an  immense  work  which  he  had  put  on  the  stocks 
in  1784  and  which  the  tragic  events  that  marked  the  end 
of  his  life  did  not  allow  him  leisure  to  finish.  The  Con- 
stituent had  Lavoisier's  work  printed  in  1791,  under  the 
following  title:  Risultats  extraits  d'un  ouvrage  intituU:  de 
la  Richesse  territoriale  du  royaume  de  France,  ouvrage  dont  la 
redaction  n'est  point  encore  achevSe,  remis  au  ComitS  de 
Vimposition  par  M.  Lavoisier  de  I'AcadSmie  des  Sciences* 

Lavoisier's  purpose  is  twofold.  It  is,  in  the  first  place,  to 
find  methods  which  will  permit  the  calculation  of  the  annual 
consumption  and  production  of  France  as  they  have  been 
found  for  calculating  the  population.     It  is,  in  the  second 

*Xlie  text  of  it  may  be  found  in  the  Collection  des  Eeonomiites,  de  Guillaimin,  Vol. 
XIV,  pp.  680-607. 


278  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

place,  by  applying  the  methods  adopted,  to  furnish  a  certain 
number  of  statistical  data. 

But  Lavoisier  does  not  conceal  from  himself  the  inade- 
quacy of  the  means  of  information  at  hand  in  1791.  So  he 
takes  up  again  the  idea  of  Necker,  and  addressing  himself 
no  longer  to  the  king,  as  Necker  had  done,  but  to  the  repre- 
sentatives of  the  nation,  he  declares:  "that  it  will  depend 
only  on  them  to  found  for  the  future  a  public  establishment 
in  which  shall  be  mingled  the  results  of  the  balance  of  agri- 
culture, of  commerce  and  of  population;  in  which  the  situa- 
tion of  the  realm,  its  wealth  in  men,  in  production,  in  indus- 
try, in  accumulated  capital  shall  be  portrayed  as  in  a  brief 
picture.  To  found  this  great  establishment,  which  does  not 
exist  in  any  nation,  which  can  exist  only  in  France,  the 
National  Assembly  has  only  to  desire  it  and  will  it.  The 
actual  organization  of  the  realm  seems  to  have  been  ar- 
ranged in  advance  to  lend  itself  to  all  these  researches. " 

That  is  indeed  Necker's  idea.  But  it  is  expressed  by 
Lavoisier  with  a  force  and  an  authority  which  one  could  not 
expect  of  the  Minister  of  Louis  XVT. 

The  Constituent  resolved,  without  hesitation,  to  proceed 
to  the  complete  enumeration,  head  by  head,  of  the  French 
population,  thus  giving  a  shining  proof  of  that  profound 
sense  of  the  necessities  of  government  which  was  allied  in 
it  with  conceptions  often  Utopian.  Two  measures  served  as 
preface  to  the  law  of  July  19-22,  1791.  The  first  had  a 
fiscal  purpose :  it  was  embodied  in  a  decree  of  June  28,  1790, 
prescribing  that  directors  of  departments  draw  up  a  table 
of  all  the  municipalities  with  the  amount  of  the  active  pop- 
ulation and  the  imports.  The  second  measure  had  a  social 
purpose;  it  took  the  form  of  an  instruction,  July  9,  1790, 
from  the  Committee  on  Mendicancy,  demanding  a  complete 
enumeration  with  a  view  to  the  distribution  of  aid.  But 
the  execution  of  these  measures  left  much  to  be  desired. 
And  that  is  why,  no  doubt,  the  authors  of  the  great  organic 
law  of  municipal  policy  wished,  first  of  all,  to  organize  the 
general  enumeration  of  the  population. 


FRANCE  279 

This  is  the  text  of  Articles  I  and  II  of  the  law  of  July  22, 
1791.  They  are  evidently  inspired  by  the  conceptions  of 
Vauban  (see  above  p.  43). 

"Art.  I. — In  the  towns  and  in  the  country,  the  munici- 
pal bodies  shall  have  a  statement  made  of  the  roll  of  the 
inhabitants,  either  by  municipal  oflScers  or  by  Commissaires 
de  police,  if  there  are  such,  or  by  citizens  appointed  for  this 
purpose.  Every  year,  in  the  course  of  the  months  of  Novem- 
ber and  December,  that  roll  shall  be  verified  anew. " 

"Art.  II. — The  register  shall  record  the  declarations 
which  each  inhabitant  shall  have  made  of  his  name,  age, 
place  of  birth,  last  place  of  residence,  profession,  trade  and 
other  means  of  subsistence. " 

These  provisions  have  never  been  abrogated.  But  they 
have  never  been  put  in  force.*  The  formula  (visa)  which 
one  finds  in  all  the  laws  relating  to  the  quinquennial  enumer- 
ations which  are  made  today  is  only  homage  rendered  to 
the  great  legislators  of  the  first  years  of  the  Revolution.  In 
vain  two  decrees  of  August  11  and  August  20,  1793,  and  the 
law  of  October  2,  1795,  recalled  the  necessity  of  observing 
these  provisions.  Neither  the  Convention  nor  the  Direc- 
toire  could  bring  it  about.  And  yet,  under  the  Directory, 
the  Ministry  of  Interior,  which  was  for  the  moment  in  charge 
of  all  enumerations,  was  entrusted  twice  in  succession,  in 
1798  and  in  1799,  to  one  of  the  most  ardent  experts  in  sta- 
tistics, Frangois  de  Neufchateau. 

It  would  be  unjust  not  to  note,  in  the  history  of  French  sta- 
tistics, the  work  of  this  minister  of  the  Directoire.  The  activity 
which  he  displayed  as  Minister  of  Interior,  and  especially 
in  the  domain  of  statistics,  was  truly  extraordinary.  One 
can  form  an  idea  of  it  by  running  over  his  Recueil  des  Lettres, 
circulaires,  instructions,  programmes,  discours  et  autres  actes 
publics  Smanis  du  citoyen  Frangois  de  Neufchateau  pendant  ses 
deux  exercises  du  Ministirede  VInterieur  (2  Vols.  8vo,  Paris. — 

*We  wished  to  know,  in  1911,  in  how  many  communes  of  France  this  provision 
had  been  applied.  We  discovered  123  out  of  36,192.  In  only  three  was  it  applied 
as  far  back  as  1791'.  It  went  back  to  1796,  in  the  communes  of  Nancy  and  de  Badon- 
viller. 


280  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Imprimerie  de  la  R6publique,  an  VII).  There  one  can  follow 
his  incessant  efforts  appHed,  with  a  somewhat  naive  ardor, 
to  all  subjects  relevant  to  statistics  and  trying  to  get  from 
statistics  exact  figures  on  every  one  of  them.  The  cost  of 
living,  the  state  of  factories  and  manufactures,  educational 
institutions,  of  which  nobody  before  him  had  ever  dreamed 
of  asking  for  an  enumeration,  the  state  of  the  population 
and  its  movement, — he  is  indifferent  to  nothing,  or,  to  tell 
the  truth,  he  is  equally  passionate  about  everything.  He 
returns  insistently  to  the  necessity  of  keeping  carefully  the 
registers  of  I'itat-civil,  while  he  often  deplores  the  negligence 
of  a  great  number  of  municipalities  in  this  matter.  It  is  to 
him  that  we  owe  the  first  almost  complete  official  frame- 
work of  the  general  statistics  of  France.  He  outlined  it  in 
a  great  circular  of  30  Frimaire  an  VII  addressed  to  the 
"administrations  centrales  de  dSpartement." 

Of  all  branches  of  statistics  the  one  perhaps  which  events 
contributed  to  develop  most  highly  during  the  last  years 
of  the  eighteenth  century  was  that  which  concerned  the 
necessities  of  life.  The  political  economy  of  the  Revolution 
was  hardly  more  than  a  sad  copy  of  that  of  the  monarchy, 
and  it  had  to  lead  fatally  to  the  same  results.  The  excessive 
regulation  of  the  production  and  distribution  of  the  neces- 
sities of  life,  as  it  was  managed  by  Philip  the  Fair  or  by  the 
Convention,  had  the  inevitable  result  of  compelling  the 
authorities  to  know  exactly  by  strict  enumerations  the 
quantities  and  the  prices.  The  task  of  having  these  enu- 
merations made  was  entrusted  to  the  Service  des  Subsistances 
which  was  joined  to  the  Ministry  of  Interior  by  a  decree  of 
April  27,  1792.  This  Service  was  modified  very  often  under 
the  Convention  and  under  the  Directoire.  But  among  its 
functions  were  always  the  statistics  of  crops  and  of  prices 
and  it  was  again  placed  under  the  Ministry  of  Interior  when 
Lucien  Bonaparte  and  Chaptal,  at  the  beginning  of  the 
nineteenth  century,  became  the  chiefs  of  this  department.* 

*See  for  further  details  on  this  point  Levasseur,  Note  on  the  service  des  subsist- 
ances, in  the  volume  of  the  XXVime  anniversaire  de  la  SociitS  de  StaUstique  de  Paris, 
pp.  194-195. 


FRANCE  281 

There  is  little  to  say  of  financial  statistics  under  the  Revo- 
lution. 

They  were,  like  the  financial  institutions  themselves,  in 
process  of  transformation.  The  ancient  organisms  are 
broken.  The  new  organisms,  in  the  torment  which  seizes 
upon  France,  have  not  yet  been  able  to  form.  They  will 
appear  only  with  the  Constitution  of  the  year  VIII  and  the 
Consulate.  The  Constituent  could  not  succeed  in  drawing 
up  the  complete  table  of  public  expenses.  The  Legislative 
Assembly  and  the  Convention  were  unable  to  establish  a 
budget  determined  by  the  balance  of  receipts  and  expendi- 
tures.* 

However,  financial  statistics  exist  under  the  Revolution. 
They  are  even  very  abundant.  Two  traits  characterize 
them  and  distinguish  them  profoundly  from  the  financial 
statistics  of  the  ancient  regime;  first,  they  are  most  often 
the  work  of  men  who  are  conscientiously  seeking  the  truth 
and  who  place  it  passionately  at  the  service  of  public  wel- 
fare; second,  they  are  subjected  to  the  widest  publicity  and 
the  freest  discussion.  There  has  never  been  seein  such  a 
multiplication  of  books  and  pamphlets  filled  with  figures 
relating  to  public  finance  as  from  1789  to  1799. 

The  oflBcial  documents  of  financial  statistics  of  this  time 
are  almost  all  m6moires,  reports  or  messages  addressed  to 
the  great  deliberative  assemblies. 

We  shall  cite  only  the  principal  ones: 

First.  The  Rapport  made  in  the  name  of  the  Committee 
of  Finance  by  the  Marquis  de  Montesquieu,  November  18, 
1789.  In  it  is  found  a  table  of  the  debts  of  France  and 
especially  of  the  debts  called  criardes  (crying). 

Second.  La  Proclamation  on  public  contributions  issued 
by  the  National  Assembly  to  the  French  June  24,  1791. 
All  the  old  imposts  and  all  the  new  are  there  set  forth  and 
compared. 

Third.     The  Rapport  of  the  Marquis  de  Montesquieu,  of 

*See  Stourm,  BiUiographie  historique  des  finances  de  la  France  au  XVllIime 
tiide,  p.  171. 


282  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

August  27,  1790,  on  the  public  debt,  its  origins,  the  amount 
of  its  capital  and  interest.  The  public  debt,  in  1798,  con- 
stituted an  enormous  mass,  very  complicated  and  very 
obscure.  The  purpose  of  the  rapport,  to  some  extent  at 
least,  was  to  indict  the  monarchy  as  well  as  to  discover  all  the 
elements  and  fix  their  exact  figure.  This  explains  the  many 
statistical  investigations  aimed  at  the  monarchy  by  the 
assemblies  of  the  Revolution. 

Fourth.  Several  mSmoires  presented  by  Tarb6,  minister 
of  contributions  publiques  under  the  Legislative,  notably  an 
Etat  gSnSral  of  expenses  and  means  for  the  year  1792. 

Fifth.  The  numerous  mSmoires  or  rapports  of  Cambon 
to  the  Legislative  and  the  Convention,  on  the  national 
treasury,  on  the  state  of  finance,  on  the  issue  of  paper- 
money  {assignats),  on  the  value  of  national  property.  All 
the  reports  of  Cambon,  no  matter  what  their  particular 
subject  may  be,  including  the  celebrated  report  on  the  Grand- 
livre  of  the  public  debt,  August  15,  1793,  are  by  far  the  most 
important  source  of  financial  statistics  under  the  Revolution.* 

Sixth.  A  certain  number  of  Messages  financier es  ad- 
dressed by  the  Directoire  to  the  Assembly  of  Five  Hundred 
from  the  5th  Brumaire  an  IV  (October  27,  1795)  to  the  18th 
Brumaire  an  VII  (November  9,  1799). 

We  shall  have  completed  the  development  of  statistics  in 
the  eighteenth  century  when  we  have  mentioned  the  promise 
inscribed  by  the  Constituent  Assembly,  apropos  of  the 
complete  laicization  of  the  actes  de  Vitat-dvil  in  article  7 
{Titre  II),  of  the  Constitution  of  1791,  and  the  fulfilment 
of  this  promise  by  the  Legislative  Assembly  in  the  law  of 
September  20,  1792. 

Neither  the  law  of  1792  nor  the  provisions  of  the  Civil 
Code  of  1804  which  resulted  from  it  have  a  statistical  pur- 
pose. But  they  nevertheless  make  fundamental  use  of  those 
statistical  operations  the  object  of  which  today  is  the  actes  de 
I'itat-civil.  It  is  on  this  score  that  they  deserve  to  be  noted 
here. 

*M.  Stourm  gives  the  complete  list  of  them  in  the  work  cited  in  the  preceding 
note.     See  pp.  205-206,  221-224. 


FRANCE  283 

IV.     Statistics  in  France  in  the  Nineteenth  Century 

The  nineteenth  century  has  witnessed  in  France  most  of 
the  progress  in  the  organization  and  practice  of  enumera- 
tions which  the  most  advanced  spirits  since  Ftoelon  and 
Vauban,  the  abbe  de  Sainte-Pierre  and  the  abb6  Expilly, 
up  to  Necker  and  Lavoisier  and  de  Neufchateau  had  only 
been  able  to  see  dimly  and  prepare  for.  It  is  truly  a  cen- 
tury of  substantial  realization. 

The  picture  of  the  progress  of  statistics  in  France  in  the 
nineteenth  century  would  fill  a  volume.  We  are  obliged 
here  to  put  it  in  a  few  pages.  But  a  brief  sketch  can  still 
give,  at  least  we  hope  so,  an  idea  of  the  road  that  has  been 
travelled  and  the  work  that  has  been  done. 

These  are  what  ought  to  be,  as  we  see  it,  the  essential 
traits  which  it  is  proper  to  put  in  relief  in  this  picture. 

It  is,  in  the  first  place,  the  extension  of  enumerations  to 
all  the  categories  of  facts  touched  by  administrative  and 
governmental  action.  It  is  the  adoption,  for  all  enumera- 
tions, old  as  well  as  new,  of  rational  methods  inspired  by  a 
true  scientific  spirit.  It  is  the  conception  and  the  execution 
of  enumerations  made  no  longer  with  the  exclusively  utili- 
tarian object  of  facilitating  administrative  and  govern- 
mental work,  but  with  the  higher  object  of  satisfying  the 
desire  for  knowledge  and  disinterested  research.  It  is  the 
wide  publicity  assured  to  all  figures  furnished  by  enumer- 
ations. It  is,  finally,  the  multiplication  of  special  institu- 
tions established  to  carry  out  enumerations  and  publish  the 
results  of  them. 

The  account  of  the  statistical  labors  which  the  nineteenth 
century  has  imposed  on  all  our  departments  of  public  serv- 
ice will  find  its  natural  place  later  when  we  come  to  explain 
the  actual  state  of  French  statistics. 

We  shall  confine  ourselves  in  this  last  chapter  devoted  to 
history:  first,  to  giving  by  an  example  the  measure  of  prog- 
ress made  in  method;  second,  to  making  known  the  principal 
branches  of  public  service  especially  devoted  to  statistics, 
which  have  been  created  in  the  course  of  the  nineteenth 
century. 


284  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Demographic  Statistics  in  the  Nineteenth  Century 

I.  We  shall  appeal  to  statistics  of  population  for  the 
example  of  the  improvements  that  have  been  made. 

Population  in  all  times  and  in  all  countries  is  the  essential 
object  of  statistics,  and  the  enumeration  of  population  is  at 
the  same  time  the  most  necessary  and  the  most  diflficult. 
Is  it  not,  as  Frangois  de  Neufchateau  said,  in  a  circular  of 
15  Fnictidor  an  VI,  "the  measure  of  the  strength,  the  source 
of  the  wealth,  the  political  thermometer  of  the  power  of 
states"?    (See  loc.  cit.  Vol.  I,  p.  142.) 

The  assemblies  of  the  Revolution  had  committed  to  the 
Ministry  of  Interior,  created  by  the  law  of  August  7,  1790, 
the  task  of  making  all  the  enumerations  relating  to  the 
population,  its  status  and  movement.  Nothing  was  changed 
in  this  regard  under  the  Consulate  and  under  the  Empire. 
The  Bureau  de  Statistique  created  in  1800  (we  shall  speak  of 
it  again  a  little  further  on),  and  especially  charged  with  the 
work  of  population  statistics,  was  subordinated  to  the 
Ministry  of  Interior  until  1812.  It  disappeared  at  this 
time.  When  M.  Thiers  reestablished  it,  in  1833,  statistics 
of  population  remained  one  of  its  duties,  but  it  passed  from 
the  Ministry  of  Interior  to  the  Ministry  of  Commerce.  In 
spite  of  that  the  Ministry  of  Interior  has  kept  a  sufficiently 
important  r6le,  a  r6le  rather  administrative  than  statistical, 
in  the  quinquennial  enumerations. 

One  of  the  first  acts  of  Lucien  Bonaparte,  who  became 
Minister  of  Interior  some  weeks  after  the  Coup  d'Etat  of 
the  18  Brumaire  (November  9,  1799),  was  to  cause  the 
passage  of  the  law,  28  Pluvoise  an  VIII  (February  17,  1800), 
prescribing  a  general  enumeration  of  the  population.  This 
is  what  he  said  in  a  circular  of  S6  Floreal  an  VIII  (May  16, 
1800)  addressed  to  the  prefects*  on  the  occasion  of  this 
law:  "Since  the  year  IV,  Citizen,  the  general  administra- 
tion has  made  unavailing  efforts  to  procure  complete  lists 

*  We  borrow  the  text  of  this  circular  from  the  Annales  de  Statistique  of  Bal- 
lois,  the  founder,  in  1802,  of  the  first  SociUi  de  Statistique  which  existed  in 
France  and,  we  believe,  in  Europe.     See  Vol.  II,  pp.  8-10. 


FRANCE  285 

of  the  population  of  the  Republic;  the  great  number  of 
objects  which  they  wished  to  bring  together  may  have  been 
one  of  the  principal  reasons  for  the  inaccuracy  or  the  omis- 
sions of  the  invoices.  To  overcome  this  obstacle  I  have  had 
a  table  drawn  up  in  which  it  is  only  a  question  of  determining 
the  result  of  the  enumeration  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Re- 
public. It  is  necessary,"  he  added  in  conclusion,  "that  this 
work  be  done  with  such  precision  that  the  completed  whole 
may  reach  me  within  two  months  at  the  latest." 

But  the  difficulties  of  execution  were  again  stronger  than 
the  will  of  the  legislator.  The  obstacles  before  which  the 
iniendants  and  the  controleurs  gSnSraux  of  the  ancient  regime 
had  yielded,  and  which  had  not  escaped  the  Conseil  d'Etat 
(vote  of  the  S7  Fructidor  an  IX)  were  rooted  in  causes  too 
deep  to  disappear  in  a  few  years.  It  was  not  two  months 
but  two  years  that  they  took  to  respond  to  the  imperious 
appeal  of  Lucien  Bonaparte,  and  he  was  no  longer  Minister 
of  Interior  when  the  responses  arrived.  These  responses 
were  published  in  1802  {An  X).*  They  were  hardly  taken 
seriously  as  Peuchet  testifies.f  And  it  was  the  same  with 
figures  furnished  by  another  census  ordered  by  a  circular  of 
November  3,  1805,  and  taken  in  1806.  We  find  proof  in 
evidence  of  another  sort,  it  seems,  from  the  testimony  of  de 
Peuchet,  proof  to  which  nobody  has  paid  attention,  in  the 
magisterial  introduction  to  the  ThSorie  Analytique  des  proba- 
bilitis  de  Laplace,t  "The  registers  of  births  which  are  kept 
with  care  in  order  to  ensure  the  status  of  citizens,"  says 
Laplace  (p.  45),  "may  serve  to  determine  the  population  of 
a  great  empire,  without  recurring  to  an  enumeration  of  its 
inhabitants,  an  operation  which  is  troublesome  and  difficult 
to  perform  accurately.  But  for  this  it  is  necessary  to  know 
the  ratio  of  the  population  to  the  annual  births."     How 

*  Under  the  title:  Tableau  giiUrd  de  la  nouveUe  divido/n  de  la  France  en  dSparte- 
ments,  arrondisaements,  communes  et  justices  de  paix  .  .  .  indiquani  la  popvla- 
tion,  I'Hendue  territoriale  et  le  nomhre  des  communes    .    .     . 

t  Peuchet,  StaMstique  de  la  France,  p.  iiS. 

I  The  text  which  we  quote  is  taken  from  the  third  edition  dated  1820;  the  first 
appeared  in  1812. 


286  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

arrive  at  that?  After  having  indicated,  with  much  preci- 
sion, the  surest  method,  Laplace  informs  us  that  the  govern- 
ment, convinced  of  the  utility  of  employing  this  method,  at 
his  request,  ordered  the  counting,  on  September  23,  1802, 
of  the  exact  number  of  inhabitants  in  certain  communes 
chosen  from  30  dSpartements.  Armed  with  the  figures  sup- 
plied by  this  enumeration,  and  after  having  compared  them 
with  the  number  of  births  recorded  in  these  same  communes 
during  the  years  1800,  1801  and  1802,  Laplace  made  his 
calculation  and  arrived,  for  the  whole  of  France,  at  the  figure 
of  28,352,845  inhabitants,  while  the  oflficial  figures,  of  which 
he  does  not  breathe  a  word,  were  for  1801,  27,347,800,  and 
for  1806,  29,107,425.  And  the  illustrious  mathematiciasn 
declares  himself  (p.  46)  ready  to  "wager  300,000  to  1  thai 
the  error  of  this  result  is  less  than  half  a  million."  Who  would 
have  dared  make  such  a  wager  for  the  figures  furnished  the 
Ministry  of  Interior  by  the  prefects? 

If  we  remember  that  Laplace  had  been  Minister  of  Interior 
before  Lucien  Bonaparte,  that  he  had  intimate  knowledge  of 
all  the  data  of  demographic  statistics  of  his  time  and  that  his 
introduction  to  the  ThSorie  Analytique  des  probabilith  bears 
the  dates  1812-1820,  we  shall  understand  that  his  silence 
with  respect  to  the  official  figures  of  1801  and  1806  is  even 
more  decisive  than  the  criticisms  of  Peuchet. 

Thus  from  1806  to  1820,  the  question  of  a  general  enumera- 
tion of  the  French  people  disappears.  One  would  think  that, 
in  this  respect,  things  had  gone  backward  a  hundred  years. 

How  can  we  explain  the  sudden  abandoning  of  a  method 
which  the  assemblies  and  the  ministers  of  the  Revolution  had 
adopted  with  enthusiasm?  By  the  scepticism  of  Laplace  as 
to  its  efficiency?  By  the  confidence  which  the  calculations  of 
the  great  mathematician  may  have  inspired?  Without 
doubt,  but  only  to  a  certain  extent.  The  true  explanation 
lies  elsewhere.  No  general  enumeration  was  attempted 
under  the  Empire  because  the  Emperor  did  not  wish  it. 
Napoleon  was,  as  is  well  known,*  in  the  habit  of  counting 

*  See  the  chanmng  and  instructive  communication  read  by  A.  de  Foville,  at 


FRANCE  287 

everything;  he  estimated  the  service  of  statistics  at  its  full 
value  (was  it  not  he  who  said:  "Statistics  are  the  budget  of 
things  and  without  a  budget  there  is  no  safety"?);  and  he 
was  not  a  man  to  shrink  before  the  difficulties  of  carrying 
out  an  enterprise  which  he  thought  necessary.  But  we 
know  also  that  he  liked  statistics  in  the  way  that  Louis  XIV 
liked  them,  that  he  demanded  statistics  of  his  prefects  as  the 
great  king  had  demanded  them  of  his  intendanis,  on  the  con- 
dition that  they  should  not  furnish  fuel  for  indiscreet  curios- 
ity and  the  niisplaced  criticisms  of  those  whom  he  called 
in  the  worst  sense  of  the  word,  "ideologues."  Now,  if  the 
general  enumeration  of  the  French  population  had  been 
made,  for  example,  in  1811,  the  Minister  of  Interior,  de 
Montalivet,  could  not  have  written  in  his  ExposS  de  la 
situaiion  de  I'Empire,  presented  to  the  Corps  LSgislatif, 
February  25,  1813:  "The  population  has  continued  to  in- 
crease; industry  has  made  new  progress;  never  have  the 
lands  been  better  cultivated;  the  manufactures  more  flour- 
ishing; at  no  period  in  our  history  has  wealth  been  more 
distributed  among  the  different  classes  of  society"! 

A  general  census  was  prescribed,  for  the  year  1821,  by  a 
circular  of  June  26, 1820.  But  it  is  probable  that  the  official 
table  of  the  population  which  it  furnished  and  which  was 
annexed  to  a  royal  ordinance  of  January  16,  1822,  was  ob- 
tained by  means  of  a  simple  estimate.  It  was  the  same  in 
1826  and  in  1831. 

From  1836  to  1901,  there  were  in  France  four  general 
enumerations  of  the  population.  Their  detailed  history 
would  require  long  explanations  and  would  not  be  in  place 
here.*  It  will  suffice  for  us  to  point  out,  in  a  word,  the  im- 
portant changes  which  were  made  in  the  methods  employed 
in  the  course  of  this  period  of  nearly  three  quarters  of  a  cen- 
tury. 

The  quinquennial  periodicity  of  enumerations  (1796, 1801, 

the  13th  session  of  the  Institut  International  de  SUUistiqtie  (The  Ha^e),  September 
B,  1911,  under  the  title:  NapoUon  Statislicien. 

*  This  history  will  be  found  in  the  Introduction  to  Vol.  I  of  the  Riivltatt  Statit- 
tiquet  du  recensement  gSniral  de  la  population  du  SU  Man,  1901,  pp.  2-14. 


288  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

1806),  was  at  first  only  a  matter  of  custom.  It  was  finally 
established  by  the  royal  decree  of  January  16,  1822.  It 
offers  indisputable  advantages.  It  renders  more  exact  the 
application  of  all  the  laws  which  deal  with  the  figure  for  the 
population,  and  it  assures  good  work  in  making  the  census 
because  it  makes  it  easy  to  keep  on  a  permanent  force  of 
trained  men. 

A  great  step  forward  was  taken  in  1836  thanks  to  the  use, 
for  the  first  time,  of  a  form  which  designated  the  inhabitants 
by  family  and  by  household  {par  famille  et  par  mSnage). 
It  was  completed  in  1876  by  the  individual  report  {bulletin). 
The  sheet  for  the  household  {feuille  de  mSnage)  is  kept,  but 
it  must  contain  as  many  individual  reports  as  there  are 
residents.  With  the  individual  report  there  was  obtained 
at  once  more  accuracy  in  enumeration  and  greater  ease  in 
compilation  {dSpouUlement) . 

Until  1881  the  census  was  not  taken  everywhere  at  the 
same  time;  its  duration  was  indeterminate  and  variable. 
In  1881  it  was  agreed  that  the  census  should  be  made  on  a 
fixed  day,  December  18,  and  that  it  should  take  in  all  people, 
in  a  commune,  who  had  spent  there  the  night  of  December  17. 

Finally,  in  1901,  it  was  decided  to  substitute  for  a  com- 
pilation by  communes  followed  by  a  recapitulation  by 
dSpartements  a  system  of  central  compilation  which  all 
French  statisticians  had  insisted  on  for  a  long  time.  In- 
stead of  a  compilation  scattered  over  the  30,000  communes 
of  France,  made  up,  to  tell  the  truth,  of  30,000  different 
compilations  in  which  the  too  numerous  chances  of  error 
could  hardly  be  diminished  by  revisions  in  the  prefectures, 
we  have  since  1901  a  single  compilation  conducted  by  a 
central  department,  especially  established  for  this  purpose, 
under  the  best  conditions  as  regards  accuracy  and  quickness. 
No  doubt  there  is  still  much  to  be  desired  in  point  of  accuracy 
and  speed.  But  that  is  due  to  the  faults  of  human  nature  at 
least  as  much  as  to  the  defects  of  om*  system  of  enumeration. 

The  general  enumerations  of  which  we  have  just  spoken 
were  not  the  only  ones  known  to  the  nineteenth  century. 


FRANCE  .  289 

There  were  also  partial  enumerations  and  local  enumera- 
tions. 

By  partial  enumerations  we  mean  those  which  included 
only  a  fraction  of  the  population,  for  example,  those  which 
were  made  from  1839  to  1845  and  from  1861  to  1865  and 
which,  among  other  objects,  determined  the  number  of 
workmen  employed  in  manufacturing. 

(^ 
Municipal  Statistics 

By  local  enumerations  we  mean  those  which  were  made 
in  certain  cities  of  France,  Paris,  Lyons,  Marseilles,  Bordeaux, 
Havre,  Nancy  and  Reims,  to  mention  only  the  more  im- 
portant. Those  of  Paris,  the  work  of  the  administration 
prifectorale  and  of  the  Municipality  of  the  Capital  deserve, 
as  much  for  the  fact  that  they  were  made  long  ago  as  for 
their  extent  and  value,  to  occupy  a  place  of  honor  in  the 
history  of  French  statistics  in  the  nineteenth  century.* 

In  1816  the  administration  prifectorale  of  the  Seine  con- 
ceived the  idea  of  resuming  and  renewing  the  Recherches 
Statistiques  sur  la  ville  de  Paris,  which  went  back,  it  seems, 
to  the  years  1802  and  1803,  and  which,  in  reality,  were  bound 
up  with  the  publication  of  the  actes  de  Vitat-civil  ordered  by 
Colbert  in  1670.  "The  most  important  object  of  these 
researches  was  the  complete  enumeration  of  the  population 
of  the  Capital;  they  succeeded,  finally,  in  1817  (February) 
in  surmounting  the  obstacles  which  had  up  to  that  time  stood 
in  the  way."t  These  investigations  were  carried  out  ac- 
cording to  a  program  "outUned,  after  an  exhaustive  dis- 
cussion of  all  the  questions,"  with  the  concurrence  of  the 
mathematician  Fourier.  The  program  realized  almost  all  de- 
sirable points  of  progress.  For  example,  it  allowed  for  the 
use  of  the  individual  report.     It  is  thanks  to  this  happy  in- 

*  We  may  note  also  three  surveys  of  industry  in  Paris  made  by  the  Chamber  of 
Commerce,  the  first  in  1848,  the  second  in  1860,  the  third  in  1872,  the  results  of 
which  were  set  forth  in  publications  of  great  interest. 

t  Becherdhes  Statistiques  sur  la  ville  de  Paris  et  le  Dipartemeni  de  la  Seine,  Vol.  I, 
Introduction,  p.  V.  This  Vol.  I  is  dated  1821.  It  is  the  one  that  contains  a 
judicial  study  by  Fourier  entitled:  notions  gin&rcdes  sur  la  population.,  pp.  1-94. 


290  MEMORIAL  VOLTJME 

novation  that  the  first  census  of  the  population  of  Paris  may 
serve  as  a  model  for  the  quinquennial  census  of  the  whole 
of  France,  and  that  the  PrSfet  de  la  Seine,  the  Count  de 
Chambrol,  was  justified  in  saying,  at  the  conclusion  of  his 
report  to  the  Ministry  of  Interior:  "Accuracy  is  here  carried 
to  the  highest  degree  that  the  administration  can  attain  in 
such  an  extensive  work  which  is  the  equivalent  of  the  census 
of  twelve  cities  of  60,000  each. "     (See  loc.  cit.  pp.  112-113.) 

After  having  given  a  rational  organization  to  the  census 
of  population,  the  authorities  in  Paris  wished  to  do  as  much 
for  the  odes  de  V Hat-civil.  And  so  were  established  by  a  de- 
cree of  the  prifet  certificates  of  death  which  the  physicians 
of  the  Hat-civil  were  required  to  draw  up  in  duplicate.  These 
certificates  were  very  detailed;  they  included  no  less  than 
thirteen  categories  of  information,  and  they  have  rendered 
great  service  to  public  hygiene  and  even  to  scientific  studies, 
though  they  were  not  fully  utilized  until  1865. 

For  the  whole  of  France,  on  the  contrary,  while  so  many 
improvements  were  introduced  into  the  taking  of  the  census 
of  population,  the  method  followed  in  the  enumeration  of  the 
odes  de  I'Stat-civil  remained  about  what  it  had  been  at  the 
end  of  the  eighteenth  century.  The  compilation  of  the 
registers  of  V Hat-civil  was  made  first  in  each  one  of  the  36,000 
communes  of  France  by  the  mayor,  or,  rather,  by  the  mayor's 
secretary.  Every  year,  in  the  month  of  January,  the  secre- 
tary was  obliged  to  run  through  his  three  registers  of  births, 
marriages  and  deaths,  to  reread  all  the  actes  and  extract  from 
them  a  multitude  of  information  which  he  had  to  consign 
to  a  dozen  lists  of  different  models.  Once  filled,  these  lists 
were  sent,  to  be  recapitulated  and  audited  (controles),  to  the 
Sous — 'prefecture  at  the  capital  {fihef-lieu)  of  the  dSparte- 
ment,  and  finally  from  the  prefecture  to  the  Ministry  of 
Commerce  to  be  sent  on  from  there  to  the  Bureau  de  la 
Statistiqus  gSnSrale;*  a  detestable  method  which  was  unan- 
imously condemned  by  all  those  who  cared  for  accuracy  and 

*  The  most  complete  details  regarding  all  these  operations  may  be  found  in  the 
Manuel  de  Statistigue  pratique  by  Tourquan  (1891),  pp.  114-164. 


FRANCE  291 

quickness  in  enumerations.  It  has  happily  been  abandoned 
since  1907. 

II.  If  the  nineteenth  century  has  been  a  century  of 
exceptional  progress  in  statistics,  that  is  in  great  part  because 
it  has  introduced  into  the  organization  of  statistics  specializa- 
tion of  function,  and  because  division  of  labor  has  resulted 
here,  as  in  industry,  in  the  increase,  both  in  quantity  and 
quality,  of  the  productive  power  of  man. 

The  special  statistical  institutions  created  in  France  in  the 
course  of  the  nineteenth  century  are  fairly  numerous. 

We  shall  say  a  few  words  about  the  principal  ones,  dis- 
tinguishing state  institutions  from  municipal,  administrative 
or  executive  institutions  from  advisory.  < 

Bureau  dd  la  Statistique  GSnirale 

This  is  the  first  in  point  of  time  and  in  importance  which 
should  be  taken  into  account  in  the  organization  of  French 
statistics. 

Some  obscurity  surrounds  its  origin.  Its  creation  has 
been  credited  to  Frangois  de  Neufchateau.*  That  it  may 
have  been  one  of  the  intentions  of  that  fervent  apostle  of 
statistics  is  highly  probable.  But  there  is  no  proof  that  it 
actually  originated  with  him.  Peuchet,  whose  authority  in 
this  matter  is  very  great,  tells  usf  "that  Lucien  Bonaparte 
formed  during  his  ministry  a  bureau  de  statistique  of  which 
he  made  M.  Duquesnoy  director,"  which  would  place  the 
date  of  its  creation  between  December  25, 1799,  and  Novem- 
ber 6,  1800.  But  it  seems  that  the  measure  was  not  defini- 
tive until  after  Lucien  Bonaparte  went  out  and  was  suc- 
ceeded in  the  Ministry  of  Interior  by  Chaptal,  if  one  may 
judge  by  a  decree  of  the  Consuls  of  the  3  Floreal  an  IX  (April 
23,  1801)  assigning  the  service  de  la  Statistique  g6nirale  to  the 
second  bureau  of  the  Ministry  of  Interior,  the  head  of  which 
then  was  Deferriere,  and  which  numbered  among  its  members 

*  See  Levasseur,  La  Population  Franfaise,  Vol.  I,  p.  298. 

t  See  the  preliminaiy  discourse  written  by  Peuchet  at  the  beginning  of  Vol.  I 
of  la  Statistique  glnirale  et  partieuliire  de  la  France  el  de  ses  colonies  by  Herbin,  T 
Vols.  -8°,  Paris,  1803. 


292  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Ballois,  the  founder  of  the  Annales  de  Statistique  and  of  the 
first  SocietS  de  Statistique  de  France.  Whence  it  would  follow 
perhaps  that  the  honor  of  creating  the  Bureau  de  la  Statis- 
tique gSnSrale  ought  to  be  divided  between  Lucien  Bonaparte 
and  Chaptal.* 

As  long  as  Chaptal  remained  in  the  Ministry  of  Interior 
the  activity  of  the  new  service  (jde  la  Statistique  gSnhale)  was 
remarkable.  We  find  the  proof  of  it  in  the  voluminous  cor- 
respondence which  it  held,t  for  about  three  years,  with  the 
prSfets  in  preparation  for  a  general  enumeration  of  the  popu- 
lation and  the  resources  of  France  which  these  officials  had 
been  ordered  to  make  by  Lucien  Bonaparte  and  Chaptal. 
But  after  Chaptal  went  out  of  office  things  underwent  a 
curious  change.  The  frifets  showed  little  zeal  in  fulfilling 
the  duty  which  he  had  entrusted  to  them.  The  central 
power  which  began  to  feel,  in  this  regard,  the  personal  influ- 
ence of  Napoleon  readily  took  its  cue  from  him,  and  the  great 
enterprise  of  the  general  statistics  of  France  with  which  the 
nineteenth  century  might  well  have  begun  remained  still- 
born. So  that  no  one  was  surprised  and  no  one  protested 
when  a  decree  of  September  1,  1812,  ordered  a  new  division 
of  labor  in  the  Ministry  of  Interior  and,  this  time,  suppressed 
the  Bureau  de  la  Statistique  gSnSrale. 

M.  Thiers,  Minister  of  Commerce  in  1833,  asked  the 
Chambres  for  authority  to  take  up  again  the  idea  of  publish- 
ing a  collection  of  documents  of  general  statistics  of  France. 
The  authorization  and  the  necessary  appropriations  were 
granted  and  the  bureau  was  reestablished,  and  it  began  in 
1835  to  publish  the  series  of  Documents  Statistiques  sur  la 
France.  This  series  consists  of  14  volumes  in  quarto,  the 
first  of  which  appeared  in  1852.  It  is  far  from  including  all 
national  statistics.  But  it  deals  with  some  of  the  chief 
branches,  territory,  population,  finance,  agriculture,  indus- 

*  See  on  this  subject:  First,  Un  Pr^et  du  Consvlai,  Beugnot  by  Etienne  Dejeau, 
directeur  des  Archives  (1907),  pp.  24i7-i886;  second,  Historique  et  Travaux  de  la  fin 
du  XVIIlime  siicle  au  dibul  du  XXime  par  la  direction  de  la  Statistique  giiUrale  de 
la  France  (1913),  pp.  5-8. 

t  See  Archives  Nationales,  Sferie  F.  20 — Statistique,  Vols.  I  and  II. 


FBANCE  293 

try,  foreign  trade,  consumption  and  prices.  And  on  some 
of  these  topics  it  goes  back,  so  far  as  is  possible,  to  the 
figures  of  the  eighteenth  century. 

Under  the  influence  of  poUtical  events  the  Bureau  de  la 
Statistique  gSnSrale  was  subjected  to  numerous  modifications, 
in  1852,*  1871,  1907  and  1910.  But  they  all  affected  the 
form  of  the  institution  rather  than  its  essential  character.f 
This  has  changed  very  little  fundamentally  in  eighty  years. 
It  is  not  so  comprehensive  as  the  title  given  to  the  bureau 
would  lead  us  to  suppose.  The  principal  object,  at  all 
periods,  has  been  the  population  of  France  as  it  is  given 
to  us  both  by  the  quinquennial  census  taken  since  1801  and 
by  the  annual  summaries  of  the  odes  de  I'Hat-civU.  The  only 
document  of  truly  general  statistics,  the  preparation  and 
publication  of  which  has  been  incumbent  on  the  bureau 
since  1878,  is  the  Annuaire  Statistique  de  la  France.  We  shall 
have  occasion  presently  to  speak  of  it  again. 

Bureau  de  Statistique  du  Ministere  de  la  Justice 

The  first  idea  of  assembling  and  publishing  statistical 
data  on  the  workings  of  the  department  of  justice  is  set  forth 
in  a  circular  of  3  Plumose  an  IX,  and  the  first  publication, 
very  limited  and  condensed,  appears  in  the  Exposi  de  la 
situation  de  I'Em'pire  presented  by  Montalivet  in  1813. 

The  annual  statistical  publications  of  the  Ministry  of 
Justice  date  from  1827.  They  deal  with  the  cases  of  the 
year  1825  and  only  with  cases  of  criminal  justice.  It  was, 
indeed,  due  to  the  initiative  of  a  director  of  affaires  crimi- 
nelles  in  the  Ministry  of  Justice,  M.  de  Guerry  de  Champneuf, 
that  the  publication  took  place.  And  it  is  doubtless  due 
to  the  same  initiative  that  the  Bureau  de  Statistique  which 
was  created  at  this  time  was  subjoined  to  the  Direction  des 
affaires  criminelles.    Data  relating  to  civil  justice  were  not 

*  The  decree  of  July  12, 1852,  was  not  limited,  as  many  imagine,  to  the  prepare^ 
tion  of  statistics  of  agriculture;  it  included  the  general  statistics  of  France.  The 
cantonal  commissions  were  to  coSperate  in  the  quinquennial  census  of  the  popula- 
tion and  the  compilation  of  the  registers  of  VHat-eivil. 

t  For  details  see  Historique  el  travaux    .    .    .    loc.  eit.  pp.  8-18. 


294  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

published  till  1833;  but  they  go  back  to  the  year  1821.  The 
first  volume  contained  data  for  the  judiciary  years  1821  to 
1830.  They  might  well  have  gone  back  further,  for  the 
collecting  of  them  resulted  from  carrying  out  a  decree  of 
March  30,  1808,  which  ordered  the  'proeureurs  giniraux  to 
send  to  the  Chancellerie  every  six  months  the  principal 
results  of  the  administration  of  Justice. 

Bureau  de  Statistique  du  Ministere  des  Travaux  Publics 

The  Ministry  of  Public  Works  is,  perhaps,  with  the  Minis- 
try of  Finance,  the  one  which  offers  for  numerical  observa- 
tion, in  all  the  domains  in  which  it  plays,  the  most  abundant 
and  varied  material.  A  great  number  of  special  departments 
of  statistical  service  were  established  in  the  ministry  in  the 
course  of  the  nineteenth  century. 

An  ordinance  of  December  14, 1844,  organizing  the  central 
administration  of  this  ministry,  created  under  it  a  Bureau 
Central  de  Staiistique  entrusted  with  "the  research  of  all 
documents  necessary  to  determine  the  general  movements 
of  travel  throughout  the  kingdom;  the  comparison  of  the 
costs  of  transportation  by  the  various  methods  of  commu- 
nication; the  study  of  the  influence  of  tariffs,  of  the  opening 
of  new  outlets,  of  analogous  facts  gathered  from  all  the  other 
countries  of  Europe;  the  centralization  of  all  information  on 
the  economic  condition  of  railways,"  etc.  In  1850  an  order 
of  May  31  reinforced  the  Bureau  with  a  Commission  de 
Statistique  centrale.  Three  ordinances  of  February  23,  1847, 
April  12,  1848,  and  June  22,  1863,  entrusted  to  bureaus  or 
special  departments  the  Statistics  of  Railways.  In  1874  a 
new  order,  dated  December  28,  established  a  Service  d'Studes 
Sconomiques  et  de  renseignements  statistiques,  whose  researches 
were  especially  confined  to  roads,  canals,  ports  and  tram- 
ways. We  may  mention,  finally,  the  creation  of  an  ordinance 
of  March  12,  1878,  of  the  Bureau  de  la  Statistique  gra-phique 
which  was  to  issue  for  more  than  twenty  years  that  beau- 
tiful publication  known  under  the  name  of  Album  de  Statis- 
tique graiphique,  for  which  we  owe  so  much  gratitude  to  the 


FRANCE  295 

learning  and  devotion  of  M.  Cheysson.  This,  according  to 
an  ordinance  of  July  3,  1878,  was  to  be  the  mission  of  this 
bureau:  "to  prepare  representative  (figuratives)  charts  and 
diagrams  expressing  in  graphic  form  statistical  documents 
relating  to  the  current  of  travel  of  passengers  and  freight  on 
lines  of  communication  of  all  kinds  and  at  the  sea  ports,  and 
to  the  construction  and  exploitation  of  these  lines  and  these 
ports,  in  a  word,  all  the  economic  facts,  technical  or  financial, 
which  relate  to  statistics  and  may  be  of  interest  to  the 
administration  of  public  works."  Bearing  on  the  same 
objects,  a  Bulletin  Mensuel  de  Statistique  et  de  ISgislation  com- 
parie  was  published,  beginning  with  1880,  by  the  Direction 
of  which  the  bureau  was  a  part  and  which  bore  the  name: 
Direction  des  cartes,  plans  et  archives  et  de  la  Statistique 
graphique.    The  Album  had  begun  to  appear  in  1879. 

Graphic  statistics  were  not,  certainly,  invented  in  1878. 
The  real  inventor  seems  to  be  William  Plajrfair,  a  most 
industrious  English  statistician  of  the  end  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  who  published  in  London,  in  1788,  Tableaux  d'arith- 
mHique  linSaire  of  which  two  translations  appeared  in  Paris, 
one  in  1789,  the  other  in  1802.  Graphic  statistics  were 
applied  as  early  as  1844,  explained  and  defended  in  a 
mSmoire  of  1861,  by  the  French  engineer  Minard,  inspector- 
general  of  bridges  and  causeways.  But  they  received  their 
final  confirmation  in  1878,  and  with  our  Ministry  of  Public 
Works  remains  the  honor  of  having  contributed  largely  to 
the  generalization  of  their  use  not  only  in  France  but  in 
foreign  countries. 

Why  was  it  necessary  that  the  regrettable  mistake  should 
have  been  made,  in  the  last  years  of  the  nineteenth  century, 
of  sacrificing,  for  the  purpose  of  reducing  the  budget,  some 
of  these  excellent  statistical  institutions?  The  Bureau  de  la 
Statistique  graphique  has  disappeared  and  with  it  the  Bulletin 
Mensuel  de  Statistique  et  de  Ugislatiofi  comparSe  and  the 
Album  de  Statistique  graphique.  In  particular  the  suppression 
of  this  Album  is  a  serious  loss  to  administration  and  to 
science. 


296  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Bureau  de  Statistique  et  de  Legislation  comparie  du  Ministere 

des  Finances 

Of  all  divisions  of  statistics  Finance  is  perhaps  that  in 
which  shines  most  brilliantly  the  progress  achieved  in 
France  in  the  nineteenth  century. 

With  mediocre  financial  organization  and  departments  of 
finance  still  more  mediocre  the  monarchy  could  not  but  have 
an  inadequate  system  of  financial  statistics,  too  condensed  to 
enlighten  the  privileged  few  who  had  the  right  to  consult 
them,  and  often  misleading.  The  same  thing  was  true, 
though  for  different  reasons,  under  the  Revolution  and  under 
the  Empire.  Financial  statistics  began  to  improve  only 
from  the  moment  when  there  were  established  in  our  financial 
legislation  the  correct  and  certain  methods  demanded  by  the 
practice  of  a  parUamentary  regime.  This  moment  may  be 
placed  somewhere  between  1817  and  1825.  M.  Stourm 
speaks  of  "the  restoration,  creator  of  financial  order."* 
One  can  speak  with  equal  truth  of  the  restoration,!  creator 
of  financial  statistics. 

Up  to  1877  all  the  departments  of  the  Ministry  of  Finance 
without  exception  compiled  the  statistics  of  their  operations 
and  also,  in  the  matter  of  imposts  for  example,  the  statistics 
of  the  facts  to  which  those  operations  applied.  Statistics 
were  at  once  the  necessary  condition  and  the  natural  result 
of  the  departments  discharging  their  functions  properly. 
But  each  of  the  departments  gave  to  its  statistical  work  the 
form  and  extent  which  it  saw  fit.  The  works  of  some  of  them 
were  regularly  published;  the  works  of  many  were  published 
only  accidentally  or  not  at  all. 

Leon  Say  was  Minister  of  Finance  in  1876.  He  had  the 
happy  idea  of  establishing  a  Bureau  de  Statistique  et  de 
ISgislation  compar6e  which  should  constitute  the  central 
statistical  department  of  the  ministry  and  which  should 
publish  a  Bulletin  Mensuel  in  which  should  be  grouped  and 
classified  documents  emanating  from  all  the  special  depart- 

*  See  Le  Budget,  Sime  edition,  p.  228. 

t  The  restoration  of  the  Bourbon  kings  181S. — ^Tr. 


FRANCE  297 

ments.  And  he  had  the  good  luck  to  find  at  hand  the  man 
most  competent  to  carry  out  his  idea,  namely,  Alfred  de 
Foville.  A  requisition  for  an  appropriation  (jdemande  de 
crSdit)  was  put  before  the  Chambres  in  the  proposed  budget 
of  1877.  This  is  an  extract  from  the  explanation  of  its 
purposes  which  we  find  at  the  beginning  of  the  first  section 
(livraison)  of  the  Bulletin  (January,  1877) ;  it  deserves  to  be 
quoted  in  full:  "The  work  of  statistics  and  comparative 
legislation,  in  spite  of  the  importance  and  the  interest  which 
it  has  for  an  administration  as  considerable  as  that  of  finance, 
has  never  been  centralized  in  a  definitive  way,  and  in  default 
of  a  common  management  and  of  sufficient  resources,  the 
attempts  which  have  been  made  repeatedly  to  give  to  this 
work  the  necessary  unity,  development  and  publicity  have 
always  remained  fruitless.  There  is  a  regrettable  gap  to  fill 
up.  The  usefulness  of  a  methodical  and  minute  observation 
of  economic  facts  is  today  universally  recognized,  and  purely 
financial  statistics,  perforce  omitted  from  the  publications  of 
the  Ministries  of  Agriculture  and  of  Commerce,*  constitute 
in  themselves  a  field  of  study  sufficiently  broad  to  justify  the 
organization  of  a  special  department  which  has  been  in- 
sistently demanded  for  a  long  time  by  parliamentary  com- 
missions and  by  French  and  foreign  economists.  The 
creation  of  a  Bureau  of  Statistics  will  allow  the  periodic 
presentation  to  the  public  of  interesting  documents  on  the 
various  financial  questions,  such  as:  national  receipts  and 
expenditures,  the  different  laws  on  the  matters  of  imposts, 
public  domain,  floating  values  {vcdeurs  mobUieres),  banks,  etc. 
The  annual  expense  will  not  exceed  30,000  francs. " 

And  this  is  the  response  which  was  made  to  this  requisition 
by  the  reporter  of  the  commission  on  the  budget  of  1877, 
M.  Adolphe  Cochery: 

"The  new  appropriations  asked  for  are  divided  as  follows: 

Personnel 20,000  frs. 

Material 2,500  frs. 

Printing 7,500  frs. 

*  The  Ministry  of  Agriculture  was  not  separated  from  the  Ministry  of  Commerce 
until  1881. 


298  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

"These  appropriations  are  necessary  to  create  in  the 
Ministry  of  Finance  a  Bureau  of  Statistics  and  comparative 
legislation  in  what  concerns  financial  questions.  A  monthly 
bulletin  would  give  to  the  public  the  work  collected  by  this 
bureau.  Your  commission  cannot  but  applaud  this  project. 
Documents  necessary  to  the  study  of  questions  which  are  so 
important  to  the  economic  future  of  this  country  are  lacking. 
We  propose  that  you  grant  to  the  Minister  of  Finance  the 
appropriations  which  he  asks. " 

Two  things  here  are  of  a  nature  to  surprise  a  reader  who 
has  not  been  forewarned.  The  first  is,  for  an  enterprise  of 
this  scope,  the  extreme  modesty  of  the  appropriation  asked 
for.  If  instead  of  being  asked  for  in  France  it  had  been 
asked  for  in  the  United  States,  it  would  have  been  a  matter 
not  of  30,000  francs  but  of  30,000  dollars,  perhaps  of  100,000, 
The  second  is  that  with  such  a  slim  appropriation  there 
could  be  obtained  the  magnificent  results  which  are  spread 
through  80  octavo  volumes  published  since  1877,  many  of 
which  run  to  700  and  800  pages. 

Without  doubt  the  figures  contained  in  the  published 
documents  were  not  gathered  by  the  Bureau  of  Statistics. 
The  collection  is  the  work  of  special  departments.  But  the 
work  which  properly  belongs  to  the  bureau,  which  was  for 
seventeen  years  the  personal  work  of  Alfred  de  Foville,  is 
the  choice  and  arrangement  of  the  material,  the  construc- 
tion from  this  material  of  tables  and  charts  bearing  on  facts 
enumerated  for  long  periods  and  thereby  offering  great  inter- 
est both  practical  and  scientific*  We  shall  revert  to  it  in 
the  second  part  of  this  work. 

A.  Bureau  des  Subsistances  et  de  la  Statistique  agricole 

B.  Office  de  renseignements  agricoles 

A.  The  decree  of  November  14,  1881,  which  created  in 
France  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture  gave  the  new  ministry 
a  Bureau  des  Subsistances  et  de  la  Statistique  agricole.    Neither 

*  See  our  study  of  Alfred  de  FovUle  {lAbraire  du  Syrey,  Paris,  1914),  p.  66. 


FRANCE  299 

the  ministry  nor  the  bureau  was  really  a  new  institution. 
The  ministry  had  as  its  antecedent  the  department  of  agri- 
culture subjoined  to  the  Ministry  of  Interior  in  1790,  and 
later,  under  the  Restoration,  to  the  Ministry  of  Commerce. 
And  the  Bureau  des  Subsistances  et  de  la  Statistique  went  back 
still  further,  for  we  find  it  connected  with  the  Contrdle 
gSnirale  des  Finances  in  1763. 

But  in  spite  of  the  age  and  specialization  of  this  organ  of 
statistics,  in  spite  of  the  bold  and  in  many  respects  remark- 
able attempt  which  was  confirmed  by  the  too  little  known 
decree  of  July  1,  1852,*  in  spite  of  the  decree  of  November 
14,  1881,  French  agricultural  statistics  differed  very  little  in 
the  nineteenth  century  from  what  they  had  been  in  the 
eighteenth.  The  data  were  furnished  by  arbitrary  and  super- 
ficial estimates  due  to  the  transient  collaboration  of  incom- 
petent administrators,  prefects,  under-prefects,  mayors, 
agriculturists  and  proprietors  chosen  haphazard.  Every- 
body agreed  in  this  and  everybody  embraced  in  a  prudent 
scepticism  all  agricultural  statistics  published  in  the  nine- 
teenth century,  the  decennial  statistics  of  1852,  1862  and 
1892  as  well  as  the  annual  statistics  and  even  the  interna- 
tional statistics  of  1873. 

A  profound  niodification  has  been  made  in  the  organiza- 
tion and  the  methods.  That  was  the  idea  and  the  purpose 
of  the  authors  of  the  laws  of  April  25,  1901,  and  August  27, 
1902.  Without  distorting  the  truth,  the  mention  of  these 
two  laws  seems  to  be  properly  included  in  the  history  of 
statistics  in  the  nineteenth  century. 

The  law  of  April  25,  1901,  founded  in  the  Ministry  of 
Agriculture : 

B.  Office  de  renseignements  agricoles. — ^It  is  the  successor  of 
the  Bureau  des  Subsistances  et  de  la  Statistique  agricole.  But 
with  duties  notably  enlarged  and  means  infinitely  strength- 
ened. 

*  The  SoeiHi  de  StatMque  de  Paris  has  had  the  happy  idea  of  pubUshing  lately 
the  text  of  this  decree  and  of  the  report  which  precedes  it.  (See  Journal  de  la 
SocUlS  de  Statistiqve  de  Paris,  May,  1904,  pp.  211  ft.) 


300  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Its  duties  were  defined  with  great  clearness  in  an  official 
note  contained  in  the  Bulletin  Mensuel  de  V  Office  for  January, 
1902  (pp.  1-7). 

"The  Office,"  says  this  note,  "is  at  once  a  department  of 
information,  of  study  and  of  popularization."  Of  the  details 
which  are  given  to  us  of  its  functions  these  are  the  parts 
which  concern  statistics:  "Research,  centralization  and  pub- 
lication of  statistical  information  on  agricultural  products 
in  France  and  abroad; — ^general  and  special  reports  on  agri- 
cultural products  and  foodstuflEs; — centralization  of  fiscal 
and  customs  statistics  relating  to  agricultural  products; — 
centralization  and  compilation  of  divers  periodic  information 
on  the  agricultural  situation  in  each  of  the  dSpartements  and 
abroad; — statistics  of  salaries  and  wages  of  agricultural 
laborers; — annual  and  periodic  agricultural  statistics; — 
cantonal  conamissions  and  municipal  sub-commissions  of 
agricultural  statistics; — graphic  statistics; — statistical  pub- 
lications of  every  nature,  Bulletin  of  the  Ministry  of 
Agriculture,  investigations  {enquites),  Annuaire  of  markets 
{f aires  el  marcMs)" 

And  after  these  details  the  note  adds:  "The  scope  of 
agricultural  statistics  will  be  progressively  enlarged,  not 
only  for  France  but  for  foreign  countries.  Until  now,  indeed, 
annual  statistics  furnished  information  only  on  a  limited 
number  of  agricultural  products,  leaving  out  other  food- 
stuffs which  are  not  less  important.  The  old  reports  relating 
to  animals  and  their  products  dealt  only  with  certain  cate- 
gories and  were  not  sufficiently  detailed.  The  old  statistics 
gave  no  indications  with  respect  either  to  agricultural  indus- 
tries or  to  agricultural  associations  or  the  numerous  labor 
unions  which  have  been  created  in  France  since  1884,  or  to 
the  different  mutual  benefit  organizations  connected  with 
these  unions.  Farmers,  finally,  possessed  no  information  on 
the  holding  of  public  or  private  markets  {f aires  et  marcMs). 
The  new  program  is  to  fill  in  these  omissions." 

The  next  question  is  by  what  means  such  a  vast  program 
is  to  be  realized  and  especially  how  one  shall  set  out  to 


FRANCE  301 

assemble,  without  too  great  a  chance  of  error,  all  the  elemen- 
tary data  of  agricultural  statistics? 

The  decree  of  August  27,  1902,  undertook  to  answer  this 
question.  Its  motives  and  objects  are  well  expressed  in  the 
report  which  presented  it  for  the  signature  of  the  President 
of  the  RepubUc  and  which  can  be  read  in  the  Bulletin  Men- 
suel  de  VOffice  des  rens&ignements  agricoles  with  the  text  it- 
self of  the  decree  (August,  1902,  pp.  1392-1405).  We  learn 
from  this  notably  that  the  Minister  of  Agriculture  had  been 
struck  by  the  inconvenient  results  of  the  co-existence  of 
annual  statistics  compiled  by  his  department  and  those 
compiled  by  the  comitSs  des  ravitaillement  of  the  Ministry 
of  War.  These  statistics  were  too  often  and  too  perceptibly 
divergent. 

It  created  four  different  organs  whose  duty  it  was  to  co- 
operate, each  according  to  its  own  rank  and  in  its  own  man- 
ner, in  estabhshing  agricultural  statistics. 

First,  communal  commissions  of  not  less  than  five  mem- 
bers nor  more  than  seven  under  the  presidency  of  the  mayor; 
second,  cantonal  commissions  composed  of  four  members 
of  the  right  and  six  to  twelve  members  named  by  the  prefect; 
third,  under-prefects  and  special  professors  of  agriculture; 
fourth,  prefects  and  departmental  professors  of  agriculture. 
And  above  these  four  organs  two  superior  organs,  whose 
mission  it  is,  one  in  an  executive  capacity,  the  other  in  a 
consultant  capacity,  to  direct  from  above  the  complete 
elaboration  of  agricultural  statistics;  the  Office  of  which  we 
have  just  spoken  and  the  ComiU  consultatif  de  Statistique 
agricole  which  is  another  creation  of  the  law  of  August  27, 
1902,  composed  of  forty  members,  twenty  from  the  right, 
twenty  nominated  by  the  Minister  of  Agriculture,  with  a 
permanent  commission  of  fifteen  members. 

It  will  be  enough  for  us  to  say  that  the  collaboration  of 
these  divers  organs  is  very  minutely  regulated  by  circulars 
or  instructions  to  the  prefects  and  the  department  professors 
under  the  dates  August  28,  September  18,  October  28, 
November  13  and  December  19,  1902,  and  to  call  attention 


302  MEMORUL  VOLUME 

to  the  precautions  taken  by  Article  57  of  the  law  to  reassure 
the  people  by  guaranteeing  that  the  statistical  investiga- 
tions shall  never  have  fiscal  consequences. 

We  shall  add  only  two  remarks. 

We  shall  note  in  the  first  place  the  important  position 
occupied  in  the  organization  of  agricultural  statistics  by  the 
professors  of  agriculture.  That  is  an  excellent  element  which 
was  lacking  in  the  application  of  the  decree  of  1852.  And  in 
the  second  place  we  shall  mention  one  of  the  most  original 
creations  of  the  decree  of  1902,  the  registre  des  Cultures  which 
was  to  be  kept  in  each  commune.  We  shall  give  an  idea  of 
the  capital  r61e  which  this  register  is  called  upon  to  play,  by 
quoting  Article  2  of  the  law:  "There  is  established  in  each 
commune  a  registre  des  Cultures  which  is  to  keep  the  index 
of  the  area  under  cultivation  and  that  of  the  average  yields 
of  produce;  this  register  is  intended  to  serve  as  the  basis  of 
agricultural  statistics." 

What  sort  of  future  is  in  store  for  this  new  organization.? 
It  is  too  soon  to  say.  It  is  more  complicated  and  unwieldy 
than  that  of  1852.  That,  indeed,  included  only  cantonal 
commissions.  There  are,  however,  reasons  to  hope  that  it 
will  be  more  solid  and  more  efficient.  But  it  would  be  im- 
prudent, we  believe,  to  go  so  far  as  to  say  that  it  is  sure  of 
complete  success.  It  is  enough,  in  order  to  have  some  doubts 
in  this  respect,  to  think  that  the  number  of  collaborators 
required  for  the  application  of  Article  5  of  the  law  of  1902 
is  at  least  180,000  and  may  go  as  high  as  252,000  for  the 
36,000  communes  of  France;  to  whom  must  be  added  the  10 
to  14  members  of  the  cantonal  commissions,  that  is,  for  the 
2,850  cantons,  35,000  to  40,000  persons.  This  immense 
army  of  statisticians  is  imposing  by  virtue  of  its  number. 
But  is  it  not  a  httle  disturbing  from  the  point  of  view  of 
quality? 

But  whatever  happens,  it  is  just  to  recognize  that  the 
laws  of  1901  and  1902  bear  witness  to  a  great  eflfort  and  great 
good  will*  to  strengthen  in  France  a  branch  of  statistics  that 

*  The  department  of  agriculture  desired,  in  particular  (see  the  Keport  cited  above. 


FRANCE  SOS 

embraces  in  its  researches  the  most  important  part  of  our 
national  wealth. 

Le  Conseil  SupSrieur  de  Siatistique 

Partly  foreseen  at  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century 
by  the  Abbe  de  Saint-Pierre,  under  the  name  of  AcadSmie 
Politique,  long  demanded,  in  the  course  of  the  nineteenth 
century  by  the  most  authoritative  statisticians,  this  Conseil 
was  created  by  a  law  of  February  19,  1885.  It  was,  by  the 
act  that  gave  birth  to  it,  and  it  remained,  subordinate  to  the 
department  of  general  statistics.  It  comprised,  originally, 
41  members,  14  from  the  Parlement  and  learned  bodies  and 
27  delegated  by  the  ministries.  This  number  was  increased 
to  62  by  two  laws,  of  July  24  and  November  20, 1893,  and  to 
68  by  a  law  of  April  3,  1912;  a  ministerial  order  of  January 
27,  1900,  very  happily  inspired,  gave  it  a  permanent  com- 
mittee of  20  members. 

Its  functions  arejpurely  consultative.  This  is  the  enumera- 
tion of  them  given  in  articles  of  the  decree: 

"It  gives  its  opinion:  1st,  on  the  choice  of  sources,  on  the 
methods,  on  the  outlines,  questionnaires  and  programs  which 
shall  be  submitted  to  it  by  public  departments,  as  well  as  on 
the  different  arrangements  necessary  to  impressing  upon 
oJ0Bcial  publications  a  certain  uniformity;  2d,  on  the  compo- 
sition and  editing  of  the  Annuaire  Statistique  de  la  France, 
which  is  intended  to  present  the  resume  of  official  statistics; 
3d,  on  the  undertaking  and  publication  of  new  statistics; 
4th,  on  maintaining  relations  between  the  departments  of  sta- 
tistical service  in  France  and  abroad;  5th,  on  the  organization 
of  the  Bibliotheque  de  Statistique  internationale  which  will  be 
established  at  the  Ministry  of  Commerce;  6th,  on  the 
pubUcity  to  be  given  to  the  work  of  the  Conseil;  7th,  on 
questions  relating  to  information  and  to  other  general  in- 
terests of  statistics." 

p.  1394),  to  try  to  realize  the  wishes  expressed  in  an  interesting  study  on  the 
"methods  and  results  of  agricultural  statistics  in  the  principal  producing  countries" 
presented  by  M.  Levasseur  to  the  Insiiiut  International  de  Statistique  (Session  at 
Buda-Pesth,  September,  1901). 


304  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

The  report  of  the  deliberations  of  the  Conseil  is  published 
in  the  Bulletin  du  Conseil  SupSrieur  de  Statistique.  The 
collection  of  this  Bulletin  is  as  yet  of  very  modest  size.  That 
is  not  the  fault  of  the  Conseil.  The  public  authorities  have 
not  appealed  as  much  as  naight  be  desired  to  its  devotion 
and  competence.  It  is  enough,  however,  to  glance  at  the 
nunutes  of  its  meetings  to  note  the  number  and  interest  of 
the  questions  it  has  treated  and  to  be  convinced  that  one  will 
find  there,  when  one  wishes,  the  elements  of  some  of  the 
necessary  reforms  which  have  still  to  be  made  in  French  sta- 
tistics. 

Le  Bureau  de  Statistique  de  la  Ville  de  Paris 

Statistical  pubHcations  of  the  city  of  Paris  and  even  pub- 
Ucations  of  considerable  importance  are  anterior  to  the  crea- 
tion of  a  special  department  of  mimicipal  statistics.  Thus, 
without  going  back  to  Colbert  and  M.  Grimbarel,  com- 
missaire  au  Chdtelet,  who  published,  in  1771,  two  folio  vol- 
umes under  the  title  I'Etat  Civil  de  Paris,  the  remarkable 
work  contained  in  the  six  volumes  of  Recherches  Statistiques, 
pubUshed  from  1821  to  1860,  does  not  seem,  whatever 
Levasseur  may  say,  to  have  been  prepared  by  a  Bureau  de 
Statistique* 

The  initiative  for  the  creation  of  a  Bureau  Central  de 
Statistique  was  taken  by  the  Municipal  Conseil  of  Paris,  in  a 
vote  of  July  26,  1877,  and  it  was  realized  by  an  order  of 
the  Prefect  of  the  Seine,  M.  Herold,  December  24,  1879, 
which  instituted:  first,  a  bureau  of  municipal  statistics  and, 
besides  that,  second,  a  commission  of  municipal  statistics 
playing  the  same  part  with  reference  to  the  bureau  as  that 
played  by  the  Conseil  Supirieur  de  Statistique  with  reference 
to  the  Service  de  la  Statistique  giniral  de  la  France. 

The  task  assigned  to  this  new  organ  of  statistics  was 
double:  first,  to  centralize  statistical  information  assembled 
by  the  different  municipal  departments,  finance,  highways, 

*See  the  volume  of  the  SBime  anniversaire  de  la  SociMi  de  Statistique  de  Pari*, 
1886,  pp.  200  and  202. 


FRANCE  305 

water,  police,  and  oversee  their  publication;  second,  to  elab- 
orate the  statistical  information  which  concerns  the  actes 
de  l'6tat-civil,  paying  special  attention  to  documents  which 
are  of  interest  from  the  point  of  view  of  public  hygiene  and 
sanitation. 

One  may  say,  without  exaggeration,  that  this  task  has 
been  fulfilled  in  a  superior  manner  for  thirty  five  years  by 
Dr.  A.  BCTtillon  who  was  the  organizer  of  the  Bureau,  and 
by  his  son  who  succeeded  him  in  1883,  Dr.  Jacques  Bertillon. 
The  collection  of  the  Annuaire  Statistique  de  la  ville  de  Paris, 
the  first  volume  of  which  bears  on  the  year  1880,  is  one  of 
those  most  honorable  to  contemporaneous  French  statistics. 

Part  II.    Actual  Organization  of  Statistics 

All  the  great  departments  of  public  service  in  France 
cooperate  today,  under  very  different  forms,  in  the  elabora- 
tion and  publication  of  official  statistics.  They  are  each 
connected  with  one  of  the  ministries.  We  must,  then,  make 
our  divisions  according  to  the  ministries  in  order  to  enumer- 
ate and  describe  our  departments  of  pubUc  service  from  the 
point  of  view  of  statistics. 

But  our  twelve  ministries,  in  turn,  may  from  this  point 
of  view  be  divided  into  three  distinct  groups  if  we  wish  to 
take  account  of  the  nature  of  the  facts  which  they  have  to 
enumerate. 

First.  Group  of  ministries  for  which  statistics  have  a 
primarily  economic  character : 

a.  Ministry  of  Labor  and  Social  Welfare  (PrSvoyance). 

b.  Ministry  of  Agriculture. 

c.  Ministry  of  Finance. 

d.  Ministry  of  Public  Works. 

e.  Ministry  of   Commerce,  Industry,  Posts   and  Tele- 

graphs. 

f.  Ministry  of  Colonies. 

g.  Ministry  of  Interior. 

h.     Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs. 


306  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Second.  Group  of  ministries  for  which  statistics  have  a 
primarily  moral  character: 

a.  Ministry  of  Public  Instruction  and  Fine  Arts. 

b.  Ministry  of  Justice  and  Penal  Institutions  {service 
fSnitentiare) . 

Third.     Group  of  ministries  of  a  military  character,  which 

have  as  their  principal  mission  national  defense; 

a.  Ministry  of  War. 

b.  Ministry  of  Navy. 

We  shall  pass  them  in  review  in  the  preceding  order  of 
enumeration. 

First  Group 

First.  Ministere  du  Travail  et  de  la  Privoyance  Sociale. — 
It  is  the  subordination  of  the  Statistique  gSnSral  de  la  France 
to  this  ministry  which  gives  it,  in  spite  of  the  very  recent 
date  of  its  creation  (law  of  October  26,  1906),  exceptional 
importance  in  the  domain  of  statistics. 

The  division  of  general  statistics  has  been,  since  the  law  of 
November  1, 1910,  an  autonomous  department  in  the  sense 
that  it  is  placed  under  the  direct  authority  of  the  Minister 
of  Labor. 

Under  the  supreme  direction  of  a  director  and  an  under- 
director  the  department  of  la  Statistique  GSnSrale  is  divided 
into  six  distinct  sections.* 

I.  The  Section  of  compilations  and  calculations  whose 
activity  is  principally  concerned  with  the  bulletins,  schedules 
and  memoranda  (borderaux)  of  the  quinquennial  census  and 
with  the  lists  {fiches)  of  VMat-dvil.  The  generalization  of 
the  fiches  for  the  enumeration  of  the  actes  d'Hat-dvil  dates 
from  1907. 

II.  The  section  of  demographic  statistics. 

III.  The  section  of  industrial  statistics. 

IV.  The  section  of  economic  statistics. 
V.  The  section  of  social  statistics. 

VI.  The  section  of  the  Bibliotheque. 

*We  aie  summing  up  here  long  and  interesting  details  given  by  the  service  de  la 
i5<a<u%i<e  9^nJra2e  itself  in  the  pamphlet  HixJongue  e<  7rai>aii2    .    .    .    pp.  23-45. 


FRANCE  307 

Duties 

The  statistical  activity  of  the  service  de  la  Statistique 
gSnSrcde  manifests  itself  in  two  ways: 

First,  by  works  of  a  general  bearing  which  fully  justify 
its  title; 

Second,  by  special  works  dealing  with  some  limited  statis- 
tical subject. 

A.  Works  of  a  General  Nature 

These  works  are  of  two  kinds:  compilations  and  publica- 
tions. 

a.  Compilations. — Le  service  de  la  Statistique  gSnSrale  does  not 
confine  itself  to  compiling  the  enumerations  which  are  made 
under  its  direction.  It  can  also  compile  enumerations  made 
by  other  public  departments.  This  generalization  of  func- 
tion was  instigated  by  a  vote  passed  in  1900  by  the  Conseil 
SupSrieur  de  Statistique  of  which  this  is  the  text:  "that  the 
central  office  created  for  the  compilation  of  the  quinquennial 
census  be  put  at  the  disposal  of  the  public  administrations 
whenever  they  shall  judge  it  opportune  to  have  recourse 
to  it. "  Although  renewed  in  1903,  this  vote  has  not  so  far 
been  often  applied.  The  examples  which  one  can  cite  are 
very  encouraging  but  they  are  all  too  rare.  Certainly 
among  the  enimierations  made  by  the  various  departments  of 
public  service,  there  are  some,  such  as  those  in  which  the 
facts  enumerated  are  drawn  from  the  registers  kept  by  the 
departments,  that  could  not  well  be  compiled  by  the  service 
de  la  Statistique  ginSrale.  But  it  might  be  entrusted  with 
the  compilation  in  all  cases  where  use  is  to  be  made  of  bulle- 
tins and  fiches. 

h.  Publications. — ^The  publications  of  a  general  nature 
are  two  in  number,  one  annual,  the  other  quarterly. 

First.  The  annual,  which  is  the  older  (it  goes  back  to 
1878),  and  by  far  the  more  important,  is  I'Annuaire  Statistique 
de  la  France. 

An  Annuaire  de  Statistique  is  the  methodical  yearly  group- 
ing or  resume  of  all  statistical  documents  emanating  from 
the  various  departments  of  public  service  of  a  country  and 


308  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

bearing,  as  far  as  possible,  on  the  facts  of  a  given  year,  on 
those  of  the  year  nearest  to  the  date  of  publication . 

Such  is  the  elementary  idea  of  VAnnuaire  Statistique .  It 
is  the  same  in  all  countries,  and  they  constitute  the  large 
majority,  in  which  this  kind  of  publication  exists. 

The  habit  has  spread,  for  some  time,  of  adding  to  the 
figures  for  the  year  for^which  the  Annuaire  is  made,  first, 
those  of  a  more  or  less  extended  period  which  are  furnished 
by  the  old  statistics  of  the  country;  second,  those  furnished 
by  foreign  statistics  which  seem  to  be  comparable  to  the 
first.  The  Annuaire  has  thus  become  a  document  of  national 
and  of  international  statistics,  and  thereby  its  twofold  value, 
at  once  practical  and  scientific,  has  been  greatly  increased. 

The  value  of  an  annuaire  depends  on  the  quality  of  the 
classifications  which  it  applies  to  an  enormous  mass  of 
social  facts  that  are  subject  to  numerical  observation,  on 
the  quantity  of  figures  or  tables  of  figures  which  it  contains, 
on  the  clarity  of  their  arrangement,  on  the  ease  with  which 
it  can  be  handled.  Without  attaining  perfection  (probably 
nobody  will  ever  attain  it)  the  service  de  la  Statistique  gSnSr- 
ale  de  la  France,  guided  and  sustained  by  the  Conseil  SupS- 
rieure  de  Statistique,  can  take  credit  for  having  given  us  one 
of  the  best,  most  complete,  most  instructive  Annuaires 
which  one  can  consult. 

These  are  the  grand  divisions  of  the  Annuaire,  forming 
the  thirty  third  volume  of  the  collection,  which  deals  with 
the  year  1913  and  appeared  in  1914. 
I.  Annual  tables  (338  pp.) . 
Part  I.  Climatology. 

Part  II.  Territory  and  population — State  of  pop- 
ulation {Etat  des  personnes). 
Part  III.  Production  and  economic  movement. 
Part  IV.  Revenues  and  consumption. 
Part  V.  Government  and  administration. 
Part  VI.  Colonies  and  protectorates. 
II.  Retrospective  tables  (155  pp.). 
III.  Information  concerning  foreign  countries  (70  pp.). 


FRANCE  309 

In  the  six  parts  of  the  annual  tables,  as  in  the  retrospective 
tables  and  in  the  international  statistics,  the  source  of  all  the 
figures  is  always  carefully  indicated. 

Second.  The  second  publication  of  a  general  nature  is, 
since  October,  1911,  the  Bulletin  de  la  Statistique  ginSrale  de 
la  France  (large  octavo  of  112  pages  per  number). 

Like  the  Annuaire,  the  Bulletin  deals  with  the  total  col- 
lection of  social  facts  observed  by  statistics  in  France  and 
abroad.  But  its  object  is  to  publish  the  figures  almost 
immediately  upon  their  appearance  and  thus  to  put  them  at 
the  disposal  of  the  public  much  more  rapidly  than  is  possible 
in  the  case  of  the  Annuaire. 

And  it  does  not  confine  itself  to  giving  figures.     It  gives 

also: 

a.  Returns  which  provide  information  about  the  most 
important  statistical  work  in  France  and  abroad. 

b.  Resume  of  laws  and  orders  which  have  statistical  in- 
terest. 

c.  Special  and  original  studies  in  which  statistical  data 
are  handled  with  individual  authority. 

B.  Special  Works  on  Limited  Topics 

Here  one  can  distinguish  three  varieties  of  work : 

a.  The  organization  and  direction  of  enumerations. 

b.  Their  compilation. 

c.  The  publication  of  the  results. 

a.  The  quinquennial  enumeration  of  the  French  popula- 
tion is  the  chief  work  of  the  service  de  la  Statistique  gSnirale 
de  la  France.  Among  the  other  enumerations  which  it 
organizes  and  directs  we  may  mention:  the  census  of  officials 
(fonctionnaires)  undertaken  in  1905  in  accordance  with  a 
vote  of  the  Conseil  SupSrieur  de  Statistique;  that  of  wages  and 
the  cost  of  living  at  the  present  time  and  during  preceding 
periods;  that  of  motive  powers  (forces  matrices)  in  1906. 

b.  Compilation,  properly  speaking,  presupposes  an  enum- 
eration in  which  the  facts  are  counted  by  means  of  schedules 
or  fiches  applying  to  each  one  of  them,  as  is  done  today  for 
the  general  census  and  for  that  of  the  actes  de  I'itat-dvil. 


310  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

It  consists  of  bringing  together  all  statistical  operations 
which  allow  the  drawing  of  results  from  the  enumerations. 
These  operations  are  notation,  classification,  mechanical 
counting  of  the  schedules  and  verification  of  the  count. 

c.  Publication  of  results.  It  is  the  quinquennial  census 
of  the  population  which  supplies  the  material  for  the  most 
important  publications  of  the  service  de  la  Statistique  gSnSrale 
de  la  France.  They  habitually  bear  the  title:  RSsultats 
Statistiques  du  recensement  ghtSral  de  la  population. 

Their  extent  varies  greatly.  The  results  of  the  enumera- 
tion of  1856  were  contained  in  a  volume  of  184  pages;  those 
of  the  enumeration  of  1891  in  two  volumes  of  814  and  349 
pages.  Those  of  the  enumeration  of  1896  filled  four  volumes 
amounting  to  2,751  pages.  Finally,  the  results  of  the 
enumeration  of  1901  filled  four  volumes  amounting  to  S,816 
pages.  These  differences  in  extent  are  explained  by  differ- 
ences in  content.  Indeed  it  is  one  of  the  peculiarities  of 
these  publications  that  their  content,  since  1901,  has  changed 
every  five  years.  When  the  census  takes  place  in  a  year 
whose  date  ends  in  1,  the  figures  relating  to  the  kat-dvil  of 
individuals  are  given  in  greater  detail.  When  it  takes  place 
in  a  year  whose  final  figure  is  6,  preference  is  given  to  details 
on  industries  and  occupations. 

Moreover,  since  1891,  there  has  almost  always  been  an- 
nexed to  the  general  census  of  population  a  census  limited  to 
some  particular  object,  the  inquiry  proper  to  this  object 
being  especially  facilitated  by  the  operations  of  the  general 
enumeration.  Thus  in  1891  a  detailed  enumeration  was 
made  of  strangers  living  in  France.  In  1901  there  was  taken 
a  special  census  of  motive  powers,  habitations,  families, 
blind  and  deaf-mutes.*  The  census  of  families  and  habita- 
tions was  taken  again  in  1906. 

While  the  census  of  population  has  always  been  quinquen- 
nial, that  of  the  axles  de  Stat-civU  has  for  a  long  time  been 

*It  is  fitting  to  call  attention  to  F Album  graphique  in  which  the  service  de  la  Statis- 
tiqye  girUrale  illustrated  the  census  of  1901.  This  album,  published  in  1907,  con- 
tains no  less  than  273  plates. 


FRANCE  311 

annual,  and  an  annual  publication  made  known  the  results 
of  it. 

Let  us  recall  again,  for  it  was  a  great  innovation  which 
cannot  be  too  strongly  insisted  on,  that  since  1907  local  ad- 
ministrations have  been  relieved  of  all  statistical  work 
which  touches  on  the  actes  de  I'Stai-dvil.  Their  task  is 
limited  to  making  a  record  of  each  of  these  actes  on  a  fiche 
and  sending  every  six  months  the  collection  of  fiches  to  the 
service  de  la  Statistique  gSnSrale  de  la  France.  It  was  also 
in  1907  that  it  was  decided  to  pubUsh,  every  five  years  only, 
the  detailed  results  of  the  compilation  of  these  fiches.  A 
summary  table  of  the  number  of  births,  marriages  and  deaths 
is  inserted  in  the  Journal  Offidel  every  six  months. 

For  the  complete  detail  of  the  publications  of  the  service 
de  la  Statistique  gSnSrale  de  la  France,  we  shall  take  the  liberty 
of  referring  to  the  pamphlet  {Historique  et  travaux), 
which  we  have  already  cited,  and  to  the  lists  which  are  to  be 
found  on  the  back  of  each  of  the  publications  which  have  ap- 
peared.* 

Travaux  Statistiques  dus  aux  services  ginhaux  du  Ministere 
du  Travail. — ^The  mere  mention  of  them  will  be  enough  to 
show  that  the  service  de  la  Statistique  gSnSrale  de  la  France 
does  not  absorb  all  the  statistical  activities  of  the  Ministry 
of  Labor. 

First.  Statistics  relating  to  labor  and  the  conditions  of 
the  workers,  to  cooperative  societies,  are  prepared  by  the 
first  bureau  of  the  department  of  labor.  It  publishes  the 
Bulletin  du  Ministere  du  Travail  (formerly  the  Bulletin  de 
I' Office  du  Travail). 

Second.  The  annual  statistics  of  strikes  have  been  pub- 
lished since  1891  by  the  third  bureau  of  this  same  depart- 
ment. 

Third.  The  statistics  of  industrial  accidents  are  published 
by  the  first  bureau  of  the  department  of  Insurance  and  Social 

*We  may  note  particularly:  First,  La  Statistique  internOtioncde  du  mouvement 
de  la  Population,  1907  (-8°,  880  pp.).  published  at  the  request  of  the  Institul 
Jnlemational  de  Statistique;  second,  the  second  volume  of  this  publication  dealing 
with  the  years  1901-1910,  which  appeared  m  1913  (I  Vol.  -8°,  298  pp.). 


312  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Welfare  (PrSvoyance)  in  the  form  of  a  report  inserted  in  the 
Journal  Officiel. 

Fourth.  The  statistics  of  the  operations  of  the  ordinary 
Savings  Banks  and  of  the  National  Savings  Bank  are  pre- 
pared by  the  second  bureau  of  this  same  department. 

Fifth.  The  statistics  of  Mutual  Benefit  Societies  are 
prepared  by  the  second  bureau  of  the  department  of  In- 
surance  {MutualiU). 

Sixth.  The  first  bureau  of  the  division  of  pensions  for 
workmen  and  peasants  has  the  task  of  determining,  in  an 
annual  report  to  the  President  of  the  Republic,  the  statistics 
of  these  pensions. 

Seventh.  The  division  of  the  Inspection  of  Labor  (second 
bureau  of  the  department  of  labor)  publishes  the  statistics  of 
establishments  subject  to  inspection. 

Ministry  of  Agriculture 

In  the  value  of  the  capital  invested,  in  the  number  of  per- 
sons occupied,  in  the  annual  revenues  produced,  agriculture 
is  incontestably  the  master  industry  of  our  national  economy. 
Without  falling  into  physiocratic  exaggerations  one  can  say 
that  the  tillable  soil  is  the  great  wealth  of  France. 

This  explains  the  extreme  importance  of  agricultural 
statistics  and  the  immense  interest  which  attaches  to  all 
measures  directed  to  strengthening  its  organization  and 
giving  to  its  figures  more  solid  guaranties  of  accuracy. 
On  the  day  when  these  statistics  shall  be  firmly  established, 
we  shall  be  able  to  say  that  a  great  step  has  been  taken 
toward  the  census  and  evaluation  of  the  wealth  of  France. 

Statistics  are  established  in  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture: 

I,  by  special  departments  {services)  with  statistics  as  their 
principal  function: 

II,  by  the  general  departments  of  the  ministry. 

Special  Departments. — ^These  departments  of  service  are: 

a.  rOffice  de  renseignements  agricoles  which  is  the  essential 

part  of  the  actual  organization  and  forms  the  third  bureau  of 

the  Direction  de  V  enseignement  et  des  services  agricoles  of  the 

Ministry  of  Agriculture. 


PRANCE  318 

b.  The  commissions  and  oflSicials  appointed  under  the  law 
of  August  27,  1902,  to  collect  for  the  whole  area  of  the  coun- 
try the  elementary  data  which  are  to  be  put  to  use  by  the 
Office. 

The  short  historical  explanation  which  we  have  made 
above  has  led  us  to  speak  of  these  two  branches  of  service, 
of  their  mechanism  and  duties. 

We  shall  content  ourselves  with  citing  here  the  statistical 
publications  in  which  their  work  is  summed  up. 

There  are  two  periodic  publications  and  some  non- 
periodic  publications: 

First.  The  Bulletin  Mensuel  de  I'Office  de  renseignements 
agricoles  constitutes  every  year  two  volumes  of  1,200  pages 
each,  in  which  statistics  hold  a  principal  place.  It  dates 
from  January  1,  1902. 

Second.  The  Statistique  agricole  annuelle.  Here  in  one 
octavo  volume  of  about  300  pages,  since  1902,  is  the  fesseintial 
statistical  document.  We  have  before  us  the  volume  relat- 
ing to  the  year  1914,  published,  in  spite  of  the  war,  in  the 
course  of  1916.     These  are  the  principal  divisions  of  it: 

a.  Area  of  the  different  parts  of  the  territory  of  France, 
b.  Table  of  crops  for  the  year  1914.  c.  Farm  animals;  on 
December  31,  1914;  for  all  France  during  the  ten  years  past, 
d.  Industries  for  converting  farm  products,  e.  Imports 
and  exports  of  materials  and  products  of  interest  to  agri- 
culture in  1912,  1913  and  1914.  f .  The  supply  of  provisions 
in   Paris. 

These  six  divisions  form  the  first  part  of  the  volume  (196 
pp.).  They  are  followed  by  a  second  part  devoted  to  retro- 
spective tables  (127  pages),  going  back  to  the  beginning  of 
the  nineteenth  century  and  of  great  interest.  We  shall  cite 
notably:  the  table  of  the  prices  of  corn  in  France  from  1801 
to  1914,  distinguishing  the  calendar  year  and  the  agricul- 
tural year  (August  1,  July  31) ;  the  table  of  the  average  price 
per  kilogram  of  bread  in  Paris  from  1801  to  1914;  the  aver- 
age price  per  kilogram  of  meat  (net  weight)  at  the  Villette 
(cattle  market),  by  kind  and  by  quality,  from  1814  to  1914, 


314  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

The  non-periodic  publications  acquaint  us  with  the  re- 
sults of  special  investigations  undertaken  by  the  Office  des 
renseignements.  The  principal  ones,  those  of  the  last  years, 
bear  the  following  titles. 

1.  Inquiry  into  the  dairy  industry  in  France  and  abroad. 

2.  Short  account  of  the  trade  in  agricultural  products 
(Vol.  I,  vegetable  products;  Vol.  II,  animal  products). 

3.  Cultivation,  production  and  trade  of  corn  in  the  world. 

4.  The  small  rural  property  (monographic  inquiries, 
1908-1909). 

5.  Inquiry  concerning  agricultural  wages. 

An  amount  of  work  which  surely  deserves  at  times  certain 
criticisms,  but  which  deserves  still  more  the  praises  of  all 
those  who  wish  to  see  the  use  of  statistics  develop  and 
improve.* 

Statistics  Compiled  by  the  General  Departments  of  Service 
of  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture. — ^We  can  cite  six  examples  and 
we  should  refrain  from  saying  that  there  are  not  more. 

1.  The  statistics  of  forestry  are  compiled  by  the  first 
section  of  the  second  bureau  of  the  Direction  gSnSrale  des 
Eaux  et  Forits.  It  is  a  considerable  work,  generally  well 
done.  It  has  been  undertaken  twice,  at  an  interval  of 
thirty  years,  in  1878  and  in  1908.  The  results  in  1878  filled 
two  small  quarto  volumes,  those  of  1908  filled  two  folio 
volumes.  It  is  true  that  the  latter  contain  a  superb  col- 
lection of  forestry  charts  of  86  dSpartements  of  France. 

2.  Hydraulic  statistics,  with  charts,,  plans  and  graphics, 
have  been  drawn  up  with  much  care,  for  several  years,  by 
the  department  of  technical  hydraulic  studies  which  is  also 
subordinate  to  the  Direction  gSnSrale  des  Eaux  et  Forets. 

3.  The  statistics  of  the  stud  {de  la  monte)  of  the  national 
stallions  and  the  licensed  stallions  are  prepared  by  the  Direc- 
tion des  Haras  (breeding  studs). 

"The  great  water-powers  of  France  have  been,  for  fifteen  years,  owing  to  the 
enlightened  efforts  of  the  Direction  de  I'hydravlique  and  of  the  Direction  gSnirale  des 
Eaux  et  Forets,  the  subject  of  methodical  inquiries  the  statistical  results  of  which 
already  fill  ten  beautiful  octavo  volumes — ^too  little  known. 


FRANCE  315 

4.  The  Direction  des  services  sanitaires  et  scientifiques  et 
de  la  repression  des  fraudes  publishes  annual  statistics  on  its 
work  and  its  results. 

5.  Le  Service  du  Credit,  de  la  CoopSration  et  de  la  Mutuality 
agricoles  publishes  the  statistics  of  institutions  of  agricultural 
credit  in  France  and  abroad. 

6.  The  same  service  compiles  the  statistics  of  CoopSratives 
and  of  granges  (syndicats  agricoles). 

Ministry  of  Finance 

Let  us  recall  that  in  this  ministry,  where  everything  is 
done  and  measured  by  figures,  statistics  are  inherent  in  the 
functioning  of  all  departments.  And  here,  happily,  where 
most  often  statistics  make  themselves,  they  permit  of  being 
easily  elaborated,  with  guaranties  of  accuracy  almost  mathe- 
matical. 

For  the  Bureau  de  Staiistique  et  de  Ugislation  comparie, 
founded  by  Leon  Say  in  1876,  we  refer  to  the  details  given 
above  (see  p.  296). 

We  shall  mention  here  only  the  most  important  of  the 
branches  which  make  statistics  an  accessory  to  their  prin- 
cipal function. 

First.  The  Direction  gSnSrale  de  la  ComptabilitS  puhlique 
deserves  without  doubt  to  be  placed  in  the  fij-st  rank.  The 
first  drafts  of  the  budget,  the  accounts  of  receipts  and  the 
Compte  gSnSrale  de  V  administration  des  Finances  which  it  is 
its  duty  to  prepare  and  publish  every  year  are  in  fact  docu- 
ments of  financial  statistics.  The  most  extensive  and  by 
far  the  most  instructive  is  the  Compte  gSnSrale.  Its  publica- 
tion was  ordered  by  the  law  of  19  Nivose  an  IX  (January  9, 
1800).  The  first  copy  deals  with  the  year  1800.  Its  point 
in  time  adds  singularly  to  its  value.  It  is  remarkable, 
moreover,  that  not  all  the  statistical  tables  which  one  finds 
there  were  elaborated  by  the  Direction  gSnSrale  de  la  Compt- 
abilitS. Some,  such  as  the  tables  relating  to  the  pubUc 
debt  in  all  its  forms,  were  prepared  by  the  Direction  de  la 
dette  inscrite. 


316  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Second.  The  five  Directions  gSnirales,  called  also  RSgies, 
the  Directions  gSnSrales  des  Contributions  directes,  des  Con- 
tributions indiredes,  de  V Enregistrement  et  des  Domaines,  des 
Douanes  et  des  Manufactures  de  I'Etat,  are  all  great  producers 
of  statistics.  Their  statistical  works,  as  numerous  and 
varied  as  their  duties,  are  to  be  counted  among  the  richest 
contributions  to  the  economic  statistics  of  France.  The 
results  of  these  works,  whether  periodic  or  not,  are  generally 
published  in  the  Bulletin  de  Statistique  et  de  Legislation  com- 
parSe.  They  are  also,  however,  sometimes  set  forth  in 
special  publications.  The  same  is  the  case  with  the  results  of 
the  great  inquiries  into  developed  real  estate  and  undeveloped 
real  estate  undertaken  by  the  Direction  ginSrale  des  Contribu- 
tions directes.  It  is  above  all  the  case  with  customs  statistics 
{la  Statistique  douaniere). 

The  documents  of  la  Statistique  douaniere  are  of  such 
dimensions  that  they  can  hardly  be  more  than  summarized 
in  the  Bulletin  de  Statistique  et  de  Legislation  comparSe. 
Since  they  were  originated  they  have  always  taken  the  form 
of  distinct  publications.  It  is  fitting  to  call  especial  atten- 
tion to  them  here. 

La  Statistique  douaniere,  regularly  established,  goes  back, 
as  we  have  seen,  to  the  year  1716.  Its  regular  publication 
came  much  later.  It  is  true  that  Roland  under  the  Conven- 
tion (September  21,  1792-October  25,  1795— Tr.)  and 
Chaptal  under  the  Directoire  (October  26,  1795-November 
9,  1799 — Tr.)  made  extensive  use  of  it  in  the  reports  stuffed 
with  figures  which  they  presented  on  the  state  of  the  foreign 
commerce  of  France.  But  the  tables  from  which  these 
figures  were  extracted  remained  buried  in  the  files  of  the 
Bureau  des  archives  du  Commerce.  Their  first  annual  pub- 
lication dates  from  1823.  The  task  of  bringing  them  to 
light  was  entrusted  to  the  Direction  g6n6rale  des  Douanes. 
At  the  present  time  a  special  bureau,  the  third  of  the  first 
division  of  the  Direction  gSnirale  has  the  duty  of  preparing 
the  statistics  of  commerce  and  navigation. 

The  published  documents  have  for  a  long  time  been  three 


FRANCE  317 

in  number:  first,  the  Tableau  ginSral  du  Commerce  et  de  la 
Navigation,  annual  since  1823.  This  document  was  com- 
prised in  a  volume  of  70  to  80  pages  originally;  today  it 
fills  two  folio  volumes;  second,  the  Tableau  gSniral  du  Com- 
merce et  de  la  Navigation,  decennial  beginning  with  the  year 
1827.  This  remarkable  and  precious  publication  dealing 
with  a  period  of  ten  years,  1827-1836,  1837-1846,  etc.,  had 
appeared  for  the  seventh  time,  1887-1896,  when  an  ill-advised 
Minister  of  Finance  decided  for  reasons  of  economy  to  sup- 
press it.  Thus  we  have  been  deprived  of  the  decennial  Tab- 
leauioTthe  years  1897-1906  and  1907-1916.  It  is  permissible 
to  express  the  wish  that  this  unfortunate  measure  may  some 
day  be  reversed;  third,  Documents  Statistiques  sur  le  Com- 
merce de  la  France,  a  monthly  bulletin  of  about  two  hundred 
pages,  going  back  to  1862  and  containing,  every  month,  the 
results  of  commerce  and  navigation  for  the  months  that 
have  gone  by  in  the  current  year  and  for  the  same  months 
of  the  two  preceding  years.  What  gives  it  special  value  is 
that  it  informs  the  public  of  facts  which  are  hardly  two 
months  old. 

Besides  the  distinct  statistical  publications  of  the  depart- 
ment of  customs  we  ought  to  note  also : 

First.  The  Tableau  gSnSral  des  PropriStSs  de  I'Etat  the 
making  of  which  was  ordered  by  the  law  of  finance  of 
December  22, 1873,  and  which  appeared  December  31,  1875, 
in  two  folio  volumes  of  about  one  thousand  pages  each.  In 
this  tableau  it  is  a  question  only  of  realties  assigned  or  not 
assigned  to  some  department  of  public  service.  But  their 
number  is  very  great  and  their  value  enormous.  The  num- 
ber in  1875  amounted  to  26,997  and  the  value  to  3,598,000,- 
000  francs.  The  law  of  1873  prescribed  the  establishment 
and  the  pubUcation  of  annual  Tableaux  supplimentaires 
intended  to  keep  the  first  tableau  up  to  date.  This  law  was 
observed  for  four  years.  We  possess  four  volumes  of 
Tableaux  suppUmentaires.  But  from  1879  on  it  fell  into 
desuetude.  The  elements  of  the  great  statistics  of  real 
estate  founded  in  1873  are  not  lost.    They  could  be  found 


318  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

again  in  the  dossiers  of  the  department.  It  would  be  enough 
to  wish  to  use  them. 

Second.  A  Bulletin  (annuel)  de  Statistique  et  de  Legisla- 
tion comparSe.  It  dates  from  1897.  It  contains  exclusively 
all  the  statistical  documents  ;which  the  department  of  regis- 
tration of  property  publishes  in  the  course  of  a  year  through 
the  medium  of  the  Bulletin  (mensuel)  de  Statistique  et  de 
Legislation  comparSe  of  the  Ministry  of  Finance.  It  is  not, 
as  one  might  imagine,  a  second  useless  edition  of  documents 
already  known.  This  second  edition  has  the  great  advan- 
tage of  grouping  in  a  single  convenient  volume  data  scat- 
tered through  twelve  monthly  sections  and  of  classifying 
them  in  a  rational  order  which  allows  the  most  important 
to  be  thrown  into  relief.  Now,  some  of  the  annual  statistics 
of  the  department  of  registration  (of  property),  those  not- 
ably which  apply  to  the  production  of  taxes,  bymaking  known 
the  nature  and  number  of  transactions  subject  to  tax  as  well 
as  the  value  of  the  property  which  the  transactions  have 
affected,  offer  from  various  points  of  view,  the  juridic  as  well 
as  the  economic,  considerable  interest.* 

In  publishing  this  annual  Bulletin  the  department  of 
registration  has,  moreover,  limited  itself  to  following 
the  excellent  example  which  la  Direction  g6n6rale  des  Con- 
tributions had  given  it,  since  1890,  by  publishing  its  annual 
volume  entitled:  Renseignements\  Statistiques  relatifs  aux 
contributions  diredes  et  aux  taxes  assimiUes. 

Third.  The  Direction  des  Monnaies  et  MSdaiUes  began 
to  publish  in  1896  an  annual  report  on  the  various  opera- 
tions of  the  administration  and  on  the  statistics  of  precious 
metals  in  the  world.  The  origins  of  this  document  deserve 
to  be  recalled  for  twofold  reasons. 

Its  publication  had  been  asked  of  France  (and  France 
had  promised  it)  by  article  11  of  the  convention  concluded 

*We  take  the  liberty  of  citing  in  this  connection  the  report  which  we  presented 
at  the  meeting  of  the  Institut  International  de  Statigtique  held  at  Berlin  in  1903,  on 
the  idle  and  the  applications  of  financial  statistics. 

t  Unlike  the  Direction  gSnirale  des  Douanes,  the  Directions  g^^ales  des  Contribu- 
tions diredes  and  of  V enregistremeni  have  no  special  bureau  of  statistics. 


FRANCE  319 

November  6  between  France,  Belgium,  Italy  and  Switzer- 
land {union  Latine).  As  the  fulfilment  of  the  promise  was 
delayed,  it  was  insistently  demanded  by  the  monetary  Con- 
ference of  October,  1893,  and  then  by  the  Institut  Inter- 
national de  Statistique  at  its  meeting  in  Berne,  in  September, 
1895. 

The  program  of  this  report  was  outlined  by  Alfred  de 
Foville,  who  became  Directeur  des  Monnaies  in  1896,  with 
the  authority  which  belonged  to  that  master  of  French 
statistics  and  especially  of  financial  and  monetary  statistics. 
The  first  four  reports,  those  of  the  years  1896,  1897,  1898 
and  1899,  were  prepared  by  him  and  he  presented  them 
himself  at  the  session  of  the  Institut  International  de  Sta- 
tistique held  at  Christiania  in  September,  1899.  It  is  thanks 
to  him,  undoubtedly,  and  thanks  to  his  method,  carefully 
retained  by  his  successors,  that  this  document  is  considered 
by  the  scholars  of  the  entire  world  as  one  of  the  best  of  the 
kind. 

Ministry  of  Public  Works 

At  the  present  time  one  finds  no  more  traces  of  a  central 
department  of  statistics  radiating  to  the  activities  of  the 
entire  ministry.  Not  that  statistics  are  not  always  much 
respected  there,  but  the  departments  which  prepare  them 
are  scattered  and  merged  in  the  three  great  technical 
branches  (directions)  into  which  the  ministry  is  divided. 
One  is  justified  in  regretting  this  both  from  the  point  of  view 
of  science  and  from  that  of  administration. 

Roads,  Navigation,  Railways  and  Mines,  these  are  the 
four  several  objects  of  statistics  in  the  Ministry  of  Public 
Works. 

First.  Statistics  of  National  Roads  are  prepared  by  the 
second  bureau  of  the  subdivision  (Sous-direction)  of  Roads 
and  Navigation.  The  subject  matter  is  twofold.  There 
are  the  roads  themselves,  their  diflFerent  categories,  the  cost 
of  maintenance,  their  length  in  each  dSpartement.  And  there 
is  the  amount  of  traflSc  on  the  roads.    The  statistics  of 


320  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

traffic  (circulation)  on  the  roads  are  by  far  the  most  difficult 
to  determine.  They  require  a  special  method  of  counting 
the  organization  of  which  is  rather  delicate  and  the  results 
of  which  can  be  only  approximate.  In  1888  the  count, 
taken  in  4,734  posts  of  observation,  was  made  28  times  dur- 
ing an  entire  day,  the  days  being  distributed  equally  by 
seasons  and  by  week. 

The  publication  of  the  results  of  this  enumeration  is  not 
periodic. 

Second.  The  Statistics  of  Internal  Navigation  are  pre- 
pared by  the  fourth  bureau  of  the  Sous-direction  des  routes. 

Like  those  of  the  roads,  they  have  a  double  object:  the 
water-ways  themselves;  the  amount  of  traffic. 

Up  to  1880  the  traffic  on  navigable  waters  was  enumer- 
ated by  the  Direction  gSnSrale  des  Contributions  indirectes  of 
the  Ministry  of  Finance  whose  statistical  role  here  was  indi- 
cated and  facilitated  by  the  collection  of  the  navigation 
taxes.  But  when  these  taxes  were  suppressed  by  the  law  of 
February  19,  1880,  the  statistics  of  the  traffic  on  navigable 
waters  naturally  reverted  to  the  Ministry  of  Public  Works, 
where  their  organization,  also  rather  delicate,  was  regulated 
by  a  decree  of  November  17,  1880. 

The  results  of  the  statistics  of  internal  navigation  are 
consigned  to  an  annual  publication. 

Third.  Statistics  of  Railways  belong  to  the  Direction  of 
railways.  Two  different  bureaus  collaborate  in  them:  the 
second  bureau  of  the  Sous-direction  des  concessions  de  che- 
mins  de  fer,  and  the  first  bureau  of  the  Sous-direction  de 
V exploitation.  This  latter  has  special  charge  of  the  statis- 
tics of  tariffs. 

Here  the  publications  are  annual. 

Fourth.  Statistics  of  Mineral  Industry  and  of  Steam  Ma- 
chinery in  France  and  Algeria  are  compiled  by  the  second 
bureau  of  the  Direction  of  mines  and  are  published  annu- 
ally. They  go  back  to  the  year  1833.  They  were  estab- 
lished in  obedience  to  the  Financial  Act  of  April  23,  1833, 
and  to  a  circular  of  August  31  of  the  same  year.    The  sta- 


FRANCE  821 

tistics  of  "sources  minSrales,"  so  numerous  in  France,  were 
not  originally  included;  they  have  been  added  for  a  number 
of  years,  at  the  same  time  being  treated  in  certain  special 
non-periodic  publications. 

The  statistical  field  of  the  Direction  of  mines  has  been 
enlarged  during  the  last  few  years  by  being  extended  to 
include  the  new  facts  brought  into  being  by  the  great  devel- 
opment of  the  use  of  electrical  power.  This  particular 
branch  of  statistics  is  entrusted  to  the  third  bureau  of  the 
Direction  of  mines. 

Ministry  of  Commerce,  Industry,  Posts  and  Telegraphs 

Since  the  statistics  of  the  Foreign  Trade  of  France  are 
compiled  by  the  Direction  gSnSrale  des  douanes,  which  is 
subordinate  to  the  Ministry  of  Finance,  only  the  statistics 
of  Domestic  Trade  might  concern  the  Ministry  of  Commerce. 
But  these  statistics  do  not  exist,  and  such  are  the  immensity 
and  complexity  of  the  operations  of  domestic  commerce 
that  one  can  hardly  foresee  how  they  ever  can  exist,  at  least 
so  long  as  society  lives  under  the  regime  of  freedom  of  trade 
filberts  du  travail). 

So  the  r6le  of  the  Ministry  of  Commerce  in  the  matter 
of  commercial  statistics  is  very  limited.  It  is  confined 
according  to  the  official  formula  which  fixes  the  duties  of 
the  second  bureau  of  the  Direction  des  Affaires  Commerdales 
et  Industrielles  to:  "the  centralization  and  compilation  of 
the  customs  statistics  of  France  and  of  foreign  countries 
and  to  the  annual  publication  of  resultant  documents  deal- 
ing with  a  period  of  ten  years :  First,  a  comparative  state- 
ment of  the  commercial  situation  in  France;  second,  the 
movement  of  Commerce  and  Navigation  of  the  principal 
foreign  countries." 

These  documents  are  published  in  the  Annales  du  Com- 
merce extSrieur,  and  in  the  Moniteur  Officiel  du  Commerce. 

Among  them  we  shall  call  attention  to  the  two  following 
documents  which  have  appeared  in  special  pamphlets : 

First.     Un  siecle  de  Commerce  entre  la  France  et  le  Roy- 

22 


322  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

aume-Uni.  1  Vol.,  138  pp.  of  tables  illustrated  by  graphics, 
1908. 

Second.  Commerce  entre  la  France  et  I'ltalie  1861-1910. 
1  Vol.,  103  pp.  tables  and  graphics,  1910. 

The  department  of  Posts,  Telegraphs  and  Telephones 
which  is  subordinate  at  the  present  time  (1914)  to  the  Min- 
istry of  Commerce  prepares  a  certain  number  of  statistical 
documents :  First,  on  the  postal  delivery  service  (first  bureau 
of  the  Direction  de  l' exploitation  postale);  second,  on  tele- 
graphic messages  {transmissions)  (first  bureau  of  the  Direc- 
tion de  V exploitation  tSlSgraphique) ;  third,  on  the  telephone 
service,  its  operation  and  its  irregularities  (first  bureau  of 
the  Direction  de  V exploitation  tSUphonique);  fourth,  on  the 
operations  of  the  National  Savings  Bank,  deposits,  pay- 
ments, and  on  the  depositors,  according  to  age,  sex  and 
occupation. 

A  small  number  of  these  documents  are  the  subject  mat- 
ter of  special  publications.  Most  of  them  are  published  in 
the  Annuaire  Statistique  de  la  France. 

Ministry  of  Colonies 

This  ministry  is  fortunate  in  having  a  central  depart- 
ment of  statistics.  It  is  situated  in  the  Colonial  OflBce. 
This  office  was  established  and  organized  by  a  law  of  March 
14,  1899,  by  a  law  of  February  18,  1904,  and  by  a  law  of 
March  16,  1910.  It  is  divided  into  three  sections.  It  is 
the  second  which  has  the  task  of  compiling  all  Colonial 
statistics  with  the  many  subjects  which  are  assigned,  to 
them:  commerce,  navigation,  agriculture,  finance,  popula- 
tion, mines,  railways,  public  health,  public  instruction, 
justice. 

The  statistical  publications  emanating  from  this  depart- 
ment are  very  numerous  and  also  very  diverse.  The  num- 
ber of  distinct  publications  dealing  with  all  our  colonies  is 
as  great  as  the  number  of  subjects  treated.  In  the  last  few 
years  a  great  eflfort  has  been  made  to  improve  the  financial 
statistics.     One  can  see  the  proof  of  this  by  running  through. 


PRANCE  323 

among  other  volumes,  the  one  entitled:  "Statistique  des 
Finances  des  Colonies  frangaises  pour  les  annies  1898-1907 
which  appeared  in  1908. 

But  to  these  statistical  documents  put  forth  by  the  cen- 
tral department  of  the  Colonial  Office  must  be  added  the 
very  important  collection  of  statistics  drawn  up  by  the  col- 
onies themselves.  One  might  say  that  for  several  years  a 
beneficent  rivalry  between  our  colonies  had  been  established 
in  this  way.  The  latest  colonies  seem  determined  to  equal 
or  even  surpass  the  oldest.  French  West  Africa  and  Equa- 
torial Africa  have  already  Annuaires  Statistiques  of  a  some- 
what voluminous  format  but  on  the  whole  very  well  done. 

Algeria  has  published  for  a  long  time  numerous  statistical 
documents  generally  very  complete  and  very  intelligently 
composed.  The  values  of  the  figures  which  are  found  there 
are  no  doubt  somewhat  unequal.  The  figures  of  financial 
statistics  and  of  customs  statistics  are  as  good  as  those  of 
France.  This  is  not  true  of  economic  statistics.  But  we 
may  hope  that  the  progress  made  in  France  will  be  realized 
also  in  Algeria. 

The  two  following  documents,  issued  by  the  general  gov- 
ernment, ought  especially  to  be  noted : 

First,  Le  Commerce  AlgSrien,  2  large  volumes  in  8vo.,  1906. 

Second,  EnquMe  sur  les  risultats  de  la  colonisation  offidelle 
de  1871  a  1895,  1906,  2  quarto  volumes,  the  first  filled  with 
tables  of  figures,  charts  and  diagrams,  the  second  filled  with 
monographic  reports  dealing  with  all  the  centers  of  colo- 
nization, in  which  the  figures  are  the  principal  element. 

We  may  mention,  finally,  the  annual  reports  of  our  citi- 
zens in  the  protectorate  countries,  for  Tunis  during  the  last 
thirty  five  years,  and  for  Morocco  for  hardly  two  years; 
these  reports  are  for  the  most  part  made  up  of  statistical 
documents. 

Ministry  of  Interior 

First,  a.  La  Situation  Financiere  des  dSpartements;  b. 
La  Situation  Financiere  des  communes. 


324  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

These  two  annual  statistical  documents  are  prepared  by 
the  first  and  second  bureaux  of  the  Direction  de  I' Adminis- 
tration dSpartmentale  et  communale . 

How  shall  one  explain  the  fact  that  documents  so  sharply 
characterized  are  not  issued  by  the  Ministry  of  Finance? 
The  reason  is  very  simple.  The  Ministry  of  Interior  is 
much  better  qualified  and  equipped  to  compile  the  finan- 
cial statistics  of  dSpartements  and  communes  because  it  is, 
as  it  were,  the  tutor  of  these  two  sorts  of  collectivities  and 
because  all  the  financial  transactions  which  they  perform 
pass  under  its  eyes. 

Second.  La  Direction  de  I' Assistance  et  de  I'Hygiene  pub- 
lique  prepares  four  kinds  of  statistical  documents: 

a.  The  statistics  of  the  youngest  children  cared  for  under 
the  law  of  December  23,  1874. 

b.  The  statistics  of  children  receiving  public  aid  and  espe- 
cially of  their  mortality. 

c.  The  sanitary  statistics  of  France. 

d.  The  statistics  of  the  personnel  of  the  medical  profession 
and  pharmacists. 

This  last  is  quinquennial. 

Sanitary  statistics  form  the  subject-matter  of  two  pub- 
lications, one  monthly,  the  other  annual. 

Third.  La  Direction  de  la  Suret6  (second  bureau)  pub- 
lishes the  statistics  of  breeders  of  carrier  pigeons. 

Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs 

This  ministry,  it  seems,  prepares  few  statistics,  and  those 
that  it  prepares  and  publishes  from  time  to  time  are  rather 
mediocre. 

Thus  the  idea  came  to  it,  one  day,  of  enumerating  the 
French  people  living  abroad.  The  results  of  this  enumera- 
tion were  published  in  the  Journal  Officiel  of  September  25, 
1902.  But  Alfred  de  Foville  with  as  much  verve  as  author- 
ity pointed  out  grave  errors  in  the  method  employed  and 
in  the  application  of  it. 


FRANCE  325 

Ministry  of  Public  Instruction 

Of  the  three  great  branches  into  which  the  departments 
of  the  Ministry  of  Public  Instruction  are  divided,  Direction 
de  I'Enseignement  Supirieur,'  Direction  de  I'Enseignement  Sec- 
ondaire.  Direction  de  I'Enseignement  Primaire,  only  the  third 
publishes  somewhat  regularly,  since  18S1,  except  for  an  in- 
terruption of  sixteen  years,  from  1848  to  1864,  the  statistics 
called  de  I'Enseignement  Primaire,  which  embrace  at  once 
the  personnel  (teachers  and  pupils),  buildings,  expenses. 

In  March,  1876,  a  Commission  de  Statistique  de  I'Enseigne- 
ment Primaire,  of  which  Levasseur  was  chairman  for  thirty 
five  years,  was  created  to  oversee  and  direct  this  publica- 
tion which  from  the^first  has  been  quinquennial. 

The  other  two  Directions  also  compile  very  good  statistics, 
but  they  publish  them  only  at  rare  intervals.  One  could 
find,  if  occasion  demanded,  the  elements  all  prepared  of 
statistical  documents  of  the  first  rank. 

Ministry  of  Justice 

First.  We  shall  -find  in  this  ministry  the  essential  ele- 
ment of  good  statistical  organization,  that  is  to  say,  a  central 
and  specialized  department.  It  is  the  bureau  of  statistics^ 
attached  (third  bureau)  to  the  Direction  des  affaires  Crimi- 
nelles  et  des  graces,  but  including  in  its  fimctions  all  judiciary 
statistics,  civil,  commercial,  criminal,  for  Algeria  as  well  as 
for  France. 

We  have  said  enough  on  this  subject  in  the  history  of 
Statistics  in  the  nineteenth  century  and  need  not  return  to 
it  here. 

Second.  L' Administration  pinitentiaire,  after  having  been 
for  a  long  time  under  the  Ministry  of  Interior,  is  today  a 
department  of  the  Ministry  of  Justice.  That  is  its  true 
place.  It  consists  of  a  Direction  comprising  three  bureaus. 
It  is  the  first  that  has  the  task  of  preparing  annually  the 
Statistique  PSnitentiaire,  the  publication  of  which  goes  back 
to  1852. 


326  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Ministry  of  War 

A  moment's  reflection  is  enough  to  discover; in  this  min- 
istry a  great  department  of  public  service  in  which  there  is 
abundant  material  for  rich  and  interesting  statistics. 

These  are  the  chief  statistical  documents  which  it  issues: 

First.  The  Compte-rendu  annuel  des  opSrations  du  recrute- 
merit  (second  bureau  of  the  Direction  de  Vlnfanterie). 

Second.  Compte-rendu  statistique  annuel  of  the  work  of 
the  Conseils  de  guerre  et  de  rhision  (second  bureau  of  the 
Direction  du  contentieux  et  de  la  Justice  militaire). 

Third.  Statistique  midicale  de  VarmSe  (second  bureau  of 
the  Direction  du  service  de  SantS).  This  document,  the  pub- 
lication of  which  dates  back  to  the  law  of  January  22,  1851, 
is  today  one  of  the  most  complete  and  the  most  remarkable 
perhaps  in  all  French  statistics.  The  figures  and  graphics 
distributed  through  it  are  profuse  and  clear.  The  method 
used  in  preparing  it  has  been  modified  often  since  1851. 
It  has  just  been  changed  and,  this  time,  it  seems,  finally 
fixed,  by  an  order  of  June  13,  1913. 

Fourth.  La  Direction  du  Controle  compiles  annually  the 
Statistique  des  cours  commerciaux  et  des  prix  paySs  by  the 
military  administration  and  by  other  public  departments. 
It  is  to  be  feared  that  this  document  is  neither  so  well  known 
nor  so  much  used  as  it  ought  to  be. 

Fifth.  Le  Service  des  fonds  et  des  comptes  gSnSraux  pre- 
pares annually  a  statistical  document  intended  for  the  Parle- 
ment  and  making  known  the  "situation  of  the  material  of 
the  war  reserve." 

Ministry  of  Navy 

First.  La  Statistique  de  la  Justice  militaire  pour  VarmSe 
de  mer  has  been  compiled  and  published  every  three  years, 
since  January  1,  1859,  by  the  Direction  militaire  des  services 
de  la  Flotte. 

Second.  La  Statistique  MSdicale  de  la  Marine  is  prepared 
by  the  administrative  bureau  of  the  service  central  de  santS. 

Third.     L'Office  des  transports  maritimes,  connected  with 


FRANCE  327 

the  Sous-Secretariat  d'Etat  de  la  Marine  Marchande,  pub- 
lishes : 

a.  la  Statistique  des  naufrages  et  accidents  de  mer; 

b.  la  Statistique  Sanitaire  de  la  marine  marchande. 
Fourth.     L'Office  des  Peches  has  pubUshed  since  1866  the 

Statistique  des  pSches  maritimes  et  des  Hablissements  de  piches. 

Part  III.    Desirable  and  Possible  Pbogbess  in  the 
Statistics  of  France 

In  the  first  two  parts  of  this  work,  apropos  the  organiza- 
tion, past  and  present,  of  French  statistics,  we  have  tried 
to  assemble  the  exact  facts,  hoping  thus  to  make  a  useful 
contribution  to  a  study  of  a  truly  scientific  character.  Apro- 
pos the  future  organizatioli  of  French  statistics,  where  it  is 
a  question  of  criticizing  the  existing  institutions  and  the 
methods  employed,  we  can  only  express  our  personal  views 
and  therefore  we  ask  permission  to  be  very  brief. 

The  statistical  organization  of  France  was  established 
very  slowly  in  the  course  of  centuries  and  athwart  the  revo- 
lutions with  which  our  history  is  filled.  It  was  built  up 
like  alluvium,  incrementum  laiens,  to  use  the  phrase  of  the 
Roman  jurisconsult.  Its  development  and  its  progress 
were  realized  in  a  wholly  empirical  way,  as  the  need  of  them 
made  itself  felt.  No  comprehensive  view,  no  systematic 
conception  has  governed  it.  Most  of  the  gaps  which  one 
can  discover  today  have  no  other  explanation. 

The  most  serious  of  all  perhaps,  and  in  certain  respects 
the  most  surprising,  is  the  lack  of  centralization  apd  of 
specialization  of  the  branches  of  service  entrusted  with  the 
compilation  of  statistics. 

This  centralization  and  this  specialization  are  still  inade- 
quate. They  ought  to  be  gr;eatly  strengthened  immediately 
in  every  one  of  our  ministries.  Every  one  of  them  ought, 
at  the  outset,  to  possess  a  bureau  of  statistics,  whose  duty  it 
should  be  to  control  and  centralize  the  statistical  work  of 
the  various   special  departments  of  the  ministry.    But  no 


328  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

less  indispensable  would  be  a  closer  union  of  all  the  statistical 
bureaus  of  the  different  ministries  with  a  single  central 
department  which  should  thus  become,  as  it  were,  the  brain 
of  French  statistics,  which  should  constitute  not  simply  a 
branch  of  a  ministry  but  an  institution  of  general  adminis- 
tration and  government. 

Our  existing  service,  the  Statistique  gSnSrale  de  la  France 
supported  by  the  two  Coimcils  which  surround  it,  by  the 
Conseil  SupSrieur  de  Statistique,  created  in  1885,  and  the 
Conseil  de  la  Statistique  g6nSrale,  created  by  the  law  of  August 
14,  1907,  seems  destined  to  be  some  day  that  great  institu- 
tion which  Necker  and  Lavoisier  clearly  foresaw. 

In  another  very  important  matter  the  actual  organization 
lacks  something  eminently  desirable.  We  mean  in  the 
recruiting  of  the  agents  who  are  called  to  work  together  in 
making  statistics. 

The  service  de  la  Statistique  gSnSrale  de  la  France  is  the 
only  one  which  (since  1907)  recruits  its  superior  officers,  the 
calculators,  by  competitive  examination.  But  nothing  is 
done  to  attract  and  prepare  the  candidates.  The  last  exam- 
ination took  place  in  1911.  The  number  of  candidates  was 
so  small  that  there  were  not  enough  to  fill  the  vacant  places. 
That  is  due  in  great  part  to  the  fact  that  our  superannuated 
regulations  are  flatly  unfavorable  to  statistical  agents. 
These  unfortunate  persons  are  treated  a  little  like  pariahs. 
There  is  no  future  open  to  them  in  administrative  careers. 
And  even  their  treatment  is  inferior  to  that  accorded  to 
similar  categories  of  clerks  in  the  ministries. 

As  for  the  numerous  personnel  which,  in  all  the  ministries, 
collaborates  in  statistical  work,  no  preparation,  no  special 
competence  is  required  of  them. 

The  question  of  recruiting  the  statistical  force  is  bound 
up  intimately  with  the  question  of  instruction  in  statistics. 
This  question,  like  the  first,  has  been  very  badly  answered 
in  France. 

Instruction  in  statistics  in  France  is  given  by  a  very  lim- 
ited number  of  professors,  at  the  FacultS  de  Droit  in  Paris 


FRANCE  329 

and  at  the  Conservatoire  des  Arts  et  M&tiers.  It  is  purely 
doctrinal  in  character  and  is  utterly  lacking  in  authority. 
But,  such  as  it  is,  the  necessity  of  making  it  general  is  in- 
contestable. It  ought  to  be  given  in  all  our  FacultSs  de 
Droit.  Is  it  not  the  natural  complement  of  instruction  in 
poUtical  economy,  in  labor  legislation,  in  the  science  of 
finance?  How  can  we  admit  that  it  should  not  figure 
in  the  program  of  courses  either  in  our  Ecole  naiionale  des 
Pants  et  ChaussSes  or  of  our  Ecole  nationale  Supirieure  des 
Mines? 

But  what  is  no  more  deniable  is  the  necessity  of  profes- 
sional instruction  in  statistics  intended  to  prepare  the  future 
statisticians  of  all  our  departments  of  public  service. 

For  more  than  twenty  years  the  Conseil  SupSrieur  de  Sta- 
tistique,  at  our  suggestion,  has  insisted  on  this  double  neces- 
sity. 

Professional  instruction  in  statistics  ought  to  be  organ- 
ized, in  Paris,  in  two  or  three  courses  which  might  reason- 
ably be  connected  with  the  Service  de  la  Statistique  gSnirale 
de  la  France. 

This  indicates,  in  a  word,  the  essential  reforms  which 
seem  to  be  called  for  in  the  organization  of  statistics  in 
France. 

After  that,  all  that  can  be  said  is  that,  first,  the  utility  of 
making  general  the  use  of  fiches  and  centralized  compila- 
tion; second,  the  utility  of  reestablishing  decennial  statistics 
of  customs;  third,  the  utility  that  there  might  be  in  giving 
us  a  great  number  of  statistics  which  we  lack,  such,  for  exam- 
ple, as  the  statistics  of  emigration  and  immigration,  or  the 
statistics  of  hypothecation,  for  which  the  forms  have  been 
ready  since  1897;  fourth,  the  great  interest  in  the  develop- 
ment of  international  statistics  and  in  permanent  contact 
between  our  French  statisticians  and  foreign  statisticians; 
— all  these  reforms,  all  these  improvements  are  relatively 
secondary.  And  we  may  be  sure  that  they  will  infallibly 
be  realized  on  the  day  when  the  essential  reforms  shall  be 
well  under  way. 


GERMANY 


THE  HISTORY  AND  DEVELOPMENT  OF  OFFICIAL 
STATISTICS  IN  THE  GERMAN  EMPIRE 

By  Dr.  Eugene  Wurzburgbr 

Privy  Councillor,  Director  of  the  Royal  Statistical  State  Office  in  Dresden 

I,    Historical  Development 

In  its  time  the  old  German  realm  which  was  dissolved  in 
1806  did  not  know  of  official  statistical  investigations, 
although  in  the  states  constituting  it  numerous  tendencies 
toward  such  undertakings  were  already  at  hand.  In  these 
states,  and  especially  in  the  cities  {Jreie  Reichstddte)  which 
likewise  formed  states,  enumerations  of  populations  for 
purposes  of  administration  took  place  in  early  days;  and  a 
few  of  them  have  in  recent  times  been  made  scientifically 
useful,  for  instance  in  Biicher's  work  "The  Population  of 
Frankfurt  a.  M.  in  the  Fourteenth  and  Fifteenth  Centuries. " 
Tables  showing  property  in  land  and  live  stock  reach  far 
back  into  the  middle  ages;  the  results  of  the  queries,  how- 
ever, were  not  published  but  kept  secret,  and  even  today  the 
archives  to  a  large  extent  hide  unlifted  treasures. 

The  work  by  Biisching  of  1785  "Vorbereitung  zurgriind- 
lichen  und  nutzlichen  Kenntnis  der  geographischen  Beschaf- 
f enheit  und  Staatsverfassung  der  europaischen  Reiche,  "*  is 
to  be  regarded  as  the  first  publication  of  official  statistical 
material  that  had  been  critically  sifted. 

Inquiry  into  the  conditions  of  population,  based  according 
to  the  English  model  on  the  church  registers,  was  begun  by 
Siissmilch  in  his  book  of  1741  called  "Betrachtungen  iiber 
die  gottliche  Ordnung  in  den  Veranderungen  des  mensch- 
lichen  Geschlechts  aus  der  Geburt,  dem  Tode  und  der  Fort- 

*Preparation  for  a  Thorough  and  Useful  Knowledge  of  the  Geographic  Condi- 
tion and  Constitutions  of  the  European  Countries. 


834  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

pflanzung  desselben  erwiesen."*  In  the  preface  to  it,  the 
philosopher  Christian  WolflF  points  out  "how  the  theories 
of  probability  can  be  made  useful  in  human  life." 

The  first  statistical  state  office  within  the  boundaries  of 
the  present  German  Empire  was  founded  in  Prussia  in  the 
year  1805.  "Statistical-topographical"  bureaus  were  estab- 
lished in  Bavaria  in  1808  and  in  Wiirttemburg  in  1820. 
Already  in  1817  topography  was  made  a  separate  branch  in 
Bavaria,  while  in  Wiirttemburg  an  association  of  official 
character,  which  since  1822  had  been  more  occupied  with 
statistics  than  the  bureau  just  mentioned,  was  united  with 
it  in  1856.  In  Saxony,  also,  a  systematic  statistical  activity 
was  carried  on  by  an  oflScially  subsidized  association  founded 
in  1831  and  whose  bureau  was  taken  over  by  the  state  in 
1850.  The  other  separate  states  followed  these  examples 
in  turn,  so  that  today  only  some  of  the  smallest  of  them  are 
without  their  own  statistical  bureaus. 

Soon  after  these  beginnings  toward  official  organization 
of  statistics  in  the  separate  states,  the  need  made  itself  felt 
of  certain  joint  investigations,  not  for  the  benefit  of  that 
very  loose  structure,  the  German  Union,  which  lasted  until 
1866,  but  to  meet  the  demands  of  the  German  Tariff  Union 
which  had  existed  alongside  of  it  since  1833.  The  founda- 
tion of  this  Union  by  Prussia  was  chiefly  due  to  the  acci- 
dental circumstance  that  the  introduction  of  frontier  tariffs 
in  place  of  the  earlier  internal  duties  had  been  made  difficult 
for  Prussia  by  the  parts  of  other  federated  states  which  were 
surrounded  by  its  domain,  in  case  these  had  not  joined  in 
her  tariff  policy.  Later  on,  however,  the  Tariff  Union  was 
expanded  beyond  the  needs  determined  in  this  manner,  so 
that  finally  almost  all  the  territories  of  the  later  German 
Empire  belonged  to  it. 

To  be  sure,  the  joint  statistics  of  the  Tariff  Union  were 
obtained  solely  with  an  eye  to  revenue  administration  and 
were  prepared  in  its  central  bureau.     But  from  the  outset 

*Reflections  on  the  Divine  Order  in  the  Mutations  of  the  Human  Race  as  Indi- 
cated by  its  Birth,  Death  and  Propagation. 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  335 

the  statistics  included  not  only  the  goods  traflfic  with  foreign 
countries  and  its  yield  in  revenue,  for  uniform  enumerations 
of  population  became  necessary  as  the  income  from  the 
tariffs  and  the  common  imposts  was  to  be  distributed  among 
the  separate  states  according  to  the  number  of  persons 
contained  in  their  populations.  Therefore,  from  1834  and 
until  1867,  triennial  enumerations  of  population  were  made. 
Moreover,  the  need  arose  of  being  able  to  gauge  the  influence 
of  revenue  political  measures  upon  the  business  activity  of 
the  population.  This  led  to  an  expansion  of  the  population 
enumerations  of  1846  and  1861  so  as  to  include  statistical 
inquiries  concerning  occupation  and  industry.  There  were 
also  introduced  current  statistics  of  shipping  as  well  as  of 
the  production  of  mines,  salt  and  smelting  works. 

When  the  German  Union  was  dissolved  in  1866  and  the 
"North  German  Union"  was  founded,  which  consisted  of 
Prussia  and  the  north  German  middle  and  small  states,  the 
central  bureau  of  the  Tariff  Union  continued  on;  and  until 
the  foundation  of  the  Empire  in  the  year  1871  a  "federal 
council"  and  a  parliament  of  the  Tariff  Union  still  existed 
in  addition  to  the  federal  council  and  parliament  of  the 
North  German  Union.  The  necessity  that  had  arisen 
through  the  new  conditions  for  an  expansion  of  the  joint 
statistics  was  particularly  felt  by  the  Tariff  Union  whose 
field  was  greater  than  that  of  the  North  German  Union;  and 
thus  it  came  about  that  the  federal  council  of  the  Tariff 
Union  resolved,  on  December  20,  1869,  to  establish  a  com- 
mission charged  with  the  task  of  planning  the  wider  develop- 
ment of  the  joint  statistics.  Representatives  of  statistics 
from  the  larger  states  were  called  to  this  commission.  It 
convened  four  times  for  protracted  meetings  consisting  of  a 
total  of  81  sessions.  Two  of  them  took  place  in  1870  and 
two  in  1871,  after  the  war  with  France.  Separate  sessions 
to  confer  about  the  special  affairs  concerning  only  the  North 
German  Union  were  held  by  the  members  of  the  commission 
who  belonged  to  it.  The  foundation  of  the  German  Empire, 
which  had  occurred  in  the  meantime,  of  itself  necessitated 


336  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

an  enlargement  of  the  existing  plans  in  regard  to  the  joint 
statistics,  and  when  the  central  bureau  of  the  Tariff  Union 
which  hitherto  had  been  occupied  with  them  ceased  its 
activity  on  March  31,  1871,  the  question  was  taken  up  of 
establishing  a  special  oflfice  for  the  joint  statistics.  In  sub- 
mitting the  results  of  its  deliberations  to  the  federal  council 
of  the  present  Empire,  the  commission,  in  its  report  of  May 
26, 1871,  proposed  (although  this  did  not  really  belong  to  its 
task),  before  the  conclusion  of  its  work,  the  foundation  and 
establishment  of  a  central  governmental  office  for  statistics. 
The  proposition  was  formulated  as  follows:  "The  material, 
in  part  already  fixed  and  partly  prospective,  which  is  to  be 
dealt  with  statistically  at  the  seat  of  the  central  administra- 
tion is  so  comprehensive  that  the  establishment  of  a  special 
and  technical  government  office  is  necessary  for  this  purpose. 
The  office  should  not  be  a  mere  tabulating  and  editing  bureau 
but  have  the  character  of  an  institute  provided  with  a  sci- 
entific personnel." 

Of  the  thirteen  signers  of  this  report  one  is  still  alive, 
namely,  the  honorary  member  of  the  American  Statistical 
Association,  G.  v.  Mayr,  in  Munich. 

The  report  was  accompanied  by  an  opinion  by  Rumelin 
("  On  the  Foundation  and  Establishment  of  a  Governmental 
Office  for  German  Statistics"),  sketching  the  lines  of  devel- 
opment that  the  statistics  in  the  German  Empire  should  take 
in  a  manner  which  has  been  realized  as  to  its  most  important 
principles  although  not  in  all  detail. 

The  basic  idea  was  a  threefold  division  of  the  material. 
All  the  work  of  statistical  offices  was  to  be  placed  in  three 
classes  which  Rumelin  designated  as  central,  federal  and 
special  statistics.  For  the  character  of  the  now  federated 
states  demanded,  as  the  former  union  of  states  had  done,  a 
joint  and  parallel  activity  on  the  part  of  the  central  and  state 
statisticians  which  subsequently  has  attained  a  high  degree 
of  systematic  development. 

The  central  statistics  consist  of  the  work  undertaken  solely 
and  directly  by  the  officials  of  the  Empire  without  any 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  337 

cooperation  by  the  statistical  offices  of  the  separate  states. 
At  the  outset  only  the  statistics  of  foreign  commerce  be- 
longed under  this  head,  the  materials  for  which  were  sent 
from  the  revenue  offices  to  the  government  office. 

The  federal  statistics  are  those  collected  by  the  separate 
states  according  to  common  principles  established  for  the 
greater  part  by  the  federal  council  and  worked  into  uniform 
tables  which  are  transmitted  to  the  imperial  office  and  com- 
piled by  it  for  the  Empire  as  a  whole  and  thereupon  pub- 
lished. To  the  federal  statistics  should  belong  the  great 
enumerations,  and  the  statistics  of  the  movement  of  popu- 
lation, so  far  as  they  are  gathered  on  a  uniform  basis,  and 
also  the  regular  census  of  agriculture  and  industry. 

Finally,  the  special  statistics  consist  of  those  that  are 
collected  by  the  individual  states  on  their  own  initiative  and 
without  reference  to  the  Empire.  To  this  class  belong  sta- 
tistics covering  administrative,  business,  and  cultural  con- 
ditions in  all  the  fields  that  are  subject  to  independent  con- 
trol by  the  separate  states  within  their  own  domains. 

This  threefold  division  of  official  statistics,  considering 
the  situation  at  the  time  of  the  foundation  of  the  Empire, 
was  almost  exhaustive,  for  the  fourth  class,  the  community 
statistics  which  was  added  later,  had  as  yet  been  developed 
in  but  a  few  of  the  large  municipalities.  Later  on,  however, 
they  were  cultivated  in  numerous  cities  through  their  own 
communal  statistical  offices,  and  in  increasing  measure 
according  to  common  principles. 

The  center  of  statistics  in  the  German  Empire  is  the 
Imperial  Statistical  Office  which  becanie  operative  on  July 
21,  1872,  in  conformity  with  the  resolution  adopted  by  the 
federal  council  on  March  9  of  the  same  year.  Its  personnel 
consisted  of  a  director,  two  associates,  and  eight  bureau 
officials.  From  the  beginning  the  office  had  three  divisions 
(population  and  general  statistics,  agriculture  and  industry, 
foreign  commerce),  of  which  one  was  immediately  under 
the  director,  while  both  of  the  others  were  conducted  by 
professionally  trained  counsellors  (associate  members). 

23 


838  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Since  that  time,  this  oflSce  has  been  enormously  expanded 
as  appears  from  the  fact  that,  according  to  the  budget  of 
1914,  there  were,  beside  the  director,  27  professionally  trained 
officials  (as  against  two  when  it  was  founded)  and  387  other 
permanent  officials  (as  against  the  former  eight),  and  finally 
a  variable  number,  of  non-permanent  clerks  but  always 
amounting  to  several  hundred,  so  that  the  total  personnel 
at  the  present  time  exceeds  eight  hundred.  And  as  the 
development  of  the  other  official  statistical  bureaus  has  not 
been  retarded  by  the  expansion  of  the  imperial  office,  but 
their  field  of  activity  has  been  increased  more  or  less,  it  can 
be  asserted  that  while  statistics  in  Germany  in  the  eighteenth 
century  were  characterized  by  theories  founded  on  meager 
practical  results,  their  development  in  the  new  era  is  almost 
synonymous  with  official  statistics;  and  a  history  of  official 
statistics  is  therefore  at  the  same  time  a  history  of  statistics 
in  Germany  generally  speaking;  for  the  official  statistics 
have  opened  up  statistically  most  of  the  fields  to  which 
their  attention  has  been  directed. 

II.     Organization  and  Activity  of  the  Statistical  Offices 

Generally 

The  following  introductory  remarks  will  serve  to  make 
clear  the  outward  significance  of  official  statistics  in  the 
German  Empire.  In  addition  to  the  Imperial  Statistical 
Office  all  the  larger,  middle  and  some  of  the  small  federated 
states  have  independent  statistical  state  bureaus — a  total 
of  seventeen.    They  are  the  following : 

Year  when 
State.  Designation  of  Office.  Established. 

1.  Kingdom  of  Prussia  Royal  Statistical  State  Office  in 

Berlin  1805 

2.  Kingdom  of  Bavaria  Royal  Statistical  State  Office  in 

Munich  1808 

3.  Kingdom  of  Saxony  Royal  Statistical  State  Office  in 

Dresden  1851 

4.  Kingdom  of  Wilrttemberg  Royal  Statistical  State  Office  in 

Stuttgart  1820 


GERMAN  EMPIRE 


6.  Grand-duchy  of  Baden 

6.  Grand-duchy  of  Hessen 

7.  Grand-duchy  of  Mecklenburg- 

Schwerin 

8.  Grand-duchy  of  Saxe- 

Weimar 
Duchy  of  Saze-Altenburg 
Principalities  of 

Reuss  OX. 

Reuss  Y.L, 
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 
Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen 

9.  Grand-duchy  of  Oldenburg 

10.  Duchy  of  Braunschweig 

11.  Duchy  of  Saxe-Meiningen 

12.  Duchy  of  Saxe-Coburg-Gotha 

13.  Duchy  of  Anhalt 

14.  Free  City  of  Lttbeck 

15.  Free  City  of  Bremen 

16.  Free  City  of  Hamburg 


17.  Imperial   Domain   of  Alsace- 
Lorraine 


Grand-ducal  Statistical  State  Of- 
fice in  Karlsruhe  1852 

Grand-ducal    Central    Office    for 

State  Statistics  in  Darmstadt        1861 

Grand-ducal  Statistical  State  Of- 
fice in  Schwerin  1851 


Thflringian  State  Statistical  Office 

in  Weimar  1864 


Grand-ducal  State  Statistical  Of- 
fice in  Oldenburg  1855 

Ducal  State  Statistical  Office  in 

Braunschweig  1853 

Statistical  Bureau  of  the  Ducal 

Ministry  oiState  in  Meiningen       1875 

Statistical  Bureau  of  the  Ducal 

State  Ministry  in  Gotha  1858 

Ducal  State  Statistical  Office  in 

Dessau  1867 

Statbtical  Office  of  the  Free  and 

Hansa  City  1871 

Statistical  Office  of  Bremen  1867 

Statistical  Bureau  and  Bureau  of 
the  Central  Election  Com- 
mission 1866 

Statistical  State  Office  for  Alsace- 

Lomune  in  Strassburg  1872 


Of  these  seventeen  oflBces,  ten  are  each  under  a  director 
whose  chief  occupation  it  is  to  direct  it.  In  Liibeck  the 
director  also  holds  other  positions,  and  in  Hessen,  the  Thtir- 
ingian  office,  Braunschweig,  Meiningen,  Coburg-Gotha  and 
Anhalt,  the  statistical  service  is  in  charge  of  officials  holding 
other  state  offices  and  who  perform  this  service  as  a  sub- 
sidiary occupation;  yet  the  central  office  for  Hessen  employs 
some  scientific  officials  in  the  chief  bureau.  The  smallest 
states,  namely  the  Grand-duchy  of  Mechlenburg-Strelitz 
and  the  principalities  of  Waldeck,  Schaumburg-Lippe  and 
Lippe,  are  without  specially  organized  statistical  offices. 


340  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

So  far  as  Waldeck  is  concerned,  the  entire  administration, 
including  the  statistical  function,  is  in  charge  of  Prussia, 
while  in  the  other  three  states  the  requisite  statistical  work 
rests  with  the  general  state  government. 

Furthermore,  forty  five  municipaUties  support  their  own 
statistical  offices,  namely: 

Aachen,  Altona,  Augsburg,  Barmen,  Berlin,  Schoneberg, 
Wilmersdorf,  Braunschweig,  Breslau,  Cassel,  Charlotten- 
burg,  Chemnitz,  Coin,  Crefeld,  Danzig,  Dortmund,  Dresden, 
Dusseldorf,  Duisburg,  Elberfeld,  Essen,  Frankfurt  a.  M., 
Freiburg,  Gorlitz,  Halle,  Hannover,  Karlsruhe,  Kiel,  Kbnigs- 
berg,  Leipzig,  Linden,  Magdeburg,  Mainz,  Mannheim, 
Metz,  Miilheim,  Munchen,  Neukblln,  Nurnberg,  Plauen, 
Posen,  Stettin,  Strassburg,  Stuttgart,  Wiesbaden. 

Of  these  municipal  offices,  thirty  nine  are  under  the  leader- 
ship of  professional  statisticians.  The  oldest  municipal 
statistical  office  is  that  of  Berlin  which  was  established  as 
early  as  1862.  The  large  majority  date  from  more  recent 
times,  for  twenty  four  of  these  forty  five  municipal  statistical 
offices  have  been  established  since  the  year  1900.  To  these 
should  be  added  the  only  provincial-statistical  office,  namely, 
that  of  the  district  of  Teltow  which  contains  a  part  of  the 
environs  of  the  city  of  Berlin. 

All  of  these  offices  are  occupied  not  with  one  branch  of 
statistics  alone,  for  instance  the  registration  of  births,  mar- 
riages and  deaths,  or  exclusively  or  chiefly  with  medical 
statistics,  but  are  bureaus  for  general  statistics  of  the  most 
varied  kind. 

Only  in  isolated  instances  do  the  municipal  offices  in 
question  engage  in  non-statistical  work.  For  instance,  in 
Prussia  and  Saxony,  it  is  their  duty  to  publish  annually  the 
lists  of  the  markets  that  are  to  take  place  the  following  year 
in  the  different  parishes,  and  in  some  municipalities  these 
offices  prepare  the  general  printed  reports  in  regard  to  the 
municipal  administration.  The  only  office  which,  besides 
statistics,  is  occupied  with  other  tasks  on  a  large  scale  is  that 
of  Wurttemburg,  which  is  also  the  center  of  information  and 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  341 

history  of  the  country  as  well  as  of  topographical  work.  This, 
however,  is  rather  a  matter  of  form,  for  the  personnel  of  the 
statistical  division  is  in  fact  not  engaged  in  other  tasks. 

The  expenditures  of  the  Imperial  Statistical  OflSce  amount 
annually  to  more  than  two  and  one-half  million  marks,  those 
of  the  other  state  statistical  bureaus  to  two  million  marks, 
while  the  outlay  of  the  municipal  statistical  offices  is  to  be 
reckoned  at  one  million  marks,  making  a  total  annual  ex- 
penditure of  five  and  one-half  million  marks,  not  counting 
special  appropriations  for  censuses  of  population  and  other 
statistical  investigations  which  are  not  of  annual  occurrence. 

The  permanent  personnel  occupied  at  the  statistical  offices 
numbers  1,500,  among  whom  are  130  to  140  scientifically 
trained  officials  and  about  650  calculators  and  clerks;  the 
remaining  700  are  assistants  who  are  engaged  as  occasion 
demands  and  whose  total  number  at  times  is  considerably 
higher. 

There  is  in  addition  the  so-called  "unreleased"  {unaus- 
geloste)  statistics  that  are  compiled  by  other  departments 
than  the  statistical  bureaus.  They  hold  a  place  of  no  incon- 
siderable importance  among  the  statistics  of  the  Empire  as 
well  as  among  those  of  the  federated  states  and  municipali- 
ties, although  less  so  than  in  many  other  countries  where 
the  concentration  of  work  in  the  statistical  offices  is  not  so 
developed.  The  statistics  under  consideration  are  limited 
to  departments  which  have  need  of  appending  statistical 
information  to  the  reports  of  their  own  administrative 
activities  for  purposes  of  illustration  or  because  it  is  inti- 
mately related  to  their  work. 

The  progress  which  the  official  statistics  in  the  German 
Empire  have  made  since  they  were  organized  has  taken 
place,  one  may  confidently  assert,  exclusively  in  the  fields 
that  are  occupied  by  the  statistical  offices  proper  and  this 
progress  manifests  itself  by  an  expansion  of  their  activity  in 
intensive  as  well  as  extensive  directions. 

The  peculiarity  of  the  wide  distribution  of  statistics  in 
the  German  Empire  lies  in  that  it  does  not  only  extend 


342  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

horizontally  to  different  coordinated  administrations,  but 
much  more  in  that  it  penetrates  vertically  the  organs  of  the 
Empire,  the  states  and  the  municipalities,  which  are  founded 
one  upon  the  other,  and  therefore  this  distribution  has  as  its 
indispensable  premise  an  intimate  relation  of  the  partici- 
pating factors  which  perhaps  is  of  less  significance  under 
other  systems  of  dividing  statistical  activities. 

The  division  of  work  among  the  statistical  oflSces  partici- 
pating in  different  investigations  is  not  strictly  systematic, 
but  in  course  of  the  development  of  affairs  it  has  become 
quite  complicated. 

Even  the  Imperial  Statistical  Office  is  by  no  means  the 
only  one  engaged  in  the  "central"  statistics  which  it  com- 
piles. As  the  original  data  in  a  large  part  are  collected  not 
only  through  officials  of  the  imperial  administration  but 
through  those  of  the  separate  states,  the  latter  are  in  posi- 
tion to  copy  the  material  or  make  extracts  before  transmit- 
ting it  to  the  Imperial  Statistical  Office  and  thus  of  dealing 
with  it  for  their  domain  more  intensively  according  to  terri- 
tory or  contents  than  is  possible  for  the  Imperial  Office. 
Since  differences  would  arise  in  the  results  of  the  compilations 
made  by  the  Empire  and  by  the  federated  states  provided 
tests  of  the  material  by  one  or  the  other  should  lead  to 
changes  and  additions,  the  agreement  has  been  reached  in 
many  instances  that  the  imperial  and  the  federated  state 
offices  shall  make  mutually  known  the  outcome  of  such 
tests.  The  schedules  used  in  such  investigations  are  for  the 
greater  part  determined  and  provided  by  the  Imperial 
Office,  and  their  expansion  through  additional  questions  on 
behalf  of  the  separate  states  is  therefore  as  a  rule  not  feasible. 

Although  in  recent  times  many  branches  of  social  and 
industrial  statistics  have  been  taken  up  by  the  Imperial 
Office,  "federal"  statistics  constitute  the  most  diverse  part 
of  its  work;  they  include,  as  already  stated,  large  enumera- 
tions in  which  the  whole  population  is  required  to  fill  out 
the  schedules. 
|'{^  Since  the  very  beginning  of  imperial  statistics  and  in  con- 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  343 

formity  with  'the  conference  mentioned  which  may  be  re- 
garded as  having  given  birth  to  them,  arrangements  have 
been  made  with  the  leaders  of  the  statistical  oflfices  of  the 
Empire  and  the  federated  states  for  conventions  at  which  the 
plans  for  the  governmental  regulations  in  regard  to  the 
separate  investigations  in  the  field  of  federal  statistics 
are  thoroughly  discussed  before  being  submitted  to  the 
federal  council.  These  conventions,  which  formerly  were 
occasional  affairs,  have  been  held  annually  since  1897;  and 
all  the  more  important  federal  statistical  investigations  are 
thoroughly  weighed  by  them  before  the  federal  council 
orders  the  work  to  be  undertaken.  For  the  rest,  these  con- 
ventions have  in  many  respects  become  an  important  factor 
in  the  imperial  statistics,  for  to  them  are  due  not  only  num- 
erous suggestions  in  regard  to  the  regulations  of  the  federal 
council,  but  in  some  fields  new  comparative  work  in  imperial 
statistics  has  been  instigated  solely  through  the  means  of 
cooperation  agreed  upon  by  the  leaders  of  the  statistical 
offices  who  participated  in  these  conferences. 

The  directors  of  the  municipal  statistical  offices  have  held 
joint  meetings  since  1897  chiefly  for  the  purpose  of  reaching 
the  greatest  possible  uniformity  in  the  work  they  carry  on 
independently  of  the  state  administrations.  This  work  lies 
principally  within  the  field  of  population,  building  and 
dwelling,  and  community  finance  statistics.  Conferences 
of  this  sort  have  latterly  been  held  once  a  year. 

Another  feature  of  the  German  official  statistics  is  that 
with  few  exceptions  the  investigations  are  not  fixed  by  legis- 
lation but  are  carried  out  by  way  of  administration  through 
regulations  made  by  the  federal  council;  and  in  conformity 
with  such  regulations  the  governments  of  the  separate  states 
likewise  arrange  through  administrative  edicts  the  details  for 
executing  the  work.  In  general,  an  imperial  law  is  adopted 
only  relative  to  investigations  in  which  the  population  is 
bound  under  penalty  to  fill  out  the  schedules  and  for  the 
compilation  of  which  the  federated  states,  when  federal 
statistics  are  in  question,  receive  an  indemnification  for 


344  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

costs  from  the  imperial  treasury.  This  was  the  case  in  the 
three  enumerations  of  occupation  and  industry  for  the  years 
1882,  1895  and  1907.  Aside  from  this,  only  the  statistics  of 
foreign  commerce  are  governed  by  laws,  and  in  the  legisla- 
tion concerning  sea  fisheries  statistics  are  also  provided  for. 
There  are  no  other  laws  prescribing  statistical  investigations. 
It  is  not  at  all  necessary  to  provide  penalties  in  case  the 
requisite  statements  should  be  refused,  because  the  popu- 
lation generally  recognizes  the  importance  of  furnishing 
correctly  the  information  required  for  statistical  purposes 
and  almost  without  exception  give  it  without  being  coerced. 

The  conviction  that  administrative  statistics  demand  an 
activity  of  a  peculiar  kind  which  appropriately  should  be 
entrusted  to  a  specially  organized  bureau  led  to  the  estab- 
lishment of  statistical  offices;  but  the  full  advantage  of 
properly  formulated  statistical  technique  of  production  for 
the  whole  field  will  only  grow  out  of  the  existence  of  these 
offices  when  arrangements  are  niade  that  cause  all  work 
suitable  for  the  statistical  office  to  be  discharged  by  it,  and 
when  the  leadership  of  the  offices  as  well  as  of  the  large  divi- 
sions under  them  is  given  to  persons  with  sufficient  insight 
into  administration  and  who  completely  master  statistical 
practice.  These  demands  are  not  yet  met  everywhere  nor 
in  a  consistent  manner. 

With  reference  to  the  allotment  of  work  that  advanta- 
geously can  be  turned  over  to  the  statistical  office,  of  which, 
as  already  mentioned,  business  statistics  of  the  separate 
departments  are  not  necessarily  a  part,  there  is  a  certain 
natural  tendency  in  the  opposite  direction.  It  arises  from 
the  circumstance  that  the  statistical  offices  of  the  Empire 
and  of  the  federated  states  are  subject  to  a  single  depart- 
ment, namely,  the  Imperial  Statistical  Office  in  the  Depart- 
ment of  the  Interior,  while  the  offices  of  the  federated  states 
are  under  some  ministry  (usually  that  of  the  Interior,  in 
Wurttemburg  that  of  Finance),  and  that  these  superiors 
are  inclined  to  make  use  of  the  forces  of  the  office  chiefly 
for  the  advantage  of  their  special  department.     On  the 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  345 

other  hand,  the  personal  initiative  of  the  leader  of  the  sta- 
tistical oflSce  is  naturally  of  great  importance  as  it  probably 
everywhere,  to  a  certain  extent,  influences  the  allotment  of 
work  to  the  office. 

In  some  states  special  commissions  have  the  task  of  bring- 
ing about  uniform  cooperation  between  the  different  branches 
of  the  state  administration  and  the  official  statistical  work. 
In  Prussia,  the  "Central  Statistical  Commission"  functions 
as  a  statistical  council.  It  is  composed  of  representatives 
of  different  ministries  and  the  Imperial  Department  of  the 
Interior,  the  President  and  a  second  member  of  the  Sta- 
tistical State  Office,  three  members  of  both  houses  of  the 
Landtag,  and  of  professional  statisticians.  The  Statistical 
Council  of  Bavaria  is  made  up  of  representatives  of  the 
different  ministries,  the  director  of  the  Statistical  State 
Office,  four  representatives  of  agriculture,  industry  and 
commerce,  and  one  or  more  representatives  of  science.  In 
both  of  the  states  mentioned,  the  statistical  councils  meet 
only  occasionally  and  not  very  often.  This  is  also  true  of 
the  statistical  commission  in  Mecklenburg-Schwerin.  In 
Wiirttemburg  permanent  delegates  of  the  ministries  are 
appointed  to  the  Statistical  State  Office,  and  in  Hessen 
representatives  of  the  different  administrative  departments 
are  members  of  the  Central  Office  for  State  Statistics  and 
thus  maintain  the  relations  between  the  administration  and 
statistics.  Meanwhile,  the  central  statistical  commissions 
which  were  established  in  the  middle  of  the  last  century  in 
some  other  German  states  (Baden,  Oldenburg)  have  gone 
out  of  existence. 

A  word  must  be  said  about  the  internal  organization  of 
the  statistical  offices.  As  in  the  case  of  the  directors  of 
the  Imperial  Statistical  Office,  so  also,  are  the  leaders  of  the 
larger  bureaus  assisted  by  a  number  of  scientifically  trained 
co-workers.  That  so  far  no  general  principles  have  been 
evolved  governing  the  selection  of  these  assistants  as  well  as 
the  selection  of  the  leaders  themselves,  is  due  to  the  cir- 
cumstance that  no  actual  definitely  regulated  occupational 


346  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

training  of  statisticians  is  provided  for  in  the  German  high 
schools  in  the  same  manner  as  for  administrative  officials, 
judges,  physicians,  etc.  The  reason  of  it  lies  in  the  nature 
of  statistics  themselves,  for  although  there  may  be  a  differ- 
ence of  opinion  as  to  whether  statistics  form  an  independent 
science  or  only  constitute  a  method,  it  cannot  be  doubted 
that  to  exercise  the  calling  of  a  statistician  requires  a  certain 
amount  of  knowledge  and  aptitude  which  cannot  be  obtained 
as  the  result  of  any  other  vocational  training.  The  most 
appropriate  manner  of  providing  a  future  generation  of 
trained  statisticians  would,  therefore,  be  to  introduce  special 
courses  and  perhaps  also  special  examinations  for  statisticians 
at  the  universities.  But  such  a  plan  can  only  be  realized 
when  the  scientific  positions  in  statistical  offices  become  so 
numerous  that  many  students  see  an  opportunity  in  the 
statistical  occupation. 

Yet,  after  all,  the  increase  and  expansion  of  statistical 
offices  have  led  many  young  people,  who,  during  their  stu- 
dent years,  had  prepared  themselves  for  other  careers,  to 
enter  a  statistical  office  in  order  to  learn  its  activities  and 
then  to  become  sufficiently  familiar  with  them  to  gain 
recognition  as  professional  statisticians.  The  scientific 
forces  of  the  municipal  statistical  offices  are  as  a  rule  recruited 
among  the  different  municipal  administrations  from  persons 
who  have  been  trained  in  this  manner;  but  in  the  state 
offices  cases  of  this  kind  occur  comparatively  seldom.  As 
a  rule  the  governments  prefer  to  ffil  the  positions  of  leaders 
and  assistants  with  persons  who  have  shown  their  qualifica- 
tions in  other  administrative  offices,  and  of  whom  it  can  be 
assumed  that  they  will  soon  attain  the  necessary  statistical 
experience  through  practice.  When  a  large  number  of 
places  are  in  question,  it  is  customary  to  reserve  some  for 
representatives  of  certain  scientific  branches,  the  knowledge 
of  which  is  of  value  in  dealing  with  special  matters  conaing 
before  the  office.  Thus,  for  instance,  in  several  offices 
physicians  are  in  charge  of  the  statistics  of  morbidity,  mor- 
tality, etc.,  and  academically  trained  calculators  look  after 
the  compilation  of  agricultural  statistics. 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  347 

It  follows  from  the  nature  of  the  statistical  offices  as  ad- 
ministrative organs  that  their  production,  that  is,  the  sta- 
tistical material  collected  by  them,  must  benefit  the  public 
administration.  But,  as  regards  the  manner  in  which  it  is 
utilized  by  the  administrations,  a  twofold  distinction  is  to 
be  made.  If  an  investigation  is  undertaken  because  some 
concrete  object  (for  instance,  the  preparation  of  a  legislative 
bill)  postulates  statistical  bases  that  are  not  yet  at  hand  but 
to  be  gained  through  the  investigation,  then  an  adequate 
utilization  of  its  results  for  administrative  purposes  is  guar- 
anteed. The  case  is  different  in  respect  to  most  of  the 
regular  tasks  of  the  statistical  offices — ^the  investigation  of 
periodical  conditions  and  current  movements.  Here  the 
previously  determined  object  is  lacking,  and  it  cannot  be 
foreseen  whether  on  the  whole  the  administration  will  have 
an  opportunity  to  make  use  of  the  results  of  this  or  that 
investigation  corresponding  to  the  trouble  and  cost  involved. 
But,  on  the  other  hand,  just  this  indefiniteness  makes  it 
possible  that  needs  which  could  not  have  been  predicated  in 
advance  may  lead  to  a  thorough  utilization  of  the  results 
and  that,  therefore,  the  limits  set  beforehand  both  to  the 
investigation  and  the  compilation  show  themselves  to  be  too 
narrow  in  the  individual  case.  It  is  thus  left  to  the  pre- 
vision of  the  leaders  of  the  statistical  offices  to  test  in  season 
how  far  the  compilation,  and  in  many  instances  the  investi- 
gation itself,  can  be  expanded  beyond  the  momentarily 
fixed  demands  without  exceeding  the  bounds  created  by  the 
financial  means  of  the  office  and  other  circumstances.  Mean- 
while this  possibility  occurs  for  the  statistical  offices  only 
when  they  have  obtained  the  original  data  of  inquiry  for 
compilation,  and  for  the  Imperial  Statistical  Office  con- 
sequently in  case  of  "central"  statistics. 

But  precisely  in  respect  to  the  subjects  belonging  to 
"central"  statistics  the  compass  of  the  investigation  and 
compilation  is  closely  circumscribed  by  existing  regulations, 
so  that  in  this  direction  the  initiative  of  the  Imperial  Sta- 
tistical Office  is  given  but  little  scope.     Not  so  with  the 


348  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

oflSces  of  the  federated  states.  In  regard  to  the  federal 
undertakings  which  constitute  the  most  diverse  part  of  the 
German  statistics,  it  is  their  duty  to  formulate  the  schedules 
for  their  respective  states,  to  carry  out  the  investigations 
and  to  complete  their  material.  Thus  in  many  respects 
they  are  in  a  position  to  expand  their  work  beyond  the  limits 
prescribed  for  the  joint  imperial  statistics.  This  holds 
good  when  the  interrogatory  is  amplified  during  the  investi- 
gation itself  by  means  of  so-called  supplementary  questions, 
relative  to  the  results  of  these  questions.  Furthermore,  the 
statements  obtained  by  the  different  offices  frequently  are 
still  more  minutely  partitioned,  that  is,  distributed  into 
more  groups  than  required  for  the  purpose  of  the  joint  sta- 
tistics. Then,  too,  the  results  of  different  questions  are 
often  presented  in  more  combinations  than  in  a  case  of  the 
imperial  statistics.*  Finally,  it  is  almost  universally  the 
custom  that  the  separate  states  prepare  the  tables  for  the 
smaller  local  units  of  administration,  while  for  the  purposes 
of  imperial  statistics  only  a  summary  for  the  entire  federated 
state  or  for  its  larger  districts  is  required  and  published. 

Such  special  results  of  the  activity  of  the  statistical  office 
of  a  single  federated  state  have  repeatedly  shown  themselves 
to  be  useful  so  far  as  they  actually  yield  more  thorough 
information  than  that  at  hand  for  the  Empire;  and  this  holds 
good  not  only  of  the  state  in  question  but  of  the  country  at 
large,  as  such  information  has  the  same  significance  for  the 
latter  as  the  statistical  surrogates  obtained  by  the  so-called 
sampling  method.  The  like  is  true  of  the  special  statistics 
proper,  that  is,  statistics  collected  for  particular  purposes, 
and  also  true  of  many  of  the  undertakings  by  the  municipal 
statistical  offices  which  enlarge  the  enumerations  to  be  made 
on  behalf  of  the  state  so  far  as  the  municipal  domain  is 
concerned. 

*For  instance,  when  at  censuses  of  population  tables  are  called  for  showing  the 
states  to  which  the  inhabitants  belong  and  the  countries  of  their  birth,  a  distinction 
is  made  in  many  federated  states  in  regard  to  the  countries  of  birth  for  persons  of 
each  single  state  relationship. 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  349 

There  is,  to  be  sure,  one  obstacle  to  the  full  utilization  of 
all  these  refined  statistical  inquiries:  it  is  made  difficult  by 
the  almost  complete  absence  of  reference  works  which  afford 
easily  accessible  information  about  the  existence  of  such  and 
such  data.  For  one  field — statistics  of  the  movement  of 
population — ^I  have  made  a  compilation  of  this  kind  which 
appeared  as  a  supplement  to  the  Allgemeines  Statistisches 
Archiv,  1909.  In  most  fields  of  statistics,  however,  the 
results  of  the  activity  of  the  state  and  municipal  offices  in 
federal  and  special  investigations  that  complement  the 
imperial  statistics  are  so  scattered  that  they  can  only  be 
taken  advantage  of  and,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  are  used  in  a 
wholly  insufficient  degree.  The  joint  regulation  of  these 
branches  of  statistics,  which  already  Riimelin  had  in  view  in 
his  program  referred  to  above,  has  not  yet  been  accomplished. 

Self-evidently  it  is  difficult  to  pronounce  a  general  judg- 
ment about  these  matters.  But  also  among  the  imperial 
statistical  publications  only  those  can  be  said  to  enjoy  a 
thorough  use  that  are  of  immediate  practical  significance  in 
details,  for  instance,  the  statistics  of  foreign  commerce,  and 
the  criminal  statistics.  For  the  rest  it  cannot  be  denied 
that  as  well  in  the  scientific  fields  which  should  benefit  by 
an  intensive  use  of  statistical  results,  their  utilization  is  in  a 
large  part  quite  sparing  and  incontestably  out  of  keeping  with 
the  extraordinary  abundance  of  the  statistical  production. 

The  reason  for  this  condition  is  likewise  to  be  sought  in  the 
insufficient  representation  of  statistics  at  the  high  schools. 
With  few  exceptions  they  do  not  afford  the  students  a  sys- 
tematic introduction  to  statistics  which  still  have  to  attain 
their  proper  place  among  the  subjects  of  instruction  at  the 
high  schools. 

On  this  account,  one  of  the  earliest  tasks  of  the  German 
Statistical  Association,  founded  in  1911,  was  to  take  steps 
toward  a  more  general  instruction  in  statistics  at  the  high 

schools. 

Because  of  the  naany-sidedness  of  the  official  statistics 
in  the  German  Empire  it  is  impossible  to  present  with  any 


350  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

degree  of  completeness  the  diflferent  branches  covered  by  the 
activity  of  the  numerous  statistical  offices,  and  merely  to 
give  a  list  of  their  publications  would  require  a  dispropor- 
tionate amount  of  space. 

The  publications  comprehended  under  imperial  statistics 
are  issued  chiefly  by  the  Imperial  Statistical  Office  in  the 
form  of  different  original  works:  Statistics  of  the  German 
Empire,  which  contain  the  most  complete  statistics,  at  least 
one  volume  being  devoted  to  each  branch;  the  Quarterlies 
which,  aside  from  certain  definite  statistics  of  lesser  com- 
pass, afford  preliminary  information  about  subjects  dealt 
with  in  the  Statistics  of  the  German  Empire;  the  annual 
Statistics  of  the  Freight  Movement  on  the  German  Railways, 
which  must  be  regarded  as  a  supplement  to  the  publication 
of  the  State  Railway  Department  entitled  Statistics  of  the 
Operating  Railways  of  Gerrriany;  the  monthly  reports  on 
foreign  commerce  which  customarily  are  accompanied  by 
data  in  regard  to  prices  and  fisheries;  finally,  the  publications 
of  the  Division  for  Labor  Statistics,  consisting  of  a  monthly 
Government  Labor  Journal,  and  of  different  separate  studies. 

The  Statistical  Year  Book  and  the  more  comprehensive 
Statistical  Hand  Book  which  so  far  has  appeared  once  (1907) 
in  two  parts,  are  not  designed  to  present  original  work  but 
to  be  a  summary  of  what  already  has  been  published. 

So  far  as  the  federated  states  are  concerned,  the  statistical 
offices  of  Prussia,  Bavaria  and  Saxony  each  publishes  a 
separate  Zeitschrift  as  well  as  original  works  which,  in  con- 
formity with  the  Statistics  of  the  German  Empire,  contain  the 
results  of  the  larger  statistical  investigations.  Similar 
organs  are  published  by  the  statistical  offices  in  all  the 
federated  states,  and  many  in  addition  issue  a  year  book  or 
hand  book.  The  municipal  statistical  offices  in  greater 
part  publish  monthly  reports  on  different  statistical  results 
but  also  in  several  instances  year  books,  Communications 
(Mitteilungen)  and  the  like.  The  Statistical  Year  Book  of 
German  Cities,  published  at  the  instigation  of  the  Municipal 
Statistical  Conference,  is  an  important  document  in  the 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  351 

service  of  comparative  communal  statistics  and  covers 
cities  with  more  than  50,000  population.  This  year  book 
does  not,  as  otherwise  is  the  rule,  form  a  mere  compilation 
of  numerical  statements,  but  every  section  is  accompanied 
by  an  explanatory  text  dealing  in  part  with  the  origin  of  the 
statistics  in  question  and  in  part  with  the  significance  of  the 
numbers.  This  is  the  type  of  statistical  year  book  had  in 
view  by  the  two  most  eminent  representatives  of  statistics 
in  Germany  among  those  who  have  already  passed  away, 
namely,  E.  Engel,  director  first  of  the  Saxon  and  later 
(until  1882)  of  the  Prussian  Statistical  State  Office,  and  R. 
Boeckh,  who  was  a  director  of  the  Statistical  Office  of  the 
City  of  Berlin  from  1875  to  1903,  The  year  book  of  Berhn 
has  remained  true  to  this  type  until  the  present  day. 

A  list  of  all  these  organs  of  publication  is  to  be  found  in 
the  Deutsches  Statistisches  Zentralblatt  for  1909,  No.  2,  with 
supplements  in  No.  5,  also  in  No.  4  for  1910. 

At  jubilees  and  on  other  occasions  some  of  the  statistical 
offices  have  issued  collective  publications  dealing  in  a  more 
or  less  comprehensive  manner  with  the  history  and  status 
of  their  activity  at  the  time.     Such  memoirs  are: 

1.  The  Imperial  Statistical  Office.  The  Field  of  Work  of  the  Imperial  Statistical 
Office  as  it  Existed  in  the  Year  1918.  40-666  pp.  Berlin,  191S.  (Vol.  201 
of  the  Statistics  of  the  German  Empire.) 

i.  Kingdom  of  Prusiia.  The  Royal  Statistical  Office  During  the  First  Century  of  its 
Existence,  1806-1905.  Memorial  publication.  Three  parts  in  two  volumes 
(XII,  271;  VIII,  161  and  XIX  pp.  with  116  colored  plates).  Berlin.  Pub- 
lished by  the  Royal  Statistical  State  Office,  1909. 

3.  Kingdom  of  Bavaria.  1.  History  and  Organization  of  OffixAal  Statistics  in 

the  Kingdom  of  Bavaria.   336  pp.   Mimich,  1896. 
2.  History  of  the  Newer  Bavarian  Siaiistics  (Contri- 
butions to  the  statistics  of  the  Kingdom   of 
Bavaria,  part  86).    277  pp.    Munich,  1914. 

4.  Kingdom  of  Saxony.  1.  The  Statistical  Bureau  of  the  Kingdom  of  Saxony 

During  the  First  Fifty  Years  of  its  Existence. 
Memorial  Publication.  96  pp.  Leipzig,  1881. 
2.  The  Royal  Statistical  State  Bureau  from  1876  to 
1890.  A  report  of  administration.  Journal 
of  the  Royal  Statistical  Bureau  of  Saxony,  36, 
1890.  Dresden,  1890. 


352  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

5.  The  Kingdom  of  WiirUemberg.     The  Problems  and  Work  of  the  Royal  Statistical 

State  Office.    (Year  Books  for  Statistics  and  Landeskunde  in  Wttrttemberg, 
1909,  1.) 

6.  Orand-Duchy  of  Hessen.     The  History  of  Hessian  Statistics  and  Their  Qffieiai 

Organization.    In  Commenwration  of  the  50th  Anniversary  of  the  Grand  Ducal 
Hessian  Central  Office  for  State  Statistics.    72  pp.    Darmstadt,  1911. 

7.  Grand-Duchy  of  Oldenburg.     The  Statistical  Office  of  the  Grand-Duchy  of  Olden- 

burg During  the  First  Fifty  Years  of  its  Existence.     (Conrad's  Jahrbticher  fUr 
NationalSkonomie  und  Statistik,  series  III,  Vol.  28.) 

8.  The  Duchy  of  Braunschweig.     The  First  Fifty  Years  of  the  Statistical  Bureau  of 

the  Duchy  of  Braunschweig-LUneburg,  1854  to  1904.     (Contributions  to  the 
Statistics  of  the  Duchy  of  Braunschweig,  part  18,  Braunschweig,  1904.) 

Of  the  non-oflScial  publications  dealing  with  the  entire 
field  of  activity  of  the  statistical  offices  in  Germany  there 
should  be  mentioned  (1)  the  great  work  of  more  than  1800 
pages  which  was  presented  in  1911  to  G.  von  Mayr  on  the 
occasion  of  his  seventieth  birthday;  (2)  the  Statistics  in  Ger- 
many which  consists  of  fifty  two  separate  presentations  of 
different  subjects  and  deals  with  all  three  branches — ^govern- 
mental, state  and  communal  statistics;  and  (8)  in  regard 
to  the  statistical  activity  of  communes,  the  supplementary 
volume  to  Allgemeines  Statistisches  Archiv,  Vol.  6,  entitled 
German  Municipal  Statistics.  It  relates,  however,  to  a  some- 
what remote  year. 

III.     The  Subjects  of  Statistical  Investigation 

Even  if  it  is  not  possible  to  consider  all  details,  at  least  a 
glance  must  be  taken  at  the  more  important  subjects  of  the 
joint  (central  or  federal)  imperial  statistics,*  with  some 
attention  to  the  special  statistics. 

Among  the  subjects  taken  over  for  central  treatment, 
meaning  thereby  that  the  original  data  are  dealt  with  by  the 
imperial  offices  and  not  by  the  state  offices,  the  statistics  of 
foreign   commerce   are   the  most  comprehensive   and,   as 

*At  this  point  I  must  express  my  thanks  to  the  directors  of  the  statistical  state 
offices  for  their  often  laboriously  prepared  answers  to  the  questions  which  I  put 
to  them  for  the  purposes  of  the  following  survey;  I  also  wish  to  thank  Dr.  Claus 
and  Dr.  Huth  of  the  Imperial  office  for  the  thorough  compilation  they  furnished  at 
my  request  of  the  subjects  of  the  pubUcations  of  that  office. 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  353 

already  stated,  they  date  from  the  time  of  the  Tariff  Union. 
Their  present  form  is  based  upon  the  law  of  February  7, 
1906,  relative  to  the  statistics  of  goods  traffic  with  foreign 
countries.  The  receiver,  shipper,  and  transporter  are  in 
duty  bound  to  transmit  a  notification  to  the  proper  place  of 
report,  stating  the  kind,  quantity,  place  of  origin,  and  desti- 
nation of  the  goods.  According  to  the  resolution  of  the 
federal  council  of  February  11,  1911,  the  report  must  state 
the  value  of  all  goods  exported — ^previously  only  in  some 
cases — and  also  in  regard  to  some  goods  that  are  imported. 
In  the  case  of  goods  whose  value  it  is  not  obligatory  to  de- 
clare, unit  prices  are  fixed  for  the  different  kind  of  goods  by 
the  aid  of  a  commerical  statistical  council  consisting  of  per- 
sons trained  in  agriculture,  commerce,  industry  and  science. 
For  imports,  the  value  of  the  goods  is  considered  to  be  the 
one  they  have  on  passing  the  boundary,  that  is  to  say,  minus 
duty,  freight  charges,  etc.  On  the  basis  of  the  statements 
received  at  the  places  of  information,  reports  must  be  made 
out  every  ten  days,  sometimes  at  briefer  intervals,  and 
transmitted  to  the  Imperial  Statistical  Office. 

The  reports  received  in  the  Imperial  Statistical  Office  are 
compiled  by  the  aid  of  Hollerith  machines.  The  goods  are 
valued  according  to  the  Statistical  Goods  Registers  which 
(since  January  1, 1912)  divide  those  belonging  to  exports  into 
1,639  and  those  belonging  to  imports  into  1,875  numbers. 
The  origin  and  destination  is  noted  for  the  country  in  which 
the  article  was  grown  or  manufactured,  and  as  the  place  of 
destination  the  country  for  whose  use  it  is  destined. 

The  statistics  are  issued  monthly  and  annually;  in  addition, 
the  import  and  export  of  different  cereals  and  some  other 
important  goods  such  as  cotton,  coal,  etc.,  are  published 
every  ten  days  in  the  Reichsanzeiger. 

The  annual  statistics  of  ocean  shipping,  which  also  date 
from  the  time  of  the  Tariff  Union,  are  likewise  compiled  in  the 
Imperial  Statistical  Office;  and  their  present  form  is  based 
upon  the  resolutions  of  the  federal  council  of  June  27,  1907, 
and  of  June  13, 1912.     The  same  office  compiles  the  monthly 

24 


354  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

reports  of  the  Imperial  Department  of  Canals  in  regard  to 
the  traflBc  on  the  Baltic  Canal,  while  the  statistics  of  traflBc 
on  inland  waters,  which  have  been  considerably  expanded 
since  1909,  are  dealt  with  as  federal  statistics  and  in  such 
a  manner  that  every  stopping  place  on  a  river  or  a  lake  is 
included. 

The  statistics  of  population  in  the  widest  sense  of  the 
term  are  left  almost  exclusively  to  federal  treatment,  so 
that  the  Imperial  Statistical  Office  only  has  to  do  with  the 
compilation  and  publication  of  summaries  for  the  Empire. 
This  is  true  of  the  schedules  relating  to  present  conditions, 
that  is,  the  enumeration  of  population  based  upon  the  direct 
interrogation  of  the  inhabitants,  as  well  as  of  the  schedules 
dealing  with  the  movement  of  population.  The  statistics 
of  intermigration  form  the  only  exception.  In  regard  to 
emigration  over  seas,  the  Imperial  Statistical  Office  obtains 
the  requisite  reports  annually  through  the  officials  of  the 
harbors  from  which  the  emigrants  depart;  and  statistics 
of  arrival  at  and  departure  from  the  municipalities,  in  so  far 
as  information  is  at  hand,  are  collected  and  compiled  by  the 
diflEerent  cities,  and  most  extensively  and  also  probably  most 
carefully  by  the  city  of  Berlin. 

As  a  rule,  enumerations  of  population  occur  quinquen- 
nially  and  are  each  time  planned  in  conformity  to  resolu- 
tions by  the  federal  council  after  preparatory  work  by  the 
Conference  of  Statisticians.  At  enumerations  in  years 
ending  in  0  it  is  customary  to  employ  more  comprehensive 
interrogatories  and  a  wider  treatment  than  in  years  ending 
in  5.  The  federal  states  carry  out  population  enumerations 
partly  by  means  of  individual  counting  cards,  as  in  Prussia, 
partly  by  means  of  householders'  lists  which  offer  great 
advantages  when  Hollerith  machines  are  used  as  was  done 
in  several  federated  states  when  the  results  of  the  population 
enumeration  of  1910  were  compiled.  Especially  at  popula- 
tion enumerations,  some  of  the  federated  states  make  fre- 
quent use  of  the  right  to  increase  the  questions  required  by 
the  Empire  through  special  questions  relating  to  their  do- 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  355 

main.  Some  federated  states  also  combine  the  current 
statistics  of  births,  marriages  and  deaths,  based  upon  the 
registration  by  the  state  offices,  with  a  more  thorough  in- 
quiry in  regard  to  divorces  and  the  legitimation  of  children 
born  out  of  wedlock. 

The  conditions  of  occupation  among  the  inhabitants  are 
inquired  into  at  population  enumerations,  but  the  results 
are  not  compiled  for  the  country  as  a  whole  as  they  serve 
solely  for  purposes  of  testing  the  correctness  of  the  entries. 
Statistics  of  occupation  are  obtained  at  special  enumerations 
of  population  that  are  carried  out  exactly  as  the  others 
through  interrogation  of  the  inhabitants  and  usually  com- 
bined with  more  detailed  investigations  concerning  the 
industrial  and  agricultural  employments.  Such  enumera- 
tions of  occupation  and  employment  took  place  in  1882, 
1895  and  1907  and  were  made  in  the  summer  time  (June), 
while  the  population  enumerations  proper  must  always  be 
made  at  the  beginning  of  December.  The  method  of  organ- 
ization was  the  same  as  at  enumerations  of  population. 

Cooperation  is  sought  at  both  kinds  of  enumeration  and 
not  only  for  the  purpose  of  getting  the  schedules  filled  out, 
for  the  persons  who  distribute  and  collect  th^m  in  all  parts 
of  the  Empire  are  almost  without  exception  voluntary 
workers  of  the  neighborhood  who  perform  this  service  with- 
out compensation.  In  this  manner  a  staff  of  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  enumerators  is  enlisted  which  makes  it  possible 
to  complete  the  enumeration  within  a  few  days,  so  that  the 
preliminary  population  figures  for  the  different  communes 
in  greater  part  can  be  determined  and  published  as  early  as 
two  or  three  days  after  the  enumeration. 

The  results  of  population  enumerations  with  the  classifi- 
cations fixed  for  the  Empire  are  published  in  separate  vol- 
umes of  the  Statistics  of  the  German  Empire.  The  different 
federated  states  usually  publish  the  results  in  greater  detail 
for  their  own  domain,  which  is  also  true  of  the  statistics  of 
the  movement  of  population.  The  comprehensive  publica- 
tions of  the   occupation   and  employment  enumerations. 


356  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

however,  are  chiefly  to  be  found  among  the  imperial  docu- 
ments, and  for  the  investigation  of  1907  occupied  altogether 
12,600  pages,  ten  volumes  being  given  to  occupational 
statistics,  one  volume  to  agricultural  statistics,  and  ten 
volumes  to  trade  statistics. 

Aside  from  these  enumerations  which  cover  the  entire 
field  of  gainful  occupations  of  every  kind  and  every  magni- 
tude, a  series  of  current  statistical  investigations  occur 
relative  to  single  fields  of  industrial  activity,  which  are  under- 
taken partly  in  connection  with  revenue  laws  and  partly 
follow  from  the  exercise  of  certain  governmental  rights  of 
supervision.  In  this  category  belong  the  statistics  of  the 
production  of  salt,  tobacco,  cigarettes,  spirits,  vinegar,  beer, 
sugar,  sparkling  wines,  playing  cards,  matches,  etc.,  also 
statistics  of  sea  fisheries.  The  statistics  of  insurance  com- 
panies and  of  the  industrial  patents  issued  are  compiled  in 
special  governmental  oflices  under  which  they  sort. 

In  the  last  decade  statistical  inquiry  has  sought  to  gain 
an  understanding  of  industrial  products  for  which  the  direct 
interests  specified  were  not  at  hand.  Only  one  of  the 
branches  of  private  industry  has  been  subjected  to  statistical 
investigations  for  some  time:  the  production  of  mines,  salt 
and  smelting  works  which  has  been  ascertained  annually 
since  1872  by  means  of  schedules  sent  to  each  concern.  Of 
late  a  number  of  other  important  industries  have  been  in- 
cluded in  the  investigations,  for  instance,  those  covering 
textiles,  chemicals,  motor  vehicles,  mills,  cement,  leather 
and  others.  These  investigations,  however,  are  not  con- 
tinuous but  a  special  resolution  is  adopted  in  regard  to  each, 
and  schedules  relating  to  their  production  in  a  definite  year 
are  sent  to  the  individual  firms  after  the  government  has 
consulted  with  representatives  of  the  respective  industries 
about  the  form  of  the  schedule.  It  is  not  obligatory  for  the 
proprietors  of  the  industries  to  fill  out  the  schedules  but 
they  always  do  it  voluntarily,  being  assured  that  the  publica- 
tion of  the  results,  which  usually  follow  in  the  Quarterlies, 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  357 

will  be  undertaken  in  such  a  manner  that  none  of  the  figures 
relating  to  a  single  industry  can  be  distinguished. 

The  statistics  of  building  activity  and  dwelling  conditions, 
which  are  especially  important  from  the  social  point  of  viewi 
are  chiefly  collected  by  the  municipal  statistical  oflSces. 
Reports  on  these  subjects  are  therefore  regularly  to  be 
found  in  the  publications  of  the  municipal  statistical  oflSces. 
For  a  number  of  cities,  however,  an  annual  report  is  made 
according  to  a  uniform  scheme  in  the  Government  Labor 
Journal,  showing  the  number,  the  increase  and  decrease  of 
dwelling  houses  and  tenements  as  well  as  the  number  of 
empty  tenements. 

The  numbers  dealing  with  the  supply  of  dwelling  houses 
and  tenements  are  further  applied  ifi  connection  with  the 
general  enumerations  which  these  municipaUties  combine 
with  censuses  of  population.  These  municipal  enumerations 
of  real  estate  and  dwellings  have  become  fixed  undertakings, 
and  comprehensive  statistical  investigations  are  at  hand 
for  the  great  cities  in  which  the  buildings  are  classified 
according  to  the  number  of  stories,  time  of  erection,  owner- 
ship (whether  privately  owned  by  a  single  individual  or  by 
several  persons,  whether  public  property,  etc.),  location, 
number  of  tenements  and  occupants,  etc.  The  tenements 
themselves  are  classified  according  to  the  number  of  occu- 
pants, the  price  of  rental,  the  existence  of  sub-lessees,  and 
other  characteristics.  In  addition,  several  cities  make 
special  enumerations  of  empty  tenements  once  or  several 
times  during  the  year. 

Mention  has  already  been  made  of  the  investigations  for 
purposes  of  agricultural  statistics  in  connection  with  the 
great  enumerations  of  occupation  and  trade  at  which  all, 
even  the  smallest,  farms  are  included  and  classified  according 
to  the  use  made  of  the  land,  the  number  of  live  stock,  the 
supply  of  machinery,  etc.  Aside  from  these,  investigations 
have  been  undertaken  several  times  relating  to  the  entire 
and  not  simply  to  the  agricultural  utilization  of  the  soil  in 
each  community,  the  most  recent  occurring  in  1900  and  in 


358  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

1913.  During  the  summer  the  condition  of  the  crops  is 
determined  every  month  on  the  basis  of  reports  from  culti- 
vators who  furnish  them  voluntarily;  in  the  spring  of  every 
year  statements  are  made  of  the  areas  devoted  to  the  differ- 
ent crops,  and  in  the  fall  of  the  results  of  the  harvest. 
Finally,  at  the  beginning  of  December  of  every  year,  enu- 
merations of  live  stock  are  made  which  regularly  include 
horses,  cattle,  swine  and  sheep  and  occasionally  donkeys, 
goats,  beehives,  and  the  results  of  breeding. 

The  social  and  labor  statistics  are  yielded  by  a  varied 
assortment  of  different  investigations.  To  them  belong 
the  current  reports  of  the  operation  of  the  social  insurance 
laws  which  partly  are  compiled  in  the  Imperial  Statistical 
Office  and  partly  in  the  state  insurance  office.  Prominent 
among  them  are  statistics  of  the  general  obligatory  sickness 
associations  to  which  all  workmen  with  less  than  2,500 
marks  income  must  belong,  and  those  of  the  disability  insur- 
ance which  all  must  take  out  who  have  less  than  2,000  marks 
income.  Moreover,  in  addition  to  the  comprehensive 
annual  reports,  monthly  statements  are  collected  and  pub- 
lished showing  the  number  of  members  of  the  sickness 
associations  as  they  permit  one  to  form  a  judgment  of  the 
condition  of  the  labor  market  at  any  time.  In  the  same 
category  belong,  among  others,  censuses  of  the  unemployed 
which  in  some  municipalities  are  undertaken  from  time  to 
time,  and  in  the  kingdom  of  Saxony  annually;  furthermore, 
the  compilations  which  have  been  made  several  times  by 
the  division  for  labor  statistics  in  the  Imperial  Statistical 
Office  relative  to  strikes  and  lockouts,  the  existing  organiza- 
tions of  employers  and  employees,  wage  agreements  and 
other  wage  statistics,  the  organizations  of  women,  the  prices 
of  food  and  other  prices. 

The  statistics  of  causes  of  death  assembled  in  the  Imperial 
Department  of  Health  at  Berlin  are  based  upon  a  scheme 
introduced  in  1892  and  altered  in  1904  which  groups  the 
decedents  according  to  six  age  classes.  More  comprehensive 
statements,  both  in  regard  to  the  classification  of  the  causes 


GERMAN  EMPmE  359 

of  death  and  to  personal  data,  are  provided  by  most  of  the 
federated  state  and  municipal  statistical  offices.  In  Ger- 
many, as  distinguished  from  many  other  states,  the  state- 
ments of  the  causes  of  death  are  available  for  all  deaths 
because  they  are  entered  in  the  official  register  of  social 
classes  upon  which  the  mortality  statistics  generally  are 
based. 

In  the  judicial  system  of  the  German  Empire  both  juris- 
diction and  procedure  were  made  uniform  in  most  respects 
during  the  period  from  1879  to  1900.  Therefore,  although 
the  administration  of  justice  for  the  greater  part  is  left  to 
the  separate  states,  the  premises  for  uniform  judicial  sta- 
tistics exist.  The  German  Judicial  Statistics,  which  have 
been  published  annually  by  the  Department  of  Justice  since 
1881,  provide  such  statistics,  first,  relative  to  the  activity 
of  the  judicial  offices  generally,  and  secondly,  since  1882,  in 
regard  to  the  penal  oflfences  for  which  sentence  was  pro- 
nounced, with  exception  of  the  simple  "transgressions." 
The  basis  of  the  criminal  statistics  proper  is  obtained  by 
means  of  counting  cards  which  are  to  be  made  out  by  the 
courts  in  every  instance  in  which  a  competent  verdict  is 
pronounced  (condemning  or  acquitting)  and  to  be  trans- 
mitted to  the  Imperial  Statistical  Office.  Comprehensive 
statistics  of  the  administration  of  justice  and  of  penal  insti- 
tutions for  their  own  domain  are  published  by  the  govern- 
ments of  the  federated  states. 

Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the  autonomous  finances 
of  the  federated  states  differ  widely  from  the  imperial  fi- 
nances both  in  regard  to  their  material  basis  and  the  method 
of  accounting  employed,  the  Imperial  Statistical  Office, 
in  agreement  with  the  statisticians  of  the  federated  states, 
began  some  years  ago  to  compile  whatever  was  comparable 
from  the  state  budgets  and  the  financial  reports,  and  as  a 
result  annual  comparative  financial  statistics  are  published 
in  the  Quarterlies.  Differences  similar  to  those  to  be  found 
in  the  states  stand  in  the  way  of  statistics  of  communal 
finances  for  the  entire  Empire;  and  until  now  it  has,  there- 


360  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

fore,  been  necessary  to  limit  them  to  comparative  statements 
in  the  relatively  simple  field  of  communal  debts.  Such  have 
been  published  three  times  in  connection  with  the  reports 
of  the  indebtedness  of  other  incorporated  bodies  which  are 
authorized  to  issue  marketable  obligations  for  indebtedness. 
On  the  part  pf  the  administrations  of  large  municipalities 
and  their  statisticians  there  has  been  no  lack  of  efiForts  to 
make  comparative  surveys  of  their  financial  affairs,  and  they 
have  led,  among  other  things,  to  repeated  publications  of  a 
financial-statistical  character  in  the  Statistical  Year  Book  of 
German  Cities. 

The  presentations  of  the  separate  states  in  the  field  of 
comparative  financial  statistics  for  their  own  communes 
are  more  comprehensive.  Prussia,  Bavaria,  Saxony  and 
other  lederated  states  have  repeatedly  made  extensive  pub- 
lications of  this  kind  in  the  organs  of  their  statistical  offices. 
Beside  the  general  statistics  of  state  commune  finances, 
special  attention  has  been  devoted  to  statistics  of  taxation. 
Only  the  inheritance  tax  is  dealt  with  directly  and  uni- 
formly for  the  entire  Empire,  and  therefore  compiled  sta- 
tistically; and  it  does  not  include  the  totality  of  the  estates 
especially  because  the  spouse  and  direct  descendants  are  not 
taxed. 

The  statistics  showing  the  results  of  the  existing  taxation 
of  income  in  all  the  federated  states  is  of  much  greater 
significance,  although  the  principles  on  which  it  rests  differ 
and  there  are  various  gradations,  for  they  are  usually  com- 
bined with  a  more  or  less  complete  statement  of  the  income 
of  the  population.  The  statistical  publications  afford  a 
current  account  of  the  amount  and  distribution  of  the  in- 
comes based  on  the  imposts  for  the  purpose  of  income  tax. 
This  is  done  with  greatest  completeness  in  the  kingdom  of 
Saxony  where  all  incomes  down  to  the  smallest  are  valued 
and  classified  according  to  the  personal  characteristics  of  the 
receiver  of  the  income  (sex,  age,  position  in  the  household). 

The  system  of  schools  has  also  been  brought  into  the  field 
of  joint  statistics  under  an  agreement  among  the  statistical 


GERMAN  EMPIRE  361 

oflSces,  although, in  the  separate  states  it  is  subject  to  quite 
different  regulations.  The  first  investigation  occurred  in 
1911,  and  the  promise  was  held  out  that  it  would  be  repeated 
at  five-year  periods.  The  statistics  in  question  cover  all 
grades  of  educational  establishments  from  the  common 
school  to  the  high  school. 

The  business  activity  of  savings  banks  has  lately  been 
made  a  subject  of  joint  comparative  surveys.  The  sta- 
tistics of  savings  banks  are  collected  by  the  separate  states. 

In  addition  to  the  statistics  of  railways  already  men- 
tioned, another  branch  of  public  intercourse  must  be  con- 
sidered, namely,  that  of  the  mail  service.  Formerly  the 
postal  administrations  of  the  Empire  and  those  of  Bavaria 
and  Wurttemburg  published  statistics  annually,  but  they  are 
now  published  triennially.  They  are  based  partly  upon 
continuous  investigation  and  party  upon  investigations 
providing  samples  for  some  days  of  the  year  only  in  con- 
formity with  the  agreement  among  the  countries  belonging 
to  the  World  Postal  Union. 

This  brings  the  enumeration  of  some  of  the  subjects  of 
statistical  treatment  to  an  end.  It  does  not  and  cannot  lay 
any  claim  to  completeness,  for  the  statistical  tasks  are  as 
widely  scattered  as  the  tasks  of  the  administration  itself; 
and  there  is  probably  no  single  field  which  has  not  been 
worked  up  statistically  during  the  long  period  of  the  activity 
of  many  of  the  numerous  statistical  oflSces  in  the  German 
Empire  and  states  and  cities. 

IV.    Relation  to  International  Statistics 

As  may  be  gathered  from  the  preceding,  the  feature  of  the 
progressive  development  of  the  official  statistics  in  the  Ger- 
man Empire  since  its  foundation  has  been  the  gradual  ex- 
pansion of  the  comparative  statistical  presentation  which 
at  the  outset  related  only  to  affairs  belonging  under  a  uni- 
form administration  and  has  gradually  come  to  include 
affairs  that  are  variously  regulated  and,  therefore,  present 


362  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

obstacles  to  a  uniform  statistical  treatment.  Perhaps  this 
statistical  activity  is  in  small  part  to  be  ascribed  to  the 
internal  arrangement  that  has  been  effected  in  the  peculiar 
relations  between  the  federated  governments  which  are 
quite  unlike  those  of  the  two  other  most  important  fed- 
erated states  of  the  present-day  civilized  world,  namely,  the 
United  States  of  America  and  Switzerland.  I  mention  this 
circumstance  simply  in  order  to  call  to  mind  that  within 
their  own  domain  the  German  statistics  have  had  to  master 
tasks  associated  with  diflSculties  similar  to  those  which  the 
Imperial  Statistical  Institute  has  undertaken.  For  all 
international  statistics  are  made  difficult  by  the  fact  that  the 
conditions  to  which  the  statistics  of  the  separate  states 
relate  are  of  a  national  and  not  of  an  international  character 
— corresponding  to  the  federated  state  arrangement  of 
affairs  in  Germany  as  distinguished  from  the  imperial — and 
that,  therefore,  the  numerical  results  obtained  are  in  them- 
selves not  comparable  because  they  relate  to  heterogeneous 
things.  Such  tasks  obligate  the  practical  statistician  to 
particular  care  in  methods  so  that  he  may  guard  against  a 
false  interpretation  of  the  statistical  results. 

The  experiences  in  this  direction  had  with  the  German 
statistics  in  internal  affairs  should  contribute  to  a  greater 
consciousness  of  the  difficulties  of  international  comparisons; 
and  there  was  a  time  when  persons  in  Germany  took  a  skep- 
tical attitude  towards  efforts  in  this  direction.  Yet  of  late 
the  Imperial  Statistical  Office  has  begun  to  add  international 
comparative  surveys  to  its  publications,  especially  to  the 
Statistical  Year  Book.  It  thus  unites  itself  to  the  tradition 
of  Ernst  Engel,  who,  together  with  his  Belgian  colleague 
and  exemplar,  Quetelet,  instigated  the  international  sta- 
tistical congresses  whose  heir  the  International  Statistical 
Institute  became  later  on. 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND 


THE    HISTORY   AND    DEVELOPMENT   OF 

STATISTICS  IN  GREAT  BRITAIN 

AND  IRELAND 

By  Sir  Athelstane  Baines,  C.S.I. 

Ex-President  of  the  Royal  Statistical  Society 

The  Domesday  Book  may  be  called  the  first  landmark 
in  British  statistics,  and  for  many  generations  it  remained 
the  only  record  of  the  resources  and  population  of  the  part 
of  England  to  which  it  related.  In  the  time  of  Edward  III 
a  record  was  started  of  the  Customs  dues  received  at  the 
Port  of  London;  and  in  the  same  reign  the  devastation 
caused  by  the  Black  Death  led  to  the  preparation  of  a  com- 
prehensive roll,  of  the  nature  of  the  Roman  Census,  in  con- 
nection with  the  levy  of  a  poll-tax.  In  the  Tudor  period 
the  almost  continuous  unrest  in  western  Europe  rendered 
it  necessary  to  take  stock  from  time  to  time  of  the  number 
of  men  capable  of  bearing  arms,  as  well  as  of  the  fiscal  re- 
sources of  the  country,  in  anticipation  of  war.  The  dread 
of  the  plague,  which  was  strong  in  the  mind  of  Henry  VIII, 
was  probably  the  origin  of  the  registration  of  deaths  from 
1532,  followed  by  that  of  baptisms  by  parish  clergymen. 
Towards  the  end  of  the  sixteenth  century,  when  there  was 
a  sKght  recrudescence  of  the  plague,  weekly  Bills  of  Mor- 
tality were  published  for  London,  the  cause  of  death  being 
investigated  and  reported  by  "ancient  matrons,"  and  in 
1629  the  distinction  of  sex  was  added  to  the  return.  It  was 
not  until  1661-62  that  these  records  were  made  to  tell  their 
tale,  in  the  statistical  sense.  In  that  year  Capt.  John  Grant 
published  his  "Observations"  on  the  London  Bills  of  Mor- 
tality, thus  heading  the  long  list  of  works  on  the  vital  sta- 
tistics of  the  country.  He  was  the  first  to  bring  to  light  the 
regularity  of  social  phenomena,  the  excess  of  male  births 
over  female,  and  the  subsequent  tendency  to  numerical 
equality  of  the  sexes.    The  novelty  and  importance  of  his 


366  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

work  had  a  considerable  influence  upon  those  of  his  con- 
temporaries who  were  attracted  by  the  subject,  of  whom 
the  best  known  are  Sir  William  Petty. and  Halley,  the  as- 
tronomer. The  former  "expressed  himself  in  terms  of  num- 
ber, weight  and  measure,"  in  his  Political  Arithmetick  and 
other  writings  touching  upon  the  resources  of  the  state,  and 
he  anticipates  modern  statisticians  not  only  in  his  methods, 
but  also  in  his  loud  complaints  of  the  inadequacy  of  the  raw 
material  of  his  calling,  and  in  the  urgency  of  his  demand  for 
regular  official  returns  of  revenue  and  resources  generally. 
His  wishes  were  met  in  one  respect  at  least  shortly  after 
his  death,  for  in  1696  there  was  established  a  system  of  cus- 
toms record,  under  an  Inspector  General  of  imports  and 
exports,  who  kept  an  account  of  the  trade  carried  on  with 
foreign  countries  and  British  possessions,  with  values  as- 
signed to  the  various  items  in  accordance  with  an  official 
list,  prepared  in  1694,  and  which,  it  may  here  be  mentioned 
in  passing,  was  in  force  for  exports  down  to  1798,  and  for 
imports  until  1854.  About  the  same  time  Halley  pubUshed 
his  celebrated  "Estimate  of  the  degrees  of  mortality  of  man- 
kind," the  first  life-table  prepared  for  a  stationary  popula- 
tion, and  the  returns  of  the  Hearth-tax  were  used  by  Gregory 
King  and  Houghton  for  their  respective  estimates  of  the 
population  of  the  kingdom;  estimates  which  were  by  no 
means  in  harmony  with  each  other.  If  not  the  birth-place 
of  life  insurance,  England  has  long  been  its  adopted  home; 
and  the  end  of  the  seventeenth  century  saw  the  foundation 
of  the  earliest  British  companies  for  this  purpose.  They 
were,  however,  more  or  less  of  the  nature  of  lotteries,  and 
it  was  nearly  half  a  century  later  that  the  mutual  principle 
was  introduced.  The  eighteenth  century  may  be  said  to 
have  seen  the  birth,  in  Germany,  of  statistics  as  a  science, 
and  the  example  of  that  country  in  publishing  something  of 
the  nature  of  official  abstracts  of  revenue,  etc.,  was  followed 
in  England,  in  the  shape  of  the  Royal  Calendar,  which  first 
appeared  in  1730.  In  the  last  quarter  of  the  century  fig- 
ures were  largely  pressed  into  the  service  of  economics  by 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  367 

Eden,  Golquhoun,  Playfair  and  Arthur  Young,  but  the 
middle  of  this  period  was  more  distinguished  for  its  special 
studies,  such  as  those  of  mortality-rates,  than  for  the  treat- 
ment of  statistics  on  the  broad  lines  which  had  already 
gained  considerable  currency  on  the  Continent.  The  very 
name  of  statistics  was  introduced  from  Germany  by  Dr. 
Zimmermann  about  1787,  but  it  was  through  the  compre- 
hensive "Description  of  Scotland,"  by  Sir  John  Sinclair, 
that  it  became  popular.  This  author,  as  he  frankly  tells 
us,  adopted  the  word  because,  being  new,  he  thought  it 
would  attract  readers  to  his  book.  Amongst  the  important 
publications  of  the  end  of  the  century  of  a  statistical  char- 
acter, mention  must  not  be  omitted  of  perhaps  the  best 
known  of  all,  Malthus'  works  on  Population,  which  suc- 
ceeded in  attracting  the  earnest  and  often  unfriendly  atten- 
tion of  not  only  his  contemporaries,  but  those  who  came 
after  him,  economists,  statisticians  and  divines,  even  unto 
this  day.  A  great  stimulus  to  the  collection  and  publica- 
tion of  oflScial  figures  was  given  in  France  during  the  early 
days  of  the  Revolution,  owing  to  the  need  of  this  reinforce- 
ment of  the  foundations  of  the  totally  new  order  of  things 
which  it  was  then  expected  would  be  established.  This 
upheaval  of  society  in  France,  the  great  industrial  changes 
then  in  progress  in  England,  and  the  impetus  given  later  by 
peace  to  the  study  of  social  questions,  all  contributed  to 
create  a  widespread  demand  for  the  statistical  informajtion 
by  which  facts  could  be  appreciated,  proposals  tested,  and 
legislation  made  effective  for  attaining  its  object.  Even 
though  the  "economists,  sophisters  and  calculators"  of 
Burke's  diatribe  had  not  come  entirely  into  their  own, 
they  had  vastly  increased  in  numbers,  experience  and  intel- 
ligent inquisitiveness.  One  of  the  early  symptoms  of  the 
new  spirit  was  the  withdrawal  in  Parliament  of  the  strenu- 
ous opposition  which  had  previously  been  offered  to  the 
taking  of  a  census.  In  1801  the  first  decennial  enumeration 
took  place,  and  the  operations,  like  those  of  the  second  and 
third,  were  entrusted  to  the  very  capable  hands  of  the  many- 


368  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

sided  John  Rickman,  whose  comments  upon  the  results  are 
of  great  statistical  merit.  In  other  branches  of  official  re- 
turns, too,  there  was  considerable  activity.  On  the  other 
hand,  in  one  or  two  directions  public  statistics  fell  some- 
what into  the  shade.  For  instance,  the  larger  life-insurance 
companies  had  by  this  time  acquired  so  much  experience 
that  their  chief  actuarial  advisers  felt  themselves  justified  in 
relying  upon  the  information  furnished  by  their  own  records 
rather  than  upon  that  provided  by  the  parish  registers;  it  is 
on  the  former,  therefore,  that  were  based  the  new  and  fuller 
life-tables  in  which  mortality  was  correlated  with  occupa- 
tion and  age.  Then,  again,  political  economy  took  a  strong 
bias  towards  theory  and  abstract  reasoning,  and  did  not, 
to  use  a  modern  phrase,  invite  statistics  to  endorse  the 
cheques  drawn  by  speculation,  an  attitude  which  prevailed 
for  nearly  two  generations,  until  exponents  who  were  experts 
in  mathematics  as  well  as  in  economics  entered  the  field. 

One  result  of  the  increased  output  of  oflSicial  returns  was 
that  the  capacity  of  the  departments  collecting  them  to 
deal  adequately  with  the  figures  as  statistics  was  overbur- 
dened, and  much  valuable  material,  available  in  the  raw, 
never  passed  out  of  that  rudimentary  stage.  Tables  were 
prepared  in  the  rough  and  ready  form  which  served  the 
immediate  administrative  purpose  for  which  they  had  been 
prescribed,  and  were  then  consigned  to  oblivion  on  the 
office  shelves.  It  became  evident  that  this  waste  could  and 
should  be  prevented.  In  1832,  therefore,  a  Statistical  De- 
partment was  added  to  the  Board  of  Trade,  and  to  it  was 
committed  the  task  of  "collecting,  arranging  and  publish- 
ing statements  relating  to  the  condition,  and  bearing  on 
the  various  interests  of  the  British  Empire."  In  this  way 
official  recognition  was  for  the  first  time  accorded  to  sta- 
tistics as  a  special  branch  of  inquiry. 

The  age,  however,  was  one  of  discussion,  and  it  was  not 
to  be  expected  that  food  material  such  as  the  above  should 
be  left  to  official  interpretation  only,  or  that  efforts  should 
not  be  made  from  outside  to  extend  the  field  of  investiga- 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  369 

tion.  The  important  step  towards  the  organization  of  sta- 
tistics taken  by  the  Board  of  Trade,  accordingly,  was  speed- 
ily followed  by  the  introduction  of  opportunities  for  testing 
and  expanding  their  utility  by  means  of  non-oflScial  discus- 
sion. Within  a  year  or  two  several  societies  were  formed 
for  that  purpose,  and  these  have  since  continued  to  work 
on  lines  parallel  with  those  of  the  various  state  departments, 
but  in  close  touch  and  cooperation  with  them.  The  objects 
and  functions  of  these  bodies  will  be  referred  to  below,  in 
sequence  of  the  subject  of  oflBcial  statistics,  to  which  the 
present  observations  are  restricted. 

It  is  on  the  material  provided  by  the  government  that 
statisticians  are  mainly  bound  to  rely  when  investigating 
social  conditions  in  their  wider  aspects,  because  by  no  other 
agency  can  information  be  systematically  collected  from  so 
extensive  a  field,  or  with  so  near  an  approach  to  uniformity 
in  the  interpretation  of  the  object  of  the  inquiry.  The 
eflBciency  of  o£Scial  statistics,  therefore,  is  a  matter  in  which 
the  interests  of  statisticians  join  hands  with  those  of  states- 
men and  economists,  and  it  is  on  the  careful  scrutiny  of  the 
results  already  obtained  that  improvements  are  suggested, 
defects  corrected,  and  the  path  indicated  which  may  lead  to 
regions  not  yet  sufficiently  explored.  The  progress  made  by 
official  statistics  on  these  lines  after  1832  was  both  wide  and 
rapid,  in  harmony  with  the  many  favorable  opportunities 
presented  by  the  circumstances  of  the  next  quarter  of  a  cen- 
tury. The  general  course,  of  the  advance  was  necessarily 
that  of  the  growth  of  the  country  in  population,  education 
and  resources,  with  the  consequently  increased  complexity 
of  social  relations.  There  has  also  to  be  taken  into  account 
the  extension  of  state  intervention,  by  way  of  control,  regu- 
lation or  inspection,  into  matters  which  were  formerly  held 
to  be  outside  the  purview  of  the  community  at  large,  as  repre- 
sented by  its  government.  There  is  almost  everywhere  a 
tendency  for  this  intervention  to  increase,  though  the 
strength  of  the  inclination  varies  greatly  according  to  the 
idiosyncrasies  of  the  different  states.     In  the  United  King- 

26 


370  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

dom  the  system  of  government  by  popular  representation 
lends  itself  with  unusual  ease  to  legislative  extension  of 
the  functions  of  the  state.  The  only  result  of  this  multipli- 
cation of  functions  that  is  relevant  to  the  present  subject  is 
the  inevitable  multiplication  of  statistical  returns  which  it 
involves,  a  prolificity  which  was  particularly  notable  towards 
the  beginning  and  the  end  of  the  eighty  years'  period  under 
comment. 

The  field  of  oflScial  statistics,  then,  is  practically  co-exten- 
sive with  that  of  public  administration,  the  development  of 
which  is  a  subject  outside  the  compass  of  this  review.  It 
will  be  enough  to  refer  to  a  few  of  the  principal  landmarks 
of  the  last  eighty  years  in  which  the  connection  between 
legislation  and  statistics  has  been  especially  direct  and  close, 
and  these  may  serve  to  indicate  the  general  trend  of  the 
action  taken  by  the  state,  intended,  or  likely,  to  provide  the 
material  for  scientific  analysis. 

First  in  statistical  importance  comes  the  establishment  in 
1837  of  civil  registration  of  vital  statistics,  extended  to  Scot- 
land in  1853  and  to  Ireland  about  ten  years  later.  Registra- 
tion was  made  compulsory  in  1874.  The  decennial  census 
is  placed  under  the  Registrars  General,  but  a  special  Act  is 
passed  for  each  enumeration.  The  census  of  production  was 
taken  under  an  Act  passed  in  1907,  and  was  conducted  by 
the  Board  of  Trade. 

Statistics  of  local  government  and  taxation  are  submitted 
by  municipal  and  county  authorities  under  various  Acts,  of 
which  the  principal  are  those  of  1835,  1882  and  1899,  for 
towns,  and  1888  and  1894  for  counties  and  small  rural  areas. 
The  County  Council  Act  for  Ireland  was  passed  in  1898. 
Before  these  enactments,  returns  were  furnished  by  various 
authorities  on  no  uniform  system. 

Closely  connected  with  the  above  is  the  sanitary  adminis- 
tration of  urban  and  rural  areas,  which  is  now  regulated 
mainly  by  Acts  passed  in  1872-75,  requiring  the  submission 
of  elaborate  returns  to  the  government. 

Elementary  education  is  regulated  in  England  by  the  Act 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  371 

of  1870,  extended  in  1902,  and  supplemented  by  many  other 
measures  relating  to  special  branches  of  education.  The 
first  connection  of  the  state  with  education,  however,  goes 
back,  as  in  Scotland,  to  1839,  when  public  funds  were  first 
allotted  to  this  object.  The  Irish  system  is  of  slightly  earlier 
date,  and  more  centralized,  but  full  statistics  are  prepared 
in  aU  three  kingdoms.  The  Poor  Law  of  1834  had  its 
statistical  side  as  well  as  its  administrative,  though  it  was 
not  until  1848  that  the  returns  under  it  were  completely 
organized.  Statistics  on  the  subject,  however,  had  been 
collected  to  some  extent,  by  local  authorities,  for  many  years 
before  the  reform  of  the  law. 

The  protective,  or,  as  it  has  been  called  by  some,  the 
paternal  legislation  referred  to  above,  yields  a  large  crop  of 
statistics  of  inspection,  control,  accidents,  wages,  and  the 
like.  The  measures  best  known,  perhaps,  are  those  relating 
to  factories  and  mines,  which  date,  statistically,  from  the 
forties,  but  have  been  very  often  amended,  extended  and 
consolidated.  Of  the  now  numerous  friendly  societies,  those 
connected  with  building  were  the  first  to  be  recognized  by  the 
law.  From  1840  onwards,  however,  registration  has  been 
extended  to  all,  and  annual  returns  of  membership,  expen- 
diture and  resources  are  published  by  government.  In  1875 
trade  linions  and  similar  institutions  were  placed  under 
registration,  and  have  since  furiushed  valuable  statistics 
regarding  wages  and  employment. 

Within  the  last  few  years  the  volume  of  periodical  returns 
has  received  substantial  accretion  from  the  institution  of  old 
age  pensions  (1908),  distress  committees  (1905),  labor 
exchanges,  and  national  health  insurance  (1911).  The  same 
may  be  said  of  the  extension  of  municipal  trading,  of  housing 
of  the  working  classes,  inspection  of  drugs,  food,  etc.,  within 
the  last  twenty  years. 

As  already  stated,  the  subjects  above  mentioned  have 
been  selected  merely  as  landmarks,  and  they  occupy  but  a 
comparatively  small  portion  of  the  field  of  national  statistics. 
There  must  be  taken  into  account,  too,  the  voluminous 


372  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

returns  statutorily  required  from  railways,  insurance  and 
joint-Stock  companies,  bankers,  the  post  office  and  its 
branches  dealing  with  telegraphs,  telephones  and  savings- 
banks,  all  originating  since  1833,  the  year  taken  as  the  start- 
ing-point of  this  review.  Then,  again,  the  fiscal  changes  in 
the  early  forties  and  in  1910,  the  growth  of  shipping,  the 
organization  of  agricultural  returns  in  1866  and  1889,  the 
establishment  of  a  Labor  Department  in  1886,  and  legisla- 
tion regarding  the  tenure  of  land  in  each  of  the  three  king- 
doms from  1871  onwards,  have  substantially  increased  the 
rich  statistical  harvest  garnered  by  official  agency  and  sus- 
ceptible of  being  made  digestible  by  the  general  consumer. 

The  task  of  collecting,  arranging  and  publishing  this  mass 
of  information  is  distributed  amongst  the  diflPerent  depart- 
ments of  government  in  a  way,  partly  historical,  partly  dic- 
tated by  financial  or  official  convenience,  but  in  many  cases 
requiring  an  explanation  not  inherent  in  the  nature  of  the 
subject.  The  administration  is  thoroughly  departmental; 
each  of  the  great  offices  arose  and  grew  up  independently  of 
the  rest.  As  new  duties  are  imposed,  their  performance  is 
allocated  to  a  subordinate  branch  organized  for  the  purpose 
within  an  existing  office;  or  another  department,  equally 
independent,  is  created. 

Of  the  five  departments  under  the  Principal  Secretaries  of 
State,  the  Home  Office  is  the  only  one  which  needs  mention 
here,  as  the  India  Office,  also  a  large  purveyor  of  statistics, 
will  be  dealt  with  elsewhere.  There  are  then  the  five  admin- 
istrative boards,  of  which  the  Boards  of  Trade,  Agriculture, 
Education  and  Local  Government  furnish  the  bulk  of  the 
administrative  returns  not  emanating  from  the  Home  Office. 
Financial  accounts  and  statements  are  in  the  charge  of  the 
Treasury,  and  the  National  Debt,  Inland  Revenue  and  Cus- 
toms and  Excise,  are  under  special  Commissions.  A  brief 
conament  upon  the  respective  functions  of  these  departments 
will  serve  to  indicate  the  share  of  each  in  the  national  statis- 
tical output. 

The  Home  Office  stands  first  of  the  statistical  departments 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  373 

in  both  seniority  and  official  rank.  It  dates  from  1782,  and 
was  established  upon  its  present  footing  in  the  first  year  of 
the  nineteenth  century.  As  to  its  functions,  it  has  been 
called  the  residuary  legatee  of  the  other  branches  of  govern- 
ment, in  that  it  used  to  succeed  to  all  duties  not  provided  for 
in  the  more  specialized  departments.  The  statistics  which 
it  now  publishes  are  those  relating  to  crime  and  litigation, 
prisons  and  reformatories,  and  metropolitan  and  county 
police,  for  England  and  Wales.  For  the  United  Kingdom  as 
a  whole,  it  issues  the  detailed  account  of  the  inspection  of 
factories  and  workshops,  and  that  relating  to  coal  and  other 
mines.  To  these  last  some  figures  of  output  and  prices  are 
added,  together  with  corresponding  details  for  the  principal 
foreign  countries.  A  statistical  officer  is  attached  to  the 
Department,  and  the  returns  of  civil  litigation,  bankruptcy 
and  the  like  are  reviewed  annually  by  a  legal  expert.  In 
Scotland  there  is  a  separate  Commission  for  Prisons,  with  a 
statistical  officer  in  the  establishment.  The  annual  returns 
for  prisons,  crime,  litigation  and  reformatories,  etc.,  are 
issued  under  the  authority  of  the  Secretary  for  Scotland.  In 
Ireland,  a  General  Prisons  Board  was  set  up  in  1877,  and 
there  are  separate  departments  dealing  with  the  constabu- 
lary, reformatories,  inebriates  and  the  other  matters  which, 
in  England,  are  placed  under  the  Home  Office.  The  statis- 
tics for  all  these  are  published  with  an  annual  review  by  the 
Registrar  General  for  Ireland. 

Next  to  the  Home  Department,  the  statistical  offices  to 
be  noticed  here  are  those  known  as  Boards,  a  title  which 
implies  the  collective  responsibiHty  of  several  highly-placed 
officials  of  state.  The  Board,  however,  never  meets,  and  the 
departments  are  conducted  by  one  or  two  salaried  represent- 
atives in  Parhament.  The  Local  Government  Board  was 
established  in  1871;  that  of  Agriculture  in  1889,  and  the 
Education  Board  in  1899. 

There  has  been  a  Board  of  Trade  since  1660.  In  1786  it 
was  constituted  a  Committee  of  the  Privy  Council,  and  its 
present  title  was  statutorily  assigned  to  it  as  late  as  1862. 


374  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

From  its  original  functions  in  connection  with  the  collection 
of  information  about  trade  and  commerce,  it  has  advanced 
to  a  highly  important  position  in  regard  to  transport,  labor, 
and  the  supervision  of  a  considerable  number  of  statutes  of 
very  detailed  appKcation.  For  many  years  after  1833,  when, 
as  above  stated,  a  special  Statistical  Branch  was  added  to  it, 
this  Board  was  the  only  government  department  in  which 
official  statistics  were  dealt  with  as  a  special  subject,  and  to 
this  day,  it  stands  out  as  the  premier  representative  of  the 
scientific  interpretation  of  public  returns.  The  Statistical 
Branch  has  had  the  good  fortune  of  being  directed  by  a 
succession  of  eminent  experts.  It  was  started  by  Porter, 
by  whom  the  incoherent  mass  of  periodical  tables  then  pre- 
pared was  for  the  first  time  reduced  to  orderly  and  compre- 
hensive returns,  accompanied  by  lucid  explanations  of  the 
meaning  and  limitations  of  the  figures.  Moreover,  he  took 
advantage  of  the  wide  scope  afforded  by  his  commission  to 
collect  returns  from  other  sources,  adding  them  to  his  review, 
and  giving  to  it  a  comparative  character  by  including  the 
figures  for  a  series  of  years.  His  successor,  Valpy,  started 
the  series  of  Annual  Abstracts  which  now  form  a  necessary 
part  of  the  equipment  of  every  student  of  the  statistics  of 
British  commerce  and  economics.  To  these  names  should 
be  added  those  of  Giffen  and  Bateman  in  more  modern 
times.  In  addition  to  the  returns  of  trade  and  shipping, 
this  Board  is  responsible  for  those  relating  to  railways  and 
tramways,  for  the  registration  of  assurance  and  joint-stock 
companies,  for  the  figures  of  bankruptcy  and  emigration  and 
immigration.  It  supervises  the  merchant-shipping  acts  and 
those  relating  to  weights  and  measures,  patents  and  trade- 
marks. It  issues  special  tables  of  coal  and  metals  produced, 
exported  or  imported,  and  compiles  the  index-numbers  of 
the  main  articles  of  foreign  trade  and  home  consumption. 
The  valuable  information  received  by  the  Foreign  Office 
from  British  consuls  about  the  commercial  conditions  of 
the  countries  where  they  are  serving,  is  also  made  available 
to  the  public  in  a  convenient  form  by  this  Department. 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  375 

The  Labor  Department  of  the  Board  of  Trade  was  started 
on  a  very  modest  scale  in  1886,  but  has  since  developed  into 
a  large  and  important  center  of  information  as  to  wages, 
employment  and  conditions  of  the  wage-earning  classes  gen- 
erally. It  still  relies  mainly  upon  the  returns  obtained  from 
the  trade  unions  and  friendly  and  cooperative  societies,  but 
of  late  it  has  carried  through  extensive  independent  inquir- 
ies, such  as  that  into  earnings  and  hours  of  work,  and,  on  a 
still  wider  basis,  the  first  census  of  production.  The  super- 
vision of  the  newly  created  Labor  Exchanges  has  also  been 
added  to  its  duties.  An  Annual  Abstract  of  Labor  Statis- 
tics is  compiled  in  this  Department,  containing  not  only  the 
returns  of  wages  and  employment  collected  as  above  men- 
tioned, but  statistics  bearing  upon  the  condition  of  the  wage- 
earner  and  other  classes  obtained  by  other  offices. 

The  Local  Government  Board  ranks  next  to  the  Board  of 
Trade  in  the  number  and  variety  of  the  duties  it  has  to  per- 
form, which  are  all  accompanied  by  multifarious  tables.  It 
represents,  since  1871,  the  old  Poor  LaW  Board,  with  the 
addition  of  some  duties  connected  with  sanitation  and  local 
government  previously  performed  by  a  Committee  of  the 
Privy  Council  or  by  the  Home  Office.  Up  to  1834  there  was 
no  central  supervision  of  local  authorities,  but  in  that  year 
the  Poor  Law  Commission  exercised  certain  powers  in  that 
direction,  which  were  somewhat  extended  and  reorganized 
in  1847,  when  the  Commission  became  the  Board.  The 
centraKzation  was  made  more  complete  in  1871,  and  the 
tendency  has  since  been  to  give  the  government  a  tighter 
hold  on  the  reins.  This  implies,  naturally,  a  larger  demand 
for  statistics  by  which  the  local  administration  can  be  tested. 
The  returns  thus  obtained  enter,  of  course,  into  great  detail 
of  area  and  subject.  In  England  and  Wales,  to  which  the 
jurisdiction  of  this  Board  is  confined,  there  are  more  than 
25,000  authorities,  by  each  of  which  annual  statistics  of  some 
kind  have  to  be  rendered.  The  general  heads  under  which 
are  grouped  the  statistics  issued  by  this  Board  are  Pauper- 
ism, Municipal  and  County  administration,  and  the  working 


376  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

of  special  acts  imposing  duties  of  inspection  or  supervision. 
As  the  successor  of  the  Poor  Law  Board,  the  present  Depart- 
ment exercises  complete  control  over  the  administration  of 
those  laws,  and  prescribes,  in  consequence,  the  periodical 
returns  to  be  submitted  by  the  local  bodies.  The  most 
important  of  these  statistics  are  published  in  an  annual 
report.  Separate  volumes  are  issued  on  local  administra- 
tion, the  taxation  and  valuation  of  municipal  and  county 
areas,  and  the  reports  of  local  medical  officers  of  health. 
These  last  are  prescribed,  like  those  under  the  Poor  Law,  by 
the  Board  itself,  under  the  Public  Health  Acts.  The  volume 
of  local  returns  has  been  materially  increased  within  the  last 
few  years  by  the  extension  of  municipal  trading,  in  the  way 
of  water-supply,  tramways,  lighting,  the  adoption  of  the 
Acts  relating  to  libraries,  baths  and  washhouses,  the  housing 
of  the  working-classes,  the  Town-planning  Act,  the  care  of 
asylums,  and,  since  1902,  the  greater  part  of  public  instruc- 
tion. To  these  must  be  added  the  returns  required  under 
the  Unemployed  Workmen's  Act,  the  Vaccination  Acts  and 
those  relating  to  the  inspection  of  food,  drugs,  dairies,  etc. 
The  returns  from  the  health  officers  are  dealt  with  by  medi- 
cal experts,  and  the  rest  are  compiled  and  prepared  for  pub- 
lication by  a  special  statistical  officer  attached  to  the  Board. 
Officially,  the  B,egistrar  General  is  under  the  Local  Govern- 
ment Board,  but  in  practice,  he  works  independently.  Scot- 
land and  Ireland  have  each  their  Board  on  much  the  same 
lines  as  that  for  England,  and  in  each  case  the  returns  now 
issued  by  the  Board  were,  previous  to  its  creation,  prepared 
by  various  detached  offices.  In  Ireland,  however,  this  work 
was  done  by  the  Registrar  General,  from  1865  to  1873,  when 
the  Board  was  established. 

The  Board  of  Agriculture  is  of  recent  creation,  but  ever 
since  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  inquiries,  often  par- 
tial and  incomplete,  have  been  made  by  commissions, 
societies  and  others,  to  collect  information  about  the  area 
under  the  main  crops  and  the  average  yield  per  acre.  The 
official  returns  of  areas  date  from  1866  only,  and  the  esti- 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  377 

mated  produce  per  acre,  from  1884.  The  return  of  area  is 
voluntary,  and  is  invited  by  schedules  circulated  and  col- 
lected by  the  officials  of  Inland  Revenue.  For  the  produce- 
estimates,  salaried  experts  are  employed.  The  results  are 
examined  and  compiled  by  a  trained  statistical  staff.  The 
supervision  of  the  fisheries  was  only  added  to  the  duties  of 
the  Agricultural  Department  in  1903.  Scotland  and  Ireland 
have  each  a  Board  of  Agriculture.  In  the  former  country 
statistics  on  the  subject  were  collected  from  1850  by  a  non- 
official  society,  subsidized  by  the  government.  In  Ireland, 
the  corresponding  returns  were  published  by  the  Registrar 
General  as  early  as  1854,  and  by  the  Agricultural  Depart- 
ment from  1900. 

In  connection  with  the  agricultural  statistics  may  be 
mentioned  those  relating  to  meteorology.  These  were  at 
first  under  a  Committee  of  the  Privy  Council.  In  1854 
they  were  made  over  to  the  Board  of  Trade,  and  subse- 
quently placed  under  a  director  and  committee,  appointed 
by  the  Treasury,  by  whom  the  returns  are  now  issued. 
There  is  a  separate  Board  of  Education  for  each  of  the  three 
kingdoms,  owing  to  differences  in  the  conditions  and  organ- 
ization. In  England,  some  statistics  of  attendance,  etc., 
were  furnished  by  the  National  Society  from  1819.  In 
1832  public  money  was  first  granted  to  elementary  schools, 
and  the  government  reserved  the  right  of  inspection.  Seven 
years  later  the  supervision  of  the  schools  was  assigned  to 
a  committee  of  the  Privy  Council,  which  became  a  Depart- 
ment in  1856,  receiving  the  Science  and  Art  Department 
from  the  all-embracing  Board  of  Trade.  From  1870 
onwards  the  work  supervised  by  it  has  tended  to  increase 
continuously  with  each  of  the  numerous  acts  modifying  the 
system  in  one  or  other  of  its  branches.  In  1899,  therefore, 
the  Department  became  a  Board,  under  a  President,  and 
possibly  other  members.  The  work  of  the  committee  super- 
vising educational  matters  for  Scotland  was  transferred  to 
a  separate  Board  on  the  creation  in  1885  of  the  office  of 
Secretary  for  Scotland.    As  in  England,  statistics  of  ele- 


378  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

mentary  schools  had  been  required  as  soon  as  public  funds 
were  allotted  to  their  maintenance,  but  full  returns  date 
from  1872.  In  Ireland  the  control,  which  is  closer  than  in 
Great  Britain,  is  vested  in  a  National  Board,  with  a  Board 
for  Intermediate  Education.  .Technical  education  is  under 
the  Board  of  Agriculture.  The  census,  in  this  island, 
includes  certain  educational  details  not  in  the  British  sched- 
ule, and  these  form  part  of  the  Registrar  General's  series  of 
returns. 

The  Departments  charged  with  the  collection  of  the 
revenue  are  under  the  Treasury,  and,  with  the  exception  of 
the  post  office,  have  no  Parliamentary  representative  in 
authority  over  them.  The  post  office  publishes  all  the  re- 
turns of  the  postal  service,  with  those  of  the  telegraphs 
and  telephones  now  under  it.  The  financial  side  of  the  two 
last  is  dealt  with  partly  departmentally  and  partly  in  the 
Treasury  accounts.  The  savings  banks  under  the  post 
office  have  also  their  relations  with  the  general  finance  of 
the  country,  whilst  the  other  class  of  similar  banks,  known 
as  the  trustee  savings  banks,  are  under  an  inspecting  office 
and  the  Commissioners  of  National  Debt. 

The  Department  of  Inland  Revenues,  established  in  1849, 
is  in  charge  of  statistics  of  great  interest,  apart  from  their 
fiscal  importance.  It  collects  the  estate,  legacy,  and  succes- 
sion duties;  stamp  duties  and  fees  paid  in  stamps;  the  land 
tax;  the  inhabited  house-duty;  the  income  tax,  and,  until 
1909,  the  excise  duties.  Since  1910  the  new  land  valuation 
operations  have  been  placed  under  this  office.  Its  annual 
report,  which,  with  a  break  of  a  few  years,  has  appeared 
since  1857,  is  a  valuable  summary  of  the  direct  taxation  of 
the  country. 

The  Customs  Office,  in  some  form  or  other,  has  existed 
for  centuries.  It  is  now  a  commission,  subordinate,  as  aboye 
stated,  to  the  Treasury,  and  closely  connected,  statistically, 
with  the  Board  of  Trade,  but  with  its  own  statistical  branch. 
In  addition  to  the  collection  of  the  revenue  from  which  it 
derives  its  title,  it  exercises  many   duties  in  connection 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  379 

with  shipping,  seamen,  passengers,  ahens,  and  emigrants, 
not  to  mention  those  involved  in  the  collection  of  excise, 
now  placed  in  its  charge,  including,  as  it  does,  the  adminis  • 
tration  of  the  Old  Age  Pension  Acts.  In  its  strictly  depart- 
mental capacity,  it  publishes  the  returns  of  trade  and 
navigation,  with  special  returns  of  coal,  cotton,  bullion,  and 
trade  with  Ireland.  This,  however,  is  but  a  fraction  of  its 
work,  as  its  widespread  staff  of  excise  oflBcers  is  utilized  to 
collect  information  for  the  use  of  other  departments,  such  as 
details  of  corn  sold  in  local  markets,  the  trade  in  minerals 
and  agricultural  produce,  the  foreign  passenger  traffic,  and 
proceedings  under  the  Adulteration  of  Food  Acts,  etc. 
On  the  other  hand,  for  the  last  few  years,  the  collection  of 
license  fees  under  certain  heads  has  been  taken  from  it, 
and  made  over  to  local  authorities,  who  submit  their  returns 
elsewhere.  In  connection  with  the  Labor  Department  of 
the  Board  of  Trade,  the  returns  of  friendly  societies  were 
mentioned  above.  The  fountain-head  of  these  statistics, 
however,  is  the  General  Registry  of  such  societies,  which 
was  estabUshed  in  1846  to  certify  the  rules  passed  by  these 
bodies.  In  its  present  form  it  dates  from  1875,  and  pub- 
lishes the  annual  statements  of  number,  membership, 
resources  and  expenditure  of  all  industrial  and  provident 
societies,  including  trade  unions,  whose  registration  is 
compulsory. 

This  enumeration  of  the  statistical  departments  of  the 
state  may  fittingly  be  brought  to  a  close  with  a  reference 
to  the  great  provider  of  vital  statistics,  the  Registrar  Gen- 
eral. In  his  office  are  collected,  examined  and  compiled 
the  returns  from  all  the  subordinate  registering  offices 
throughout  England  and  Wales.  The  details  are  studied  by 
a  special  statistical  expert,  usually  a  member  of  the  medical 
profession,  who  prepares  an  annual  review,  in  which  are 
given,  also,  comparative  figures  for  the  rest  of  the  British 
Empire  and  the  chief  foreign  countries.  Every  ten  years, 
a  supplementary  report  is  issued  in  which  the  figures  for 
the  preceding  decade  are  actuarially  examined,  and  compared 


380  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

with  those  of  previous  periods.  The  Registrar  General  is 
also  in  charge  of  all  the  census  operations.  His  compeer  in 
Scotland  exercises  similar  functions.  In  Ireland,  the  Reg- 
istrar General  is  more  of  a  head  statistical  oflBcer  to  the  local 
government,  and  the  census,  as  already  indicated,  takes  a 
wider  sweep  than  in  Great  Britain. 

The  above  survey  of  the  origin  and  development  of  the 
oflBces,  among  which  the  statistical  world  of  the  government 
is  distributed,  will  serve  to  bring  to  notice  the  most  promi- 
nent characteristic  of  the  organization  of  British  adminis- 
tration, that  is,  its  marked  departmentalism.  Every  new 
duty  undertaken  by  the  state  is  assigned  its  place  in  the 
official  hierarchy,  and  though  combination,  dissolution  and 
creation  are  not  rare,  the  atmosphere  of  departmental 
independence  is  not  disturbed  by  the  change.  The  ten- 
dency of  the  legislation  of  recent  years  has  been  to  increase 
this  aloofness  of  department  from  department.  An  act, 
instead  of  leaving  the  legislature  complete  in  its  provision 
for  detail,  is  now  passed  with  none  but  general  provisions 
in  the  text,  the  power  to  issue  executive  orders  having  the 
force  of  law  on  all  matters  of  detail  being  delegated  to  the 
department  placed  in  charge  of  the  working  of  the  enact- 
ment. Under  this  addition  of  power  and  responsibility, 
the  department  tends  to  grow  more  self-centered  and  ab- 
sorbed in  its  own  sphere  of  action.  Each  department, 
then,  pursues  its  work  regardless  of  that  of  the  rest.  It 
prescribes  its  own  returns,  excellently  devised,  no  doubt, 
for  the  immediate  purpose  in  view;  and  when  the  amount 
of  material  rolling  in  has  grown  enough  to  justify  special 
attention,  the  department  throws  up  a  statistical  branch, 
in  which  the  returns  are  examined  and  published  in  strict 
accordance  with  departmental  needs.  This  tendency  is 
not  without  its  advantages,  in  that  it  gives  considerable 
scope  to  expert  knowledge,  and  increases  the  interest  in  the 
work  of  those  tied  down  to  it.  On  the  other  hand,  where, 
as  in  the  United  Kingdom,  there  is  no  central  controlling 
or  consultative  authority  over  official  statistics,   depart- 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  881 

mental  independence  inevitably  leads  to  duplication,  over- 
lapping and  incongruity.  The  correlation  of  one  set  of 
figures  with  another  is  often  made  impossible  by  some  vital 
difference  in  detail,  due  solely  to  the  fact  that  the  returns 
were  severally  prepared  by  those  not  in  consultation  with 
each  other.  As  far  back  as  1877  this  defect  was  made  the 
ground  of  an  inquiry  by  a  special  Committee  on  Depart- 
mental Statistics  generally.  The  Treasury  Minute  appoint- 
ing the  committee,  after  stating  that  there  was  great  room 
for  improvement  in  the  system  on  which  official  statistics 
were  prepared  went  on,  "Indeed,  it  can  scarcely  be  said 
that  at  present  there  is  any  system  at  all.  Each  depart- 
ment compiles  and  publishes  from  time  to  time  information 
more  or  less  detailed  with  regard  to  the  business  with 
which  it  is  concerned,  but  there  appears  to  be  no  fixed 
principles  laid  down  for  the  guidance  of  the  several  offices, 
and  the  consequence  is  that  but  little  harmony  or  coherence 
exists  between  the  various  classes  of  statistics  thus  published, 
comparison  between  them  is  often  impossible,  and  their 
practical  utility  is  thereby  most  seriously  impaired.  .  .  . 
The  chief  vices  of  the  present  practice  would  seem  to  be 
a  want  of  condensation,  which  leads  to  obscurity  in  the 
statistics  themselves,  and  to  waste  in  the  printing  of  them, 
and  a  want  of  uniformity,  which  leads  to  positive  confusion; 
and  although  with  varying  laws  and  varying  customs  pre- 
vailing in  the  different  divisions  of  the  United  Kingdom 
it  may  not  be  possible  to  introduce  absolute  harmony  with 
the  returns  relating  to  each,  my  Lords  believe  that  much 
might  be  done  to  simplify  and  systematize, the  statistical 
information  which  is  now  suppUed  from  official  sources,  if 
the  subject  were  to  be  fully  and  authoritatively  inquired 
into." 

Many  useful  suggestions  were  elicited  by  this  committee, 
but  the  inquiry  was  not  exhaustive,  nor  were  the  members 
unanimous  in  their  recommendations,  on  which,  accordingly, 
no  action  was  taken.  To  a  great  extent,  therefore,  the 
strictures  passed  thirty  seven  years  ago  are  by  no  meaug 


382  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

obsolete,  and  the  Journal  of  the  Royal  Statistical  Society 
contains  ample  testimony  to  the  shortcomings  of  the  official 
statistics  of  the  present  day.  There  are  signs,  however, 
of  improvement  in  the  returns  of  the  more  recently  created 
departments,  and  the  work  of  the  statistical  branches  of 
the  Boards  of  Trade  and  Agriculture  needs  fear  no  compari- 
son with  that  done  in  other  coimtries.  It  should  always 
be  borne  in  mind,  in  discussing  official  statistics,  that  they 
are  intended  for  guidance  in  the  treatment  of  single  ques- 
tions, and  that  it  is  essential  that  they  should  be  ready  with 
as  little  delay  as  possible.  The  work  is  thus  necessarily 
specialized,  and  leaves  but  little  time  for  deliberate  analysis 
on  scientific  principles,  involving,  as  it  must  do,  wide  com- 
parison and  the  application  of  theory.  This  method  of 
treatment  has  made  rapid  strides  almost  within  the  last 
generation,  whereas  the  official  machinery  takes  long  to 
alter.  Again,  the  spirit  of  statistical  investigation  is  far 
keener  and  more  widely  spread  now  than  when  most  of  the 
government  returns  were  devised,  and  it  has  been  said, 
with  much  truth,  that  more  use  is  made  of  these  returns 
outside  the  offices  than  within.  The  criticism  brought  to 
bear  from  outside  has  not  been  without  result  in  individual 
cases,  but  without  the  controlling  influence  of  an  authori- 
tative central  office,  it  is  difficult  to  see  how  statistical 
interdependence  between  the  numerous  departments  of 
state  can  be  secured. 

Changing  now  the  point  of  view,  the  above  survey  of  the 
statistics  to  be  found  in  each  state  department  may  be 
conveniently  supplemented  by  an  indication  of  the  depart- 
ment in  which  each  main  branch  of  statistics  may  be  foimd. 
The  following  list  includes  the  principal  subjects  in  question, 
without  entering  into  detail  unnecessarily  in  so  general  a 
review.  The  grouping  is  under  the  heads:  Population  and 
Health;  Social  and  Moral;  Production;  Commercial;  Finan- 
cial and  Fiscal,  and  Industrial. 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  383 

Census:    The  Registrars  General. 

Vital  Statistics:    The  same,  but  special  returns  for  Anny  and  Navy. 

Sanitation:  Local  Government  Board,  on  reports  by  local  medical  officers  of 
health. 

Lunacy:  Local  Government  Board,  from  reports  by  municipal  and  county  author- 
ities. 

Emigration,  etc.:  Board  of  Trade,  on  reports  from  Customs  Commission.  For 
Ireland  a  special  report  is  issued  by  the  Registrar  General. 

Aliens:    Home  Office,  on  returns  from  Customs  Commission. 

Municipal  and  Local  Administration:    Local  Government  Board. 

Educatiian:  England,  Board  of  Education;  Scotland,  Committee  of  Council  of 
Education;  Ireland,  Commission  of  National  Education,  Intermediate  Educa- 
tion Board,  and  for  Technical  Education,  the  Board  of  Agriculture. 

RefomuUories,  etc.:    Home  Office,  Scottish  Office,  and  in  Ireland,  Registrar  General. 

Crime,  Litigation  and  Bankruptcy:  Home  Office,  Scottish  Office,  and  for  Ireland, 
the  Registrar  General. 

Prisons:  England  and  Scotland,  Prisons  Commission;  Ireland,  General  Prisons 
Board.  Returns  summarized  and  published  by  Home  Office,  Scottish  Office, 
and  for  Ireland,  the  Registrar  General. 

Friendly  Societies,  etc.:  England  and  Scotland,  the  General  Registry  of  Friendly 
Societies. 

Old  Age  Pensions:    The  Customs  and  Excise  Department. 

Pauperism:    The  Local  Government  Boards. 

National  Health  Insurance:    The  Commission,  under  the  Treasury. 

Agriculture  and  Fisheries:    The  Boards  of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries. 

Mines:  Home  Office,  from  returns  of  Inspectors.  Special  returns  of  production, 
export,  prices,  of  coal,  by  Board  of  Trade. 

Factories,  etc.:  Home  Office,  from  Inspectors'  reports.  Municipal  inspection  of 
workshops  reported  to  Local  Government  Board. 

Manufactures:  No  periodical  returns.  Census  of  Production  (1906-1912),  pub- 
lished by  Board  of  Trade. 

Prices:    Board  of  Trade;  Agricultural  produce.  Board  of  Agriculture. 

Trade,  Shipping,  Navigation:  Customs  Department,  summarized  by  Board  of 
Trade. 

Joint-Stock  Companies:    Board  of  Trade.    Windings-up,  Home  Office. 

Insurance  Companies:    Annual  retiurns  by  Board  of  Trade. 

Railways:    Board  of  Trade. 

Tramways:  Board  of  Trade  (Revenue- working);  Local  Government  Board 
(cash  accounts). 

Post,  Telegraph  and  Telephone:    Postmaster  General's  reports. 

Coinage:    Master  of  the  Mint. 

Bank  cf  England:    The  Governors. 

Clearing  Houses:    Annual  and  other  reports. 

Savings  Banks:  Post  Office.  Trustee  Savings  Banks,  Inspector's  report.  Sum- 
marized by  Registrar  of  Friendly  Societies. 

National  Revenue  and  Expenditure,  Debt,  etc.:  The  Treasury,  Parliamentary 
accounts. 


384  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

Taxation:    Direct,  Inlaud  Revenue  Commissioners. 

Indirect,  Customs  and  Excise  Commissioners. 
Licenses:    Customs  and  Excise  Commission  and,  for  Assigned  Licenses,  the  Local 

Government  Board. 
Local  Taxation,  Rates,  Loans,  etc.:    Local  Government  Board. 
Wages,  Hours  of  Labor,  Fluctuatiotis,  etc.:    Board  of  Trade  (Labor  Department). 
Trade-Boards:    The  same. 
Unempltyment  Insurance:    The  same.     (Distress  Committees),  Local  Government 

Board. 
Trade  Unions:    Registry  of  Friendly  Societies. , 
Strikes,  Conciliation,  etc.:    Board  of  Trade  (Labor  Department). 
General  Statistical  Abstracts:    Board  of  Trade  collects  from  all  Departments  of 

Government,  compiles  and  publishes: 

1.  United  Kingdom;  Comparative  for  15  years. 

2.  British  Dominions  and  Colonies;  as  above. 

3.  The  British  Empire;  summarized  from  the  above. 

4.  Principal  Foreign  Countries;  on  same  lines,  aa  far  as  possible,  as  for 

British  coimtries. 

5.  Labor  Statistics;  for  the  United  Kingdom;  summarizes  returns  from 

other  Departments  on  all  subjects  bearing  upon  the  condition  of  the 
wage-earning  classes. 

The  position  of  non-oflScial  statistical  work  remains  to  be 
reviewed.  There  is  no  reason  to  refer  in  this  survey  to 
the  monumental  work  of  the  great  investigators  of  the  past, 
or  even  to  that  of  authors  happily  still  living.  The  class  of 
statistical  publications  which  needs  mention  here  is  that 
which  is  in  current  progress,  yielding  fruit  in  the  present, 
and  likely  to  go  on  so  doing.  Into  this  category  fall  the 
periodical  returns  of  the  Institute  of  Bankers,  the  British 
Iron  Association,  Lloyd's,  the  Corn-market  Journals,  the 
reports  upon  the  cotton  trade  by  Messrs.  Ellison,  Tattersall 
and  others,  and  on  the  woollen  trades  by  Messrs.  Helmuth 
and  Schwartz,  all  of  which  have  been  pubhshed  for  many 
years,  and  are  accepted  as  authoritative  in  the  trades. 
There  are  then  the  well-known  Price-Index-Numbers  of 
Mr.  Sauerbeck  and  the  Economist  newspaper,  and  the 
annual  commercial  review  of  the  latter.  Several  other 
publications  of  the  same  character  and  repute  might  be 
quoted,  but,  with  the  above  as  samples,  the  nature  of  the 
material  can  be  appreciated. 

The  next  part  of  the  general  subject  is  that  which  is  con- 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  385 

cerned  with  the  societies  and  associations  instituted  for  the 
express  study  of  statistics,  to  the  rise  of  which  reference 
was  made  in  connection  with  the  establishment  of  the 
Statistical  Department  of  the  Board  of  Trade,  in  1832. 
The  first  body  to  move  in  the  matter  was  the  British  Asso- 
ciation for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  which  formed  a 
Statistical  Section  in  1833.  The  same  year  a  Statistical 
Society  was  founded  in  Manchester.  The  enterprise  was 
hedged  round  with  somewhat  stringent  precautionary 
restrictions,  suggested  by  the  political  atmosphere  of  the 
time.  What  with  the  Reform  Bill  and  other  important 
Parliamentary  questions,  party  feeling  ran  unusually  high 
and  hot.  One  of  the  main  objects  of  a  scientific  society, 
therefore,  was  to  keep  as  far  as  possible  aloof  from  partici- 
pation in  discussions  which  could  be  at  all  connected  with 
the  "dreary  world"  of  politics.  Thus  the  studies  of  the 
British  Association  were  limited  to  "Facts  relating  to  com- 
munities of  men  which  are  capable  of  being  expressed  by 
numbers,  and  which  promise,  when  suflSciently  multiplied, 
to  indicate  general  laws/'  Several  men  of  eminence  on 
statistics  chafed  at  being  thus  relegated  to  the  position  of 
"hewers  and  drawers  for  political  economy  and  philosophy," 
so  they  joined  in  promoting  the  Statistical  Society  of  Lon- 
don, now  the  Royal  Statistical  Society,  with  the  view  of 
providing  therein  a  wider  scope  for  their  inquiries.  Their 
hopes  were  frustrated,  for  a  time  at  least,  by  the  same  spirit 
of  caution  which  dictated  the  limitations  imposed  upon 
the  earlier  institutions.  The  functions  of  the  new  Society, 
as  announced  in  its  Prospectus,  were  to  "procure,  arrange 
and  publish  facts  calculated  to  illustrate  the  condition  and 
prospects  of  society. "  The  door  left  open  by  the  last  four 
words  should  be  noted.  In  a  society  which  met  for  discus- 
sion, it  was  obviously  impossible  to  exclude  opinion  or 
speculation.  In  1840,  accordingly,  the  definition  of  the 
objects  and  work  of  the  Society  was  framed  in  general 
accordance  with  the  view  taken  in  the  present  day  of  the 
functions  of  statistical  investigation,  and  about  seventeen 

26 


386  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

years  later,  the  self-denying  motto  on  the  Journal,  Aliis 
exterendum,  disappeared.  It  is  left  to  the  Council  to  see  that 
questions  of  the  day,  involving  statistical  considerations, 
are  put  before  the  Society  in  a  duly  scientific  form,  free 
from  prejudice  and  partisan  bias.  In  the  early  days  of  the 
Society,  following  the  precedent  set  by  Manchester,  original 
investigations  were  conducted,  through  Standing  Commit- 
tees, into  questions  such  as  crime,  education,  wages,  and  the 
like.  It  was  soon  found,  however,  that  it  was  preferable 
to  work  through  committees  appointed  by  the  Council  for 
special  inquiries,  and  reporting  to  the  Society.  Amongst 
subjects  thus  selected  have  been,  of  late  years,  the  meat 
and  milk  supply  of  the  country,  the  census  arrangements  in 
the  United  Kingdom  and  those  for  other  parts  of  the  Empire, 
the  registration  of  still-births,  and  the  like. 

In  one  noteworthy  characteristic  the  Royal  Statistical 
Society  has  been  studiously  consistent  from  its  foundation, 
the  maintenance  of  close  and  friendly  relations  with  the 
official  departments  chiefly  concerned  with  statistics,  to  wit, 
the  Boards  of  Trade  and  Agriculture  and  the  Registrars 
General.  Many  of  the  most  distinguished  and  active 
members  of  the  Society  have  belonged  to  one  or  other  of 
these  offices,  and,  conversely,  few  official  statisticians  of 
note  have  not  held  office  in  the  Society.  This  association 
of  experienced  officials  with  private  investigators  of  estab- 
lished reputation  has  materially  contributed  to  effective 
discussion,  improved  methods  of  observation,  and  a  wider 
field  of  inquiry  in  different  branches  of  the  public  service. 

The  Manchester  Statistical  Society  preceded,  as  above 
stated,  that  formed  in  London,  on  much  the  same  lines. 
Original  inquiries  through  committees  into  social  questions 
formed  an  important  part  of  its  work.  Its  general  tendency 
seems  to  have  been  less  statistical,  in  the  technical  sense, 
than  towards  economics  and  social  science.  Much  the  same 
may  be  said  of  the  Dublin  Society,  founded  in  1847  by 
Archbishop  Whateley  and  others,  for  statistics  and  social 
inquiry.     Unfortunately,  such  inquiries  are  apt,  in  Ireland, 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  387 

to  assume  an  ineradicably  political  character,  wherein 
statistics  occupy  but  a  very  subordinate  position. 

Training  in  statistical  theory  and  methods  is  a  compara- 
tively young  plant  in  the  United  Kingdom,  and  still  rare 
and  somewhat  tender.  It  is  efficiently  carried  out  at  Cam- 
bridge and  at  University  College,  London,  and  at  the  London 
School  of  Economics  and  Political  Science.  In  the  public 
service  its  value  is  recognized  by  the  introduction  for  special 
subjects  of  experts  of  proved  merit  in  non-official  work,  or 
by  the  delegation  of  employees  who  may  have  shown  marked 
aptitude  for  statistical  study  either  in  the  course  of  their 
official  duties  or  by  contributing  papers  to  statistical,  eco- 
nomic or  actuarial  societies.  It  is  worth  while  to  take  into 
consideration,  also,  whilst  on  the  general  subject,  the  great 
increase  in  the  use  made  of  statistics  in  the  monthly  and 
quarterly  periodicals,  in  the  popular  treatment  of  social 
questions  of  the  day,  which  has  been  one  of  the  noteworthy 
features  of  late  years  in  this  class  of  literature.  Of  course 
a  good  deal  of  this  material  does  not  bear  the  hall-mark 
of  scientific  training,  but  more  often  than  not,  the  authors 
are  connected  with  some  one  of  the  numerous  societies 
where  these  studies  are  fostered  and  discussed. 

From  the  statistics  of  the  country  itself,  the  transition  is, 
naturally,  to  their  relation  to  those  of  other  countries. 
Statistical  investigation  is  based,  of  course,  upon  comparison; 
and  the  wider  the  field  siu-veyed,  that  is,  the  more  abundant 
the  evidence  bearing  upon  different  aspects  of  the  subject, 
the  more  valuable  will  be  the  results.  This  truism,  as  it  will 
appear  to  statisticians,  is  nowhere  more  fully  appreciated 
than  in  the  heart  of  an  empire  made  up  of  communities 
scattered  all  over  the  world,  and  containing  every  variety 
of  race,  and  every  stage  of  civilization  and  social  develop- 
ment. It  was  only  to  be  expected,  therefore,  that  the  interest 
in  British  possessions  abroad  which  took  shape  in  the  in- 
structions to  the  Board  of  Trade  in  1832,  should  be  extended 
to  the  study  of  the  corresponding  information  for  other 
countries,  especially  those  of  the  West.     The  Great  Exhibi- 


388  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

tion  of  1851  brought  to  London  a  large  concourse  of  men  of 
science,  and  thereby  afforded  a  good  opportunity  for  dis- 
cussing the  prospects  of  a  periodical  consultation  of  statis- 
ticians in  the  capitals  of  Europe.  The  prime  mover  in  the 
matter  was  the  veteran  statistician  Quetelet,  and  on  his 
initiative  the  first  Congress  was  held  in  Brussels,  in  1853. 
Between  that  year  and  1876  eight  more  were  held,  but  after 
that  the  enterprise  faded  out,  owing  to  causes  into  which  it 
is  not  necessary  to  enter.  Statistical  science  undoubtedly 
profited  considerably  from  these  meetings,  especially  by  the 
discussion  of  the  possibilities  and  difficulties  of  international 
comparison.  In  1885,  accordingly,  the  Jubilee  meeting  of 
the  Royal  Statistical  Society  gave  the  opportunity  of  reviv- 
ing, in  the  place  of  its  birth,  the  International  Congress. 
It  was  determined  to  found  an  International  Statistical  Insti- 
tute on  lines  rather  different  from  those  of  its  predecessor. 
The  project  was  heartily  welcomed  by  the  leading  statis- 
ticians of  Europe  and  America,  most  of  whom  have,  at  one 
time  or  another,  taken  part  in  the  biennial  Congresses 
which  have  been  held  regularly  since  1887.  The  cause  of 
international  comparison  has  been  as  vigorously  promoted 
by  this  Institute  as  by  its  forerunner,  and  the  suggestions 
thrown  out  in  the  form  of  resolutions  and  specimen  tables 
have  had  practical  and  beneficial  results.  In  England,  the 
effect  given  to  them  has  been  perhaps  more  restricted  than 
in  countries  where  administration  is  less  decentralized,  or 
official  statistical  authority  is  more  specialized  and  concen- 
trated in  fewer  hands.  Nevertheless,  efforts  have  not  been 
spared  to  render  this  intercomparison  possible  in  the  case 
of  vital  statistics,  trade  and  agricultural  returns,  and  certain 
other  subjects,  in  the  annual  Abstracts  published  by  the 
Registrars  General  and  the  Boards  of  Trade  and  Agriculture. 
There  are,  however,  it  must  be  admitted,  important  points 
regarding  which  the  British  official  statistician  maintains 
an  independent  attitude,  generally  for  reasons  connected 
with  administration  or  definition.  The  cooperation  of  the 
British  government  with  the  Institute  is  confined  to  the 


GREAT  BRITAIN  AND  IRELAND  389 

recognition  of  an  official  status  on  the  part  of  one  or  two 
statisticians  in  the  public  service  who  would  otherwise 
attend  the  Congress  in  the  capacity  of  private  members; 
and  when  the  Institute  meets  in  London,  it  is  on  the  invi- 
tation, and  as  the  guests  of,  the  Royal  Statistical  Society. 
The  connection  of  the  government  with  the  more  recently 
formed  International  Agricultural  Institute  is  more  direct, 
though  confined  to  a  single  department. 

The  general  conclusions  as  to  British  statistical  work 
which  the  above  survey  may  be  said  to  indicate  are,  that 
the  raw  material,  whether  official  or  other,  is  abundant  and 
carefully  collected.  The  former,  however,  falls  considerably 
short  of  its  full  potential  utility  for  want  of  coordination 
and  centralized  supervision  generally.  Except  in  a  few 
special  branches,  too,  it  is  given  to  the  public  without 
having  received  the  sifting,  testing  and  correlation  which 
modern  methods  of  analysis  and  comparison  would  apply 
to  it.  Private  investigation  is  active,  though  inclined  to 
specialization  on  somewhat  narrow  lines,  and  often,  like 
official  work,  it  suffers  from  insufficient  acquaintance  with 
the  theoretic  basis  of  scientific  method,  for  the  acquisition 
of  which  opportunities  are  not  yet  adequate.  Nevertheless, 
the  number  of  social  problems  forcing  themselves  upon 
public  notice,  the  keener  and  more  general  interest  taken  in 
them,  and  the  growing  appreciation  of  the  need  of  a  statis- 
tical foundation  for  all  attempts  at  their  solution,  make 
the  outlook  of  statistics  by  no  means  unfavorable  to  sub- 
stantial progress. 


HUNGARY 


THE  HISTORY  AND  DEVELOPMENT  OF  OFFICIAL 
STATISTICS  IN  HUNGARY 

By  Dr.  Ladislaus  von  Buday 

Ministerial-Sektionsrat 


When  the  Hungarian  nation  reached  Europe  as  one  of  the 
last  great  waves  in  the  wandering  of  the  peoples,  its  Western 
neighbors  had  aheady  made  a  certain  amount  of  progress  in 
the  attainment  of  civilization.  However,  with  a  rapidity 
born  of  its  zeal,  the  nation,  being  very  receptive  to  culture, 
soon  overcame  this  handicap.  Thus  its  culture  moved 
parallel  to  that  of  the  West  during  the  Middle  Ages — 
although  foreign  war  and  internal  strife  frequently  put  its 
strength  to  a  severe  test — and  it  was  among  the  first  to 
experience  the  great  spiritual  rebirth  of  the  Renaissance. 
Mathias  Corvinus,  the  king  of  the  Hungarians,  like  the  great 
rulers  of  the  Cinquecento,  gave  an  appreciative  reception 
and  liberal  patronage  to  science,  literature,  and  art. 

Unfortunately,  however,  Hungary  was  able  to  enjoy  the 
blessings  of  this  advanced  culture  for  but  a  short  time;  two 
troubled  centuries  followed,  filled  with  continual  and  ener- 
vating struggle  with  the  Ottoman  power.  The  more  for- 
tunate West  was  protected  from  a  Turkish  invasion  by 
the  resistance  of  Hungary.  While  the  Western  states  were 
able  to  progress  uninterruptedly  in  education  and  material 
strength,  Hungary  bled  from  so  many  wounds  that  for  a 
long  time  it  was  stagnant  in  its  development  in  every  field. 

That  is  why  Hungary  was  no  longer  to  be  found  in  the 
front  rank  during  the  renewed  spiritual  activity  of  the 
eighteenth  century  and  during  the  struggles  which  accom- 
panied the  economic  movements  of  the  nineteenth  century; 
that  is  why,  in  the  rivalry  of  the  nations,  this  country,  in 
spite  of  its  most  zealous  efforts,  must  still  find  that  it  can 


394  MEMORUL  VOLUME 

regain  but  slowly  the  strength  which  it  has  lavished  upon 
centuries  of  combat  for  Europe. 

Today,  perhaps,  this  is  perceptible  only  in  the  economic 
field,  where  the  gathering  of  strength  must  take  place  slowly 
and  gradually;  during  the  eighteenth  century  even  the  flood 
of  spiritual  movements  had  a  feebler  and  less  stimulating 
effect  upon  this  country. 

Also,  the  desire  and  the  need  for  statistical  investiga- 
tion did  not  arise  so  early  in  Hungary  as  in  the  Western 
European  states.  It  is  true  that  one  or  two  savants  turned 
with  interest  to  the  new  study,  but  their  activities  did  not 
awaken  great  enthusiasm.  It  is  possible,  indeed,  to  mention 
men  belonging  to  as  early  a  period  as  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury, who,  in  works  which  were  doubtless  little  read,  stored 
up  statistical  information.  It  was  not  until  the  end  of  the 
eighteenth  century  that  the  first  statistical  work  of  this 
nature  appeared  from  the  pen  of  Martin  Schwartner,  a  pro- 
fessor of  the  University  of  Pest;  this  measures  up  to  the 
standards  of  statistics  obtaining  at  that  time,  and  is  dis- 
tinguished both  for  richness  of  material  and  for  excellence 
of  treatment. 

The  store  of  data  contained  in  this,  the  first  body  of  Hun- 
garian statistics,  was  not  yet  the  result  of  official  statistical 
work,  but  was  based  partly  on  investigations  made  for 
administrative  purposes,  partly  on  private  studies  by  the 
author. 

Soon  afterward  official  statistics  for  Hungary  came  into 
existence,  although  they  did  not  arise  in  that  country;  they 
were  collected  under  the  auspices  of  the  Imperial  and  Royal 
Direction  of  Administrative  Statistics  at  Vienna. 

The  clear  legal  relationship  between  the  two  countries, 
Austria  and  Hungary,  living  under  a  common  head,  and 
also  the  independent  existence  of  Hungary  as  a  state,  were 
at  that  time  threatened  by  strong  centralistic  efforts.  Even 
in  the  second  third  of  the  nineteenth  century  Austrian 
statistical  organizations  still  concerned  themselves  with 
Hungarian  material. 


HUNGARY  395 

The  cause  of  statistics  did  not  gain  much  by  this  union. 
The  public  furnishing  the  data  did  its  part  discontentedly 
for  foreign  officials;  the  activity  of  native  experts,  which 
showed  a  gratifying  increase,  was  paralyzed  by  their  inability 
to  influence  official  statistical  administration. 

It  is  true  that  in  1848,  in  connection  with  the  formation  of 
the  first  independent  and  responsible  Hungarian  ministry, 
some  thought  had  been  given  to  the  formation  of  a  statistical 
department  in  the  Ministry  of  the  Interior.  In  a  short  time, 
however,  the  clash  of  weapons  put  an  end  both  to  the  activity 
of  the  ministry  and  to  that  of  the  little  statistical  department. 

During  the  60's,  when  Hungarian  science  developed  with 
continually  increasing  force,  and  when  many  a  cultured  and 
learned  student  of  statistics  was  to  be  found,  the  need  for 
official  statistics  made  itself  more  and  more  strongly  felt. 
The  Hungarian  Academy  of  Sciences  pledged  itself  to  devote 
the  strength  of  the  society  to  accomplishing  through  private 
zeal  that  which,  as  is  well  known,  only  the  well-supported  and 
imperative  power  of  the  state  is  capable  of  doing.  The 
undertaking  did  not  get  beyond  the  experimental  stage, 
partly  because  the  state  hastened  soon  afterward  to  institute 
an  official  statistical  organization;  we  have  nevertheless  con- 
sidered it  worth  while  to  mention  this  attempt,  as  a  char- 
acteristic example  of  the  fact  that  Hungary  was  kept,  for  a 
while,  from  the  creation  of  official  statistics,  only  by  the 
compelling  force  of  external  circumstances,  and  not  by 
the  lack  of  a  proper  spirit  and  of  a  clear  recognition  of  the 
importance  of  statistics.  Efforts  were  made  which  even 
exceeded  the  strength  that  was  at  command,  solely  in  order 
that  a  body  of  statistics  might  be  created. 

Finally,  in  1867,  the  revolution  in  political  life  created  an 
official  Hungarian  statistical  organization  as  a  department 
of  the  Ministry  for  Agriculture,  Industry,  and  Trade.  Of 
course  this  was  a  modest  beginning  with  only  scanty  material 
resources,  which  became  still  less  a  few  years  later  during  a 
critical  period  in  the  state  household.  Nevertheless,  the  new 
creation  began  its  existence  with  lofty  plans  and  considerable 


396  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

success.  It  rapidly  laid  down  the  lines  of  regular  investiga- 
tion, carried  out  a  census,  attempted  a  study  of  industrial 
statistics,  and  even  participated  in  international  statistical 
work  by  taking  charge  of  the  statistics  of  wine-growing  in 
the  group  of  publications  planned  by  the  Congress.  It  also 
exercised  vigorous  efforts  to  bring  into  existence  local  and 
provincial  statistical  organizations.  Thus,  not  long  after- 
ward, the  Statistical  Bureau  of  the  capital  and  residence  city 
of  Budapest  arose;  this  soon  became  a  worthy  co-worker, 
doing  valiant  service  in  the  international  as  well  as  in  the 
home  field.  Thus,  moreover,  the  autonomous  Croatian- 
Slavonian  Statistical  Office  was  created,  which  began  to 
collect  statistical  material  on  Croatia  and  Slavonia  according 
to  the  desires  of  the  Hungarian  Central  Office,  but  also  in 
order  to  meet  the  special  needs  of  the  two  provinces. 

When  the  International  Congress  met  at  Budapest  in 
1876 — the  last  one  to  assemble  in  that  city,  it  found  that 
Hungarian  official  statistics  had  already  gathered  strength 
and  attained  a  high  degree  of  development.  In  1871  the 
Ministerial  Department  had  been  metamorphosed  into  a 
more  freely  moving  independent  Statistical  Office.  The 
path  of  its  activity  had  been  levelled  by  regulations  of  mod- 
ern origin;  even  the  laws  had  made  proper  provision  for  it, 
when  Article  XXV  of  the  Laws  of  1874  instituted  the  first 
local  regulation  of  Hungarian  official  statistics.  A  con- 
stantly increasing  group  of  writers  concerned  themselves 
with  the  instructive  results  obtainable  from  the  information 
gathered  by  the  new  office.  Popular  statistical  courses  were 
introduced  into  the  University  of  Budapest;  these  were 
intended  not  only  for  university  students  but  also  for  public 
administrative  officials  and  others  who  were  interested,  in 
order  that  among  those  who  did  not  carry  on  active  coopera- 
tion, but  who  merely  furnished  the  data  of  statistics,  this 
science,  which  had  continually  to  struggle  against  prejudice, 
might  find  appreciation  and  popularity.  Gradually  the 
pubhcations  of  the  Statistical  Office  accumulated,  becoming 
an  instructive  source  of  information  for  the  Hungarian  state, 


HUNGARY  397 

which  was  then  going  through  a  modernizing  process.  It 
was  already  possible  to  receive  the  foreign  guests  at  the  Inter- 
national Statistical  Congress  with  a  host  of  publications  on 
Hungary,  printed  in  the  German  and  French  languages,  as 
well  as  in  the  Hungarian. 

The  watchful  heads  of  Hungarian  statistical  work  rapidly 
introduced  improvements  in  statistical  technique  into  this 
country;  sometimes  they  stood  in  the  very  front  rank  of 
technical  progress.  The  system  of  individual  sheets  was 
used  as  early  as  1880,  in  connection  with  the  general  census. 
During  the  general  census  of  1890  the  method  applied  to 
the  statistics  of  business  enterprises  created  attention. 

However,  the  new  office  had  to  devote  all  its  technical 
ability,  all  its  skill  in  statistical  methods,  to  the  solution  of 
home  problems  which  came  upon  it  like  a  flood.  Hungary 
is  not  a  unilingual  country;  differences  in  language  are  often 
associated  with  glaringly  expressed  racial  contrasts;  these  in 
their  turn  usually  react  upon  economic  and  cultural  condi- 
tions; and  all  this  is  intertwined — again  not  by  chance,  but 
for  the  most  part  in  a  causal  connection — with  the  religious 
confession.  Mother  tongue  and  religion  are  thus  such 
important  and  characteristic  qualities  of  the  population  that 
not  only  censuses,  but  almost  all  investigations  which  go  into 
any  factor  of  economic  or  cultural  development,  depend 
upon  their  determination.  For  this  reason  alone  Hungarian 
statistical  investigations  are  of  necessity  considerably  more 
laborious  than  those  of  other  states.  Furthermore,  from  the 
fact  that  Hungary  and  Austria  have  a  common  customs  bor- 
der, determined  by  agreement,  another  great  difficulty  of 
Hungarian  statistics  results:  the  cooperation  of  custom 
houses  cannot  be  obtained  for  the  determination  of  export 
trade,  since  from  the  data  of  the  service  the  exports  of  neither 
of  the  two  states  are  separately  determined.  As  a  result, 
the  Hungarian  export  statistics  require  special  and  compli- 
cated procedure  and  the  constant  cooperation  of  the  trade. 
Austria  is  struggling  with  the  same  problem.  In  order  that 
these  difficulties  may  be  attacked  with  united  forces,  agree- 


398  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

ments  have  been  entered  into  by  the  export  trade  statistical 
services  in  both  states,  and  as  a  result  there  is  an  exchange  of 
experiences;  these  are  worthy  of  attention  from  the  point  of 
view  of  international  statistics,  as  well  as  from  that  of 
domestic  utility,  and  may  serve  as  a  very  instructive  example 
in  all  efforts  for  the  statistical  study  of  international  com- 
merce. 

It  should  also  be  mentioned  that  in  Hungary  statistical 
investigation  is  concentrated  chiefly  upon  oflBcial  statistics; 
other  studies  are  heard  of  less  frequently,  or  they  are  less 
systematic.  Consequently,  the  official  statistical  investiga- 
tions in  this  country  must  be  more  specialized,  and  must  go 
into  minor  details  to  a  greater  extent  than  anywhere  else. 
(Through  ignorance  of  the  situation,  many  protests  have 
arisen  because  of  this  fact.) 

All  these  struggles  signify,  even  today,  a  characteristically 
heavier  burden  placed  upon  Hungarian  official  statistics, 
which  weighed  upon  them  with  double  force  during  the  first 
part  of  their  existence,  when  they  were  still  in  uncharted 
waters,  and  when  the  strength  of  statistical  work  was 
still  limited  by  the  unfavorable  nature  of  the  material.  In 
order  to  carry  on  its  greatest  permanent  work — ^the  export 
trade  statistics — the  statistical  organization  has  since  1881 
obtained  its  means  in  a  pecuUar  manner.  The  senders  and 
addressees  of  goods,  in  connection  with  the  declaration 
necessary  for  statistical  piu-poses,  pay  a  slight  fee,  and  thus 
the  expenses  of  commercial  statistics  are  borne  by  the  group 
which  benefits  directly  by  them — the  Hungarian  merchants. 

When  the  conditions  in  the  state  household  took  a  more 
favorable  turn,  however,  a  constantly  more  satisfactory 
allowance  was  made  to  the  other  branches  of  statistics,  as 
well  as  to  this,  and  the  Hungarian  Statistical  Office  con- 
stantly went  further  in  the  extension  of  its  field  of  action, 
the  strengthening  of  its  organization,  and  the  increase  of  the 
number  of  its  scientific  works. 

It  has  now  carried  out  five  great  general  censuses — those  of 
1869,  of  1888,  of  1890,  of  1900,  and  of  1910— in  which,  besides 


HUNGAEY  399 

the  determination  of  the  usual  data,  it  has  in  each  case 
illuminated  a  different  detail  of  economic  and  social  life  by- 
means  of  special  groups  of  questions. 

The  introduction  of  export  trade  statistics  was  regulated 
by  the  Law  of  1881,  and  its  development  by  the  Laws  of  1895 
and  1906.  Since  1900  the  preparation  of  information  con- 
cerning trade  with  Austria  is  carried  on  in  cooperation  with 
the  neighboring  state,  as  has  been  mentioned  above.  The 
method  of  preparation  has,  since  that  time,  experienced 
repeated  changes  and  improvements. 

The  compilation  of  statistics  of  agricultural  production, 
which  are  of  such  importance  in  Hungary,  is  improved  from 
year  to  year.  In  1895,  on  the  basis  of  a  special  act,  a  great 
statistical  study  of  the  agricultural  industry  was  undertaken. 

The  exemplary  development  of  vital  statistics  dates  from 
the  same  year.  Statistics  of  public  instruction,  criminal 
statistics,  and  a  long  series  of  other  more  or  less  important 
statistical  branches,  were  all  taken  up  and  extended  in  rapid 
succession,  as  soon  as  a  more  favorable  material  situation 
made  this  possible. 

Statistical  publications  have  also  been  increased  and  per- 
fected, and  at  the  same  time  have  answered  more  and  more 
to  the  need  of  rapid  publication. 

As  the  limits  of  Hungarian  official  statistics  were  contin- 
ually broadened,  the  legal  regulation  of  1874  was  seen  to 
set  too  narrow  limits.  Therefore  in  1897  a  new  act  was 
passed.  Article  XXXV  of  the  Laws  of  that  year.  This 
opened  up  the  possibility  of  further  development,  making 
statistics  such  an  important  adjunct  to  the  life  of  the  state  as 
it  can  hardly  be  found  to  be  anywhere  else. 

Hungary,  which  for  so  long  a  time  dispensed  with  sta- 
tistics entirely,  now  appreciates  their  value  all  the  more. 
The  Central  Statistical  Office  of  the  Kingdom  of  Hungary 
already  finds  itself  cramped  by  the  palace  built  a  decade 
and  a  half  ago,  which,  it  was  beUeved,  would  be  adequate 
for  a  long  time;  it  will  soon  be  necessary  to  build  a  new 
home  for  the  Office.    Its  staff  of  officials  is  constantly  in- 


400  MEMORIAL  VOLUME 

creasing,  and  fulfils  all  requirements  regarding  technical  edu- 
cation. The  statistical  investigations  carried  on  by  the 
Central  Office  embrace  the  whole  great  field  of  cultural,  eco- 
nomic, and  population  conditions,  and  the  results  of  its 
work  are  rapidly  transmitted,  by  means  of  instructive  pub- 
lications, to  that  portion  of  the  public  which  is  interested. 

A  discussion  of  Hungarian  official  statistical  organization, 
and  of  modem  statistical  activity,  will  be  given  later.  Here